“Loyalist Trails” 2016-04: January 24, 2016

In this issue:
Conference 2016: Bedeque Harbour Monument, Bedeque
1780, The Loyalist Leap Year (Part Five): A Male Perspective, by Stephen Davidson
My 3 KRRNY UE Palatine German Ancestors settled in Stormont County, ON
Loyalists in the Old Burying Ground at Halifax, by Brian McConnell, UE
Billy Bishop’s Loyalist Roots: Additional Notes
Countdown to the 2016 Loyalist Scholarship Fund Challenge
Book Review: After Yorktown: The Final Struggle For American Independence
JAR: “Dear Rosey” – A Soldier Seeks Help from his Wife
Where in the World?
From the Twittersphere and Beyond


Conference 2016: Bedeque Harbour Monument, Bedeque

The 2016 UELAC Conference in Summerside PEI will be hosted by the Branches of the Atlantic Region: Abegweit, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia on July 7-10. Information about the conference is now available – read here.

A “welcome” stands by the gate to the Loyalist Country Inn.

Bedeque Harbour Monument, Bedeque

On Canada Day 1985, the descendants of the United Empire Loyalists commemorated the landing of their forefathers with a six-foot monument in Bedeque’s Central Park. Lieutenant Governor J. A. Doiron unveiled it with the assistance of Premier James Lee, and Paul H. Schurman and Lee Campbell, chairmen of the Bedeque Harbour Loyalists Committee. Mr. Schurman is a descendant of William Schurman who led the first Loyalist settlers to Bedeque.

Read more with photo.

…Peter Van Iderstine, Abegweit Branch

1780, The Loyalist Leap Year (Part Five): A Male Perspective

© Stephen Davidson, UE

The first leap year of the American Revolution, 1776, witnessed the British army’s evacuation from Boston. Thirteen British colonies then declared their independence in early July. By September, the British army seized control of New York City and Long Island. This territory became the headquarters for the king’s army and a refuge for American loyalists. The revolution’s battles were concentrated in the northern colonies.

By the second leap year of the American Revolution, 1780, the war had spread into the southern colonies and westward along the New York frontier. France allied itself with the Continental Army, and loyalist persecution was on the increase.

Always a valuable resource for revealing the events in the lives of average loyalists, the transcripts of the Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists (RCLSAL) offer us a glimpse of what 1780 meant to these loyal colonists — especially the experiences of loyalist men. Here is a sampling of those stories.

John McKay’s testimony before the RCLSAL was typical of most loyalists who had been forced to flee New York’s Tryon County in 1780. The Scottish native had only been in the New World for seven years, he “never joined” the rebels, and consequently was imprisoned a number of times. Ultimately, McKay was “obliged to fly” because he had been providing food to Sir John Johnson’s men. He and his large family found sanctuary in Canada in 1780, and there McKay became a soldier in the regiment he had once fed. At the end of the war, the McKay family were among the original settlers of Upper Canada’s First Township.

Peter Prous had also enlisted in Johnson’s regiment after fleeing to Canada in 1780. Unlike other loyalist recruits, Prous was only fourteen years old when he took up arms for his king. His father had died “in the service” when Prous was just ten years old. For his wartime services, Prous was eventually granted land in Upper Canada’s Fifth Township.

Having a large family prevented Gasper Bower from taking up arms with the British until 1780. The German native had settled along New York’s Mohawk River. His patriot neighbours found his loyalist principles to be obnoxious and they often put him in prison. In 1780, he enlisted in the Royal Regiment of New York and served until the end of the revolution. He settled along the Bay of Quinte.

The patriots of Norwalk, Connecticut arrested and “ill used” Samuel Whitney when they discovered that he had crossed Long Island Sound to tell a British general about the arrival of the French fleet in Rhode Island in 1780. Tried for high treason, the loyalist was able to escape into the British lines. Whitney became a merchant in Saint John, New Brunswick, dying there in 1815.

In July, Rhode Island’s rebel government passed an act that banished “those persons who had joined the enemies of the state” — a list that included the name of Isaac Hart, a loyalist Jew. Within three months, Isaac Hart died in the defence of a British garrison during the Battle of Long Island. Rivington’s Gazette reported that Hart was “inhumanly fired upon and bayoneted, wounded in fifteen parts of his body, and beat with … muskets in a most shocking manner in the very act of imploring quarter, and died of his wounds a few hours later.”

Dr. George Smyth served the British as a spy in New York. An Irishman, the loyalist served Fort Edward as its physician until local rebels had him put under house arrest in Albany. Although he was imprisoned on a number of occasions, Smyth continued to serve the British by carrying on correspondence with British generals in Canada. When his espionage was discovered in 1780, he fled to Vermont, but was arrested. He escaped to Canada where General Haldimand employed Smyth as an “agent for Secret Service” and a commissioner for the exchange of prisoners. The loyalist also used his medical expertise as the surgeon for Major Jessup’s corps.

Jacob Blewer was a loyalist from Mecklinburg County, North Carolina. Rebels had drafted him into their militia in 1780, forcing Blewer to flee to Canada where he joined the British army. He served under Lord Cornwallis for a year before being taken prisoner. He escaped capture and rejoined the British at Charleston, South Carolina. When the British evacuated the colony, Blewer was among those who sailed north to Nova Scotia.

James Bulyea of Courtland Manor, New York was “subject to fits” and because of this health condition was not compelled to “do duty” with the local rebel militia. He was also responsible for caring for his elderly partents. But by 1780, Bulyea was “so ill used that he could no longer stay” at home and he joined Col. DeLancey’s regiment. After serving until the end of the war, Bulyea found refuge in New Brunswick.

John Crawford’s wartime experiences had been very traumatic. He “was persecuted, beat and abused”, fined for not joining the local militia, and eventually “tried for his life on suspicion of being a pilot.” Somehow the loyalist esaped the clutches of a mob that wanted to lynch him. Little wonder then, that in 1780 he joined DeLancey’s regiment. Rather than taking up arms, Crawford served the British army by making rope and shoes until the evacuation of New York City. He settled in Nova Scotia’s Cumberland County.

Samuel Greatrex was another loyalist who just narrowly escaped the hangman’s noose. The Englishman had settled in South Carolina in 1769 where he became a shopkeeper. He and other loyalists formed an association in 1775, but for some reason the local rebels had assumed it was for their cause. When it was discovered that it was a loyalist association, the patriots arrested eleven of the loyalists and hanged four of them in October, 1780. Greatrex managed to escape being hanged and joined Col. Tarleton. The loyalist shopkeeper participated in a number of important battles in the southern campaign, served as a spy, and carried dispatches. When the British evacuated Charleston in 1782, Greatrex was on a ship bound for England. There he was declared a “zealous and active loyalist”.

Joel Hudson was just a boy when the revolution broke out. Being young and an apprentice, Hudson was able to avoid serving in the rebel militia in Camden, South Carolina. However, he “turned out sometimes to save his father”, Ludwick Hudson. His loyalist father was “wounded by {a} party of Americans so badly as to cause his death”. When Lord Cornwallis marched through Camden, Hudson was given a commission in the South Carolina Rangers. He was promoted twice before joining the loyalist evacuation two years later. After a short stay in St. Augustine, East Florida, Hudson settled in County Harbour near Halifax, Nova Scotia.

While 1780 saw the dislocation of many loyalist men, their enlistment in provincial corps and heated battles, the year held other memories for a loyalist who fled to England for the duration of the revolution. His story will be told in next week’s Loyalist Trails.

To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

My 3 KRRNY UE Palatine German Ancestors settled in Stormont County, ON

Much of the following military info has been drawn from Gavin Watt’s excellent book KRR NY [ my copy is 1984 edition], it is a must read and possession for anyone researching King’s Royal Regiment of New York aka KRRNY.

Michael [Johanas] Warner KRRNY UE b. 1738 Germany d. 1816 Stormont Cty. married to Margaretha [Margaret] Schrey in June 1762 NY. Michael Warner was farming in Mohawk Valley NY when Rev War started. He joined KRRNY on 6 May 1777 in Daly’s Coy, served the war, was victualled at Cornwall with wife, 4 sons 1 daughter.

He received a land grant in Stormont but his name is not on McNiff’s Map 1786. This is not uncommon for that time period, as there was a great deal of Lot trading as individuals sought to settle near other family and friends, and trading one unimproved bush lot for another was a very common practice; and as McNiff’s Map 1786 was a work in progress, some names were not entered.

Michael’s daughter Margaret Warner b. 1769 NY died after 1851 Census, married George Gallinger KRRNY UE, and their daughter Mary Gallinger married George Snetsinger [son of Michael Snetsinger KRRNY UE]. This Mary Gallinger and George Snetsinger are parents of John Snetsinger who married Mary Ann Cain in Cornwall 1843 [her line was the subject of two previous articles ].

Michael Johann Gallinger KRRNY UE b. 10 Jan 1726 in Germany d. 23 Oct 1797 Cornwall married Agatha Alida Ady b. 20 Sept 1727 Germany d. unknown. They were married 1751 in Germany, and emigrated to the Mohawk Valley NY shortly thereafter. Michael Gallinger was 57 when he joined KRRNY on 28 March 1783, and he was victualled at Cornwall in 1784 with wife, 1 son 1 daughter [older sons presumably on their own].

Michael Gallinger Sr and sons Michael Gallinger Jr, Christian Gallinger, Heinrich Henry Gallinger, and George Gallinger [my line], all served KRRNY, all are UE, and all received land in Cornwall Twp. Stormont Cty. On McNiff’s Map 1786, can be found the following:

• Michael Gallinger Sr sharing Town Plot Cornwall Lot 15 with William McLaughlin.

• Michael Gallinger Jr shared Lot 11 Concession 4 Cornwall Twp. with his younger brother George Gallinger [this Lot 11 Con 4 is 1 mile directly east of my farm on Lot 17 Con 4, which was first issued to Ben Eastman].

• Christian Gallinger shared Lot 10 Con 2 with John Foucks [Fikes].

• Henry Heinrich Gallinger shared Lot 8 Con 2 with George Craits [Crites].

• Michael Gallinger Sr may be found in online listing titled: Sir John Johnson’s Rent Roll of Kingsborough Patent; where he is Michl Gallinger at 85 E with Rent Due Date 25 March 1769.

Michael Mattias Snetsinger KRRNY UE b. 1759 in America [according to Gavin Watt’s book KRR NY], where Gavin has him as Mathias (Mathew) Snettsinger, joining 1st battalion KRRNY 15 June 1777, served in Watt’s Coy, and Gavin has him as a Cpl. in Secret Service at the Loyal Blockhouse 24 Feb 1782. Michael Mattias Snetsinger was apparently unmarried when he arrived in Cornwall, where he is found on McNiff’s Map 1786 sharing Town Plot Lot 35 with an Elisha Anderson and he is noted as Matt. Snetsinger.

Also on McNiff’s Map 1786 may be found a Widow Austen sharing Lot 9 Con 3 Cornwall Twp. with an Adam Wenzell. Gavin has 3 listings for Astin in KRRNY, and I think this Widow Austen is one of their widows as she and Michael Matthias Snetsinger were married in 1785 at Montreal. Their son George Snetsinger then fathers John Snetsinger who married Mary Ann Cain in Cornwall 1843.

That is all for now. If you are interested in any of these folks, I invite you to check out some of my Postings on Rootsweb / Ancestry.com [Rootsweb Message Boards are FREE to view]. I have Postings on these individuals Surname Boards, and also on Localities Boards for Stormont and Glengarry; where I go by “young1451” Cheers.

…Jay Young

Loyalists in the Old Burying Ground at Halifax, by Brian McConnell, UE

It was opened in June 1749 and became a place of burial for St. Paul’s, the oldest Protestant place of worship in Canada, and the outpost of the Church of England in British North America. Its’ first Bishop was Loyalist Charles Inglis. So, it should not be surprising to find Loyalists in the Old Burying Ground at Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Located on the corner of Barrington Street and Spring Garden, across from Government House, the residence of the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, the Old Burying Ground in Halifax has a busy location. The government of Canada recognized it as a National Historic Site on March 1, 1991 in part because “it bears witness to the complex cultural traditions of early British North America.” Read the article (7 pages).

…Brian McConnell, UE

Billy Bishop’s Loyalist Roots: Additional Notes

Two people sent notes about “Billy Bishop’s Loyalist Roots.”

With regard to the Loyalist Roots of Billy Bishop, the house of his ancestor, Caleb Seaman, was featured in the book “Still They Stand”. This book was one of the 2014 Projects undertaken by the Col. Edward Jessup Branch. It relates the human story of 69 Loyalist Period houses found in the counties of Leeds & Grenville.

Seaman’s house still proudly stands in the river village of Rockport, Ontario, just west of Brockville. From time to time, a Loyalist Flag can be seen flying from this fine home.

…Don Galna, UE

I was delighted to read this article in latest Trails. The Grand River Branch, as part of its Education/Outreach projects, asked permission to place copy of his certificate and flag in the Billy Bishop Museum in Owen Sound, ON. The branch, in costume, paraded from Owen Sound City Hall to the museum where Helen Weaver outlined his military and Loyalist history and presented the framed certificate. Museum volunteers hosted a Victorian tea.

An interesting discovery: the Mayor of Owen Sound, who had welcomed a previous Branch meeting to celebrate Loyalist Day in front of City Hall, is a Loyalist descendant. Grand River Branch with territory from Lake Erie to Tobermory commends members Bill Terry and Marilyn Haslinger of Simcoe, Ellen Tree of Woodstock, Marilyn Branch of Burlington, Ron Fink of Brantford, Cynthia Stapells of Waterloo and others for loyal participation in our outlying districts.

…Doris A. Lemon-Mller, UE

Countdown to the 2016 Loyalist Scholarship Fund Challenge

The Loyalist Scholarship Fund Raiser begins January 31. Help us reach our goal of $5000.00 in 8 weeks.

The UELAC scholarship committee invites you to join us as we launch the 2016 Loyalist Scholarship Fund Challenge. Our goal is to raise $5000.00 in 8 weeks.

As we support academic excellence we are building relationships with educational institutions and with committed students of Loyalist history as they begin their professional careers. Each week we invite you to meet a scholar whose academic career has been strengthened through your support of the United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada Loyalist Scholarship.

Meet the first recipient of the UELAC Loyalist Scholarship Ms. Kelly Bennett. With the assistance of the UELAC Scholarship, Ms. Bennett completed her Master of Arts degree at Queen’s University in June 2006.

Beginning January 31st, donations marked Loyalist Scholarship Fund will be added to a visual tracker on the UELAC website. At the close of the fund drive April 1, 2016 we will include a Donor Appreciation List.

How To Give: Donations may be made by cheque or online.

1. Donations by cheque: Make donation cheques payable to the “UELAC” and indicate on the cheque – Loyalist Scholarship Fund. For donations of $10.00 or more tax receipts will be issued by UELAC Head Office.

Mail donations to: UELAC Dominion Office, 50 Baldwin St., Suite 202, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 1L4.

2. Online donations: Donations to UELAC may be made electronically through the canadahelps.org website. Canada Helps issues an immediate Canadian tax receipt for the donation. Please select “Scholarship Fund” where it asks you to select.

Your participation will have a direct impact on Loyalist history research.

…Bonnie Schepers, UE, Scholarship Committee

Book Review: After Yorktown: The Final Struggle For American Independence

After Yorktown: The Final Struggle For American Independence, by Don Glickstein (Yardley PA: Westholme Publishing, 2015). Hard cover; 432 pages. Reviewed by Peter W. Johnson UE.

There was a certain anticipation regarding this book because it was reported to have a kinder take on the Loyalists even though the author is an American. I wouldn’t say Mr. Glickstein is a fan of the Loyalists, but he does approach the two sides rather even-handedly. Certain individuals come up for praise regardless of the side, and atrocities alleged or otherwise are included for both sides. Fair enough.

The basic theme is that while there is the general idea that the War was over after the debacle at Yorktown, there were two more years of conflict before the final Peace. I suspect that many Americans tend to view Yorktown as the conclusion but for Canadians with Loyalist ancestors, we know that the struggle was far from over in 1781. The author backs up his position with so many instances of continued conflict that to view the American Revolution as a global conflict or a World War is not out of place.

As we know some of the most vicious fighting was in the Southern States and especially the Carolinas and Georgia in particular. The author devotes almost one hundred pages to the post-Yorktown fighting in that region and the struggle to retain Charleston.

The next part focuses on the Native Americans and how they were certainly not winners at the War’s end. Various events are included such as the Battle of Blue Licks where Daniel Boone’s son died, and action in Ohio.

Another section is devoted to the Caribbean and in particular the defeat of Grasse at the Battle of the Saintes. One will recall the it was the French Navy under Grasse who caused so much trouble at Yorktown. There’s more on the various raiders and privateers. The Siege of Gibraltar is the topic of another chapter, with the latter part of the book outlining fighting in India. It certainly was a Global War.

There are a couple of odd things worthy of comment. One chapter is titled, “The Death of Colonel Butler” Col. John Butler died of natural causes in 1796. This chapter centres on the death of Capt. Walter Butler his son, who perished in 1781. Walter would have appreciated the promotion. The other oddity is the paucity of references regarding the military organization of the Loyalists and the various Provincial Regiments. Butler’s Rangers merit two mentions, and the King’s American Dragoons receive one. Others such as the New Jersey Volunteers or the King’s Royal Regiment of New York are not listed, even though events various Loyalist Regiments participated in are described. It does tend to give the impression that the Loyalists served mainly as foragers and raiders and not in more formal assemblages.

Nevertheless Mr. Glickstein is successful in backing up his theme regarding the extensive military activity post-Yorktown and I would suggest the book is quite entertaining. Try it.

(See the dust jacket.)

JAR: “Dear Rosey” – A Soldier Seeks Help from his Wife

By Don N. Hagist, published January 21, 2016 at Journal Of The American Revolution.

It was November. Sergeant Williams was cold, and he knew it would be getting colder. He had no warm clothing, no money to purchase any, and he wasn’t able to get a part-time job to earn some extra cash. He needed help, and so he did the most sensible thing a man in his circumstances could do: he wrote to his wife.

Richard Williams was, like most men in the British army during the American Revolution, a career soldier. He had enlisted in the 22nd Regiment of Foot in November of 1769. He chose a regiment that had returned from service in America four years earlier, and as such was unlikely to go overseas again soon. The regiment had finished the flurry of recruiting to replenish its ranks after long service abroad, and when Williams enlisted it was stationed in England and was in a good stable state of readiness. The regiment was sent to Scotland in the early 1770s to garrison towns from Inverness to Fort William. The soldiers were kept busy maintaining the network of military roads built early in the century that allowed rapid deployments if necessary. The work involved clearing drains, repairing erosion, removing loose stones and similar labor; tedious work, to be sure, but it paid 6 pence per day over and above the soldier’s usual wage.

How did it transpire that Williams wrote to Rosie asking for “necessaries”, and then what happened? Read more.

Where in the World?

Where are Diane Reid and Jo Ann Tuskin?

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at loyalist.trails@uelac.org.

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • Interactive map shows six Revolutionary War events in late 1777 Philly region. Visit http://www.westernheritagemapping.org/ [If you see a map just below the name of the battle, click on it. If you don’t see a map, click on the small faint box to the left and below the name of the Battle. Once you see the larger map on a new page, move the slider across the bottom of the map to see the movements on the battlefield. Click on “Backgrounds / Layers” to add details]
  • The Powder Horn’s Alexander Hamilton“. Interesting how stories evolve and grow over time – even a very short time. The beautifully engraved powder horn with his name on has led someone to the conclusion that he had owned it. Some interesting history factsalong with the story.
  • Did you ever hear of a salt horn? This comment “Glad there are people who can still do the old trades. Love this salt horn!” [it is the second photo – the one below the powder horn]
  • If you enjoy browsing old maps, visit Charting America: Maps from Slaughter Collection. NY Public Library Digital Collection
  • Scholars Wanted! Deadline for Loyalist scholarship application submissions is FEB 28. Details here.
  • Do you remember the announcement in June 2008: 18th century British warship HMS Ontario found intact in Great Lake. A British warship which sank during the American War of Independence has been found in remarkable condition at the bottom of Lake Ontario.