“Loyalist Trails” 2019-49: December 8, 2019
In this issue:
– The Personal Exodus of a Jewish Loyalist (Part 2), by Stephen Davidson
– Trinity Anglican Church in Saint John, NB
– Kelly Arlene Grant: Regency on a shoestring, but also the historical stash busting challenge…
– Book on the Family History of Mary Jane McCutcheon, including Loyalist Andrew Denike
– JAR: Shenandoah Martyr: Richard Campbell at War
– JAR: The Engagement at Woodlane: Precursor to the Battle of Iron Works Hill, a Key to the American Victory at Trenton
– Ben Franklin’s World: Snowshoe Country
– Fee for Loyalist Certificate Applications Increased
– Georgian Papers Program: An Illumination
– UE Loyalist Certificates Issued Recently
– Where in the World?
– Region and Branch Bits
+ New Brunswick Branch Christmas Gathering
+ Living History: 240th Anniversary of the Battles of Stone Arabia and Klock’s Field (Oct. 16-18, 2020)
– From the Twittersphere and Beyond
– Additions to the Loyalist Directory
– Last Post
+ Mildred Edna Hall, UE (1927-2019)
+ Response re What a Wonderful Loyalist Family
© Stephen Davidson, UE
Barrak Hays and his family did not leave New York for Europe in 1782 as they had initially planned, but with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, they made concrete plans to seek refuge in Canada. On April 14, 1783, Hays wrote to Sir Guy Carleton, the British commander-in-chief, asking for assistance in leaving New York City. He had “with others” purchased “a small vessel to go to Quebec” although he did not know “what line of business there to pursue”. Hays needed six months of back pay as “an extra guide” to help finance his flight to safety. He also hoped that Carleton would write him a recommendation to Sir Frederick Haldimand, the governor of Canada.
Four months later, Hays was in Montreal where he wrote directly to Haldimand to outline his situation. The Jewish merchant recounted his “loyalty to the best of sovereigns” and how he “was obliged to leave New York and retire to some place where he might remain in quietness with his family”. Although he did not give a precise number, Hays described himself as “having a very large family to support” and hoped that the governor could either continue to pay him as an officer of guides or give him an appointment in Montreal.
If a government position was unavailable, Hays asked Haldimand to “grant him a commission as an auctioneer in the city of Montreal”. As an English-speaking refugee settling in Montreal, Hays also had a keen grasp of his limitations. He recognized that he was “not so much master of the French language as to speak it” so he already had Samuel Davis, a bilingual “native of this province”, lined up to be his partner.
Unfortunately, we do not know how Haldimand responded to Barrak Hays’ request. But we do know that Hays stayed in Canada for at least a decade and that his brother Andrew was near at hand.
Upon his arrival in Montreal sometime after 1769, Andrew Hays joined the local Jewish congregation, becoming one of its leading members. In 1777, Montreal’s Jews felt they were able to build and support a synagogue – the first to be built in what is now Canada and only the third in North America. Comprised of 25 families, the Shearith Israel Congregation met for worship in their building on Little St. James Street, but they would have to wait until 1780 to acquire all of the religious articles necessary for a synagogue. Andrew Hays was one of three who made up its junto or governing committee.
By the time that his brother’s family arrived in Montreal, Andrew and his wife Abigail were able to provide Barrak and Prudence with both a place to stay and a synagogue in which to worship. Montreal’s Jewish community – which now included Loyalist refugees as well as those who remained loyal throughout the revolution – was made up of businessmen, fur traders, and army personnel. It is estimated that 10% of Montreal’s merchants were Jewish. Nearly all of them had left Spain and Portugal to settle in North America and were designated as “Sephardim” by other Jews. Andrew Hays’ son, Moses Judah Hays, would later become a municipal leader, serving as Montreal’s chief commissioner of police and organizing the city’s first water-works.
Details about the lives of the Loyalists, Barrak and Andrew Hays, begin to peter out after the massive refugee resettlement that followed in the wake of the American Revolution. However, this is where the story of John Jacob Hays begins to grow.
For unspecified reasons, John Jacob decided to work for his uncle Andrew rather than his father Barrak. Growing up in Montreal, the younger Hays acquired a mastery of the French language, a skill that would become very important as he travelled to fur trading forts that had once been part of the colony of New France. Stories have survived of John Jacob travelling by canoe to Michigan’s Fort Mackinac and of a later visit to the headwaters of the Red River. The Loyalist’s son and two travelling companions got caught in a blizzard on the prairies that buried them in snowdrifts for three days. Had it not been for some thin blankets and dried meat rations, the three fur traders would have frozen to death.
By 1790, John Jacob Hays had settled in Cahokia, a community on the Mississippi River not far from St. Louis, Missouri. Eventually, he left the fur trade and became a shopkeeper. He also maintained a farm and traded with Indigenous People on an annual trip up the Mississippi. Hays married Mary Louise Brouillet, a Roman Catholic woman from nearby Vincennes. The couple raised three daughters, Jane, Elizabeth, and an unnamed middle sister. Did the girls know about their Jewish heritage – or that their grandfather Barrak Hays had been a Loyalist?
It seems that both aspects of the family’s history were passed along to at least one descendant. In the mid-20th century, Mrs. John Dyer had a portrait of Jane Hays, her grandmother and one of John Jacob’s daughters, hanging in the dining room of her home in Vincennes, Indiana. She also owned John Jacob’s gold signet ring and a Hebrew prayer book that had once belonged to her great-great-grandfather Barrak Hays. (No doubt it contained one of his famous bookplates).
The fate of Barrak Hays, John Jacob’s father, is uncertain. Described by one historian as a “stormy and controversial” man, Hays may only have stayed in Montreal for a decade before moving on to other opportunities. A list of 113 members of a Masonic Lodge in Newport, Rhode Island “previous to the 24th of June, 1791” includes Barrak Hays’ name. Given that there was a large Jewish community in Rhode Island and that Hays once had a business in Newport, did the Loyalist move there in the hope of establishing a new life in a more promising economic climate?
A number of genealogies for the Hays family make reference to the death of a Baruch (one of a variety of spellings of this name) Hays in the West Indies on April 13, 1845. This British colony had a fairly large community of Jewish businessmen, so – once again – it would make sense for the New York Loyalist to have settled in the West Indies. It may well be that Barrak Hays moved from New York to Montreal to Rhode Island and then to the West Indies before the conclusion of a tumultuous life.
One can only hope that in the end, Barrak Hays had his wish fulfilled that he might “remain in quietness with his family”. And if Hays ever learned of John Jacob’s achievements in the republic that the Loyalist had fled in 1783, he would no doubt derive satisfaction from the knowledge that his descendants had done well.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
I was thrilled to have a private tour of historic Trinity Anglican Church in Saint John, New Brunswick which was founded by United Empire Loyalists.
It contains a plaque to the United Empire Loyalists in recognition of their sacrifices and heroism placed there in 1913 by the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire. See the Plaque to the United Empire Loyalists.
There is also a 1714 Royal Coat of Arms which were taken from Boston where they hung in Council Chambers in the Old State House when it was evacuated in 1776 by the British. They now hang on a wall in the Church along with many other fascinating historical items.
I prepared a short video; I hope you enjoy it.
…Brian McConnell, UE
A new book traces the family history of the author’s great-grandmother, Mary Jane. One of her great-grandparents is Loyalist Andrew Denike, whose ancestor Wilhelm an den Eick, left Moers in the Rhine region for the Dutch city of Amsterdam. His son, Coenraet Ten Eyck, immigrated to New Netherland (New York) circa 1649.
Included are the Loyalist Ruttans, William and Peter, descendants of Claude Rutant, born circa 1560 in Saint Mihiel, Duchy of Lorraine. Abraham Ruttan, born in Metz, Lorraine, emigrated from Mannheim circa 1675 and settled in Ulster County, New York.
The history of Walloon refugees, George Rapalje and Catalina Tricot, the first settlers of the Dutch West India Company in North America in 1624, is also recounted.
Other families described from their European origins include Huguenots Blanchan, Crispel, Cortelyou, Petillon and Joire, plus Dutch Vander Bilt, Roosa, Van Arsdale, Van der Beeck, Amerman, Damen and De Witt. In addition, the ancestry of Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada’s first prime minister, is incorporated.
These lives are revealed from parish registers, censuses, wills, municipal and tax documents. Sources are documented from the New York State Library, Centraal Bureau voor von Genealogie, the Amsterdam archives, Moselle département in France and the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. Historical background from continental Europe, Scotland, colonial America and counties in south-eastern Ontario is also detailed.
Title: Calvinist and Loyalist: The Ancestors of Mary Jane McCutcheon in Europe and North America
Author: Nancy H. Conn, B. Ed., M.B.A.
Details: 500 pages, 700 images, maps, index of persons
Price: $34.50 + S&H
For more information or to order, please contact Doug Grant at email@example.com.
By Gabriel Neville, 3 December 2019
There is no dignity in being forgotten. A case in point is Virginia Lt. Col. Richard Campbell, a Continental officer who died bravely for his country but lies today in an unmarked grave far from his home. “Killed near the end of the battle at Eutaw Springs,” wrote the authors of a 2017 study of that battle, “he is virtually unknown today.” In his own day, however, Nathanael Greene called him a “brave, active, and intrepid Soldier.” Light Horse Harry said he was an “excellent officer” who was “highly respected and beloved.” In 1832 one of his soldiers still remembered him as “the brave Col. Campbell.” Dick Campbell, as he was known, deserves to be remembered.
Little is known of his early life. Historian Louise Phelps Kellogg asserted a century ago that he was “a distant relative of the Campbell family of southwest Virginia.” This would tie him to militia Gen. William Campbell, a leader at the Battle of King’s Mountain. He was evidently born in Virginia about 1730 and raised in Dunmore (now Shenandoah) County, where he was appointed a sheriff’s deputy in 1772 and reappointed in 1774. The Shenandoah Valley was culturally distinct from the eastern parts of Virginia. Many of Campbell’s neighbors were Germans who had migrated from Pennsylvania.
As war approached, he joined the First Independent Company of Dunmore. News of the Virginia Powder Alarm sent the company parading out of the county seat at Woodstock toward Williamsburg. When word of a peaceful settlement arrived they returned and held a barbeque. In November 1775, Campbell was tasked with conducting a census of his part of the county, reporting for his own household ten white and two black residents. Notably, his was the only household out of seventy-six that reported black, likely enslaved, members.
By Adam E. Zielinski 5 December 2019
Their feet were leaving noticeable imprints in the grassy field. It was another two hundred yards to the hedgerow, and then a steep climb up the narrow footpath that snaked around the rising slope of hill in front of them. If they could make it without injury, perhaps there was a chance to dig in and make a stand against the coming enemy forces. And come they did. Two large columns of marching soldiers, one dressed in bright blue coats trimmed with red and tall brass-fronted caps, and another clad in red coats and diced highland bonnets. The spot of about a half dozen houses where two county roads intersected had provided a point of interest where both armies could mark their positions. The mixed units of Virginian continentals and Gloucester County militiamen were now on the hill, known as the mount, in Mount Holly, New Jersey. They numbered only a few hundred. Their eyes fixed on the 2,400 Hessian grenadiers, jaegers, and Scots highlanders who wanted one thing: the town behind the outnumbered American force. It was December 23, 1776, and the American cause had reached its darkest hour.
Histories of the Ten Crucial Days period of the Revolutionary War give ample coverage and critical analysis to how dire the situation was for George Washington’s fleeting Continental army. Having been reduced from some twelve thousand soldiers prior to the New York campaign earlier in the year to about three thousand by December, the very conception of a United States of America hung in the grasp of a band of brothers nearly broken from repeated defeats. Washington was faced with no shortage of crises: about two thousand of his soldiers were either sick with smallpox or had lost the will to fight; the remaining twenty-six hundred were severely under-equipped with winter clothing – and many lacked any sort of covering for their feet; munitions were low and food had to be foraged from the local population. There also remained the looming specter of dissolution of the army. Many of the enlistments of his men were set to expire on January 1, and Washington was well aware that nothing in the last few months had given the army a moment to celebrate, much less to spark their optimism in continuing the long fight. Indeed, the times tried many of the men’s souls. And as he weighed all these challenges, the American commander kept his eyes fixed across the Delaware River to the British garrison at Trenton.
What is often left out of the grand narrative is how a handful of smaller pivotal skirmishes south of Trenton in the days before the attack played into Washington’s success.
Thomas Wickman, an Associate Professor of History and American Studies at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut and author of Snowshoe Country: An Environmental and Cultural Winter in the Early American Northeast, joins us to investigate how Native Americans and early Americans experienced and felt about winter during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
As we trek through what Tom describes as snowshoe country, Tom reveals details about winter in the 17th- and early 18th-century northeast; Information about how northeastern Native Americans thought about and experienced winter during the 17th and early 18th centuries; And what the English colonists of New England made of winter and its cold and snowy weather.
UELAC notice: The fees for the applications are increasing on 1 January 2020.
• 1st applicant: $50.00
• 2nd applicant, same ancestor & submitted at the same time: $40.00
…Angela and Peter Johnson
Design incorporating the King’s crown and his motto with a semicircle of candles opposite that of the Queen in the same style. In between the two there is a design of the King and Queen’s sceptres crossed above the motto “Long and happy Life/Long & prosperous Reign,/ Late and blessed Death to” both their names with a small phrase, and below this is a pyramid of lamps. The creator has made a small note on the superiority of the Latin version of their mottos.
The list of UE Certificates issued since late in 2012 – showing the Loyalist ancestor, name of descendant (when permission is granted), branch and date – has been updated with the certificates issued in November and December of last year. The same updates have been applied to the Loyalist Directory.
To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at firstname.lastname@example.org.
From the UELAC branches, news and events of interest to others.
Last weekend, my wife Ann and I attended the Christmas Gathering of the NB Branch UELAC in the historic Union Club in Saint John.
I have prepared a short video of the event which I hope you find interesting and will recognize some of the faces.
It was a wonderful event.
…Brian McConnell, UE; Regional VP (Atlantic)
Calling all Living Historians and Units – Be a Big Part of our ongoing Preservation Efforts of 2 Battlefields. Save the Date – October 16-18, 2020
We are reaching out to our friends in the living history community to join us for this landmark event commemorating these important Revolutionary War Battles.
Location: Mohawk Valley in New York State (about an hour west of Albany, NY)
All Amenities for Living Historians are included: Firewood, Water, Porta Johns/Toilets/Sanitation Stations, Straw/Hay, Meals. Tavern Night at the 1747 Nellis Tavern, Private Tactical on the Stone Arabia Battlefield, Camp sites, Parking and Shuttle Service
Public Programming at Fort Klock will include:
• Artisan Tent
• Battle Reenactment with Narration
• Tours of Fort Klock
• Bus tours of Stone Arabia Battlefield
Hotels are available for those who wish not to camp on site.
Friday Evening, South River Heritage Consultants will present the findings from the American Battlefield Protection Program funded study of the Battles of Stone Arabia and Klock’s Field.
Please email us at email@example.com if you are interested in attending or if you have questions.
- Joseph Warren & John Adams 1st met at the smallpox hospital in Castle William where Joseph was 1 of the house physicians. John went to be inoculated after a 1764 outbreak. John wrote Abigail of his 1st impression of Joseph. “Warren is a pretty, tall…fair faced young Gentleman.”
- This Week in History
- 5 Dec 1768, the Boston Whigs complained, “we now behold centry boxes fixed at the gates of the province house,” the official residence of the royal governor, “and guards placed there for his better protection.”
- 7 Dec 1769, the NJ Assembly writes to inform Benjamin Franklin of his new role as colonial agent. One of the first orders of business is to get the ministry to approve £100,000 in bills of credit for the colony. Read more…
- 15 Dec 1773, the merchant ship Beaver, carrying 100 tons of taxed tea, delayed docking and was instead quarantined at Rainsford Island due to smallpox. The Beaver would later arrive at Griffin’s Wharf on December 15, 1773 – the day before the Boston Tea Party.
- 7 Dec 1774, the Boston town meeting chose a committee of 61 men (“principally young fellows,” per merchant John Andrews) to promote the Continental Association, a complete boycott on goods from Britain. Read more…
- 1 Dec 1775, Gen. Montgomery’s forces join Gen. Arnold’s outside Quebec, preparing to besiege British there.
- 2 Dec 1775, Gen. George Washington told Connecticut governor Jonathan Trumbull that Massachusetts & New Hampshire militia troops were being called up to man the siege lines after the Continental Army enlistments ran out at the end of the year.
- 3 Dec 1775, British revive fear of smallpox by sending victims of the disease from Boston to the patriot lines.
- 2 Dec 1776, Jefferson proposes resolution in Congress for exchange of Ethan Allan, captured by British at Montreal
- 5 Dec 1776, in Trenton, GEORGE WASHINGTON reports that he has left a rear guard Princeton as his army continues efforts to cross the Delaware from New Jersey into Pennsylvania. Read his letter to John Hancock.
- 5 Dec 1776, Washington asks Congress to create standing professional army, to reduce dependence on militia.
- 7 Dec 1776, British forces, led by General Charles Stedman, depart New Brunswick, New Jersey for Princeton in pursuit of George Washington.
- 6 Dec 1777, Tipped off by Quaker housewife, Patriot forces outwit Cornwallis in skirmishes north of Philadelphia.
- 6 Dec 1777, With news of Saratoga, French Compte de Vergennes agrees to military alliance with United States.
- 4 Dec 1780, Col. William Washington forces surrender of Loyalists at Rugeley’s Mills SC with fake cannon made from pine log.
- Clothing and Related:
- 18th Century dress, Robe à l’Anglaise, showcasing stunning neo-classical designs, c.1775
- 18th Century dress, 1775, American: Round Gown, similar to a Robe a l’Anglaise
- 18th Century men’s frock coat, striped silk with silk embroidery, French, 1780-1790’s
- 18th Century men’s matching three piece suit, wool plain weave, with sequins and metallic embroidery, 1760’s
- 18th Century waistcoat, made of silk woven by a well-known 18th Century London weaving company, Maze & Steer. Their pattern book of “Fancy Vestings & Handkerchief Goods” is also held in collection & features this design woven in 1788 in 3 colourways
- 18th Century men’s Naval uniform from later half of 18th Century. This uniform, worn by Alexander Hood (1758-98), is a dress coat for a captain over three years seniority. A particular feature is the double row of lace on the cuff.
- Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Old card from Loyalist Bicentennial 1783 – 1983/84 …Brian McConnell UE
- 4 Dec 2019. Today we commemorate the 400th anniversary of the arrival of Thomas Coopy, first documented turner in Virginia [at Jamestown].
- An 18thc American footwarmer. With hot coals inside, it kept feet from freezing in a sleigh, at home, even at church during a long sermon. More in my blog post: An 18thc American footwarmer. With hot coals inside, it kept feet from freezing in a sleigh, at home, even at church during a long sermon. More in my blog post.
- I love these 18th century cuff-links, found by my mudlarking friend Kevin in the Thames mud.They feature a caricature of Queen Anne on one side & The Archbishop of York on the other, who gave the sermon at Anne’s coronation in 1702. Dropped by whom I wonder!
- What kind of snacks do you eat at the theatre? Adalbert Gyrowetz, a composer, wrote ‘the audience usually ate hardboiled eggs, ham, and roast meat…one had almost to wade through a mass of eggshells and other rubbish on one’s way out’. Read more about theatre-going exhibit…
- One of England’s great festive traditions was drinking from the ‘Wassail Bowl’ – a rich and fragrant concoction of mulled ale, curdled cream, roasted apples, eggs, cloves, ginger, nutmeg and sugar, drank communally from a large punch bowl.
As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:
- Doan, Joseph – by volunteer Jo Ann Tuskin
- Doan II, Joseph – by volunteer Jo Ann Tuskin
Please help us build the directory by contributing information. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for guidance.
We are sad to advise of the passing of Mildred Evans Hall UE, on Friday, November 15, 2019 in Chilliwack, BC. Born on the Evans family farm in Chilliwack on July 23, 1927, she lived in Chilliwack her entire life. She was the fourth generation of the Evans family to live on the farm that her great-grandparents Charles and Jane Evans had purchased in the 1860s. Her parents, Gordon and Edna Evans built a home at the corner of Atchelitz Road and Yale Road West and Mildred grew up as the only girl in a family of boys. She outlived her four brothers – Owen “Bud,” John, Victor and Eugene.
Mildred was an avid researcher and recorder of family and Chilliwack history, working back in the day when much research was done by writing letters and making expensive physical copies. When visiting a new town, she took great joy in first checking out the phone book for any possible family connections. She was excited when her niece Vivian moved to Ontario and could be deputized for personal trips to various archives and museums with lists of names and dates to be verified, saving months of correspondence and wait times for her and for the families she was helping with research.
Her life was forever changed by the purchase of an electric Smith-Corona typewriter with a “White-Out” cartridge for erasing mistakes. With this, she was able to gather her research into one place in the form of family history books. Her work on Charles and Jane Evans has been summarized and is viewable on the Yale Historical Society website, at the Chilliwack Museum and Archives, and at the Royal BC Museum. In addition, much of the historical information she researched on various Chilliwack families, places, events and groups such as the Royal Engineers can be found in the catalogue listings: www.chilliwackmuseum.ca/research/archives/.
With an eye to the future, Mildred ensured that family treasures of historical significance were saved for all to share by donating them to institutions pledged to preserve them. The Charles Evans Diary, which details her great-grandfather’s journey from Ontario to the BC Gold Rush in the 1860s is held at the Provincial Archives. Because of her dedication to Chilliwack’s history, artifacts as tiny as the Chinese medicine bottles used by labourers on the Evans farm, or as large and intricate as the bridal bowl given to her grandmother as a wedding gift, can be found at the Chilliwack Museum and Archives, where she was also a life member.
Mildred Hall was an active member of the UELAC Chilliwack Branch from its charter in the fall of 1990. She was the first branch member to receive her UEL Certificate for Loyalist William Casey and served the branch as genealogist for over 15 years till her retirement in 2013. During this time she helped countless numbers of members achieve recognition as Loyalist descendants. This dedication earned her an honourary life membership in the Chilliwack Branch of the United Empire Loyalists, an accomplishment that brought her much pride. She is survived by her son Ken Hall, grandchildren Greg and Andrea, their mother Dr. Denise Hall, and two great-grandchildren Sydney and Ryan. From her many friends and members of the UELAC Chilliwack Branch, who all respected and admired her dedication to Loyalist history, our thoughts and prayers go to her family. Good bye dear Mildred. Thank you for all you have done to preserve both Loyalist and Chilliwack history.
…Vivian Evans Walker and Marlene Dance, UE
What a wonderful Loyalist family!
I wish to express my heartfelt thanks for the tremendous outpouring of support and information provided to me from members of the United Empire Loyalist Association from across our great country, Canada. The Cambridge dictionary defines kinship as members of same family – we are all members of the same collective family of Loyalists that braved wilderness, wars and uncertainty. I am deeply grateful for the information received in response to my query “Proving Jane Margaret Turner is the Daughter of Rachael Storms” and the heartfelt caring from across our great nation. It makes me proud to be a member of the UELAC of caring, supportive individuals, focused on preserving our great history. Sincerely,
…Brenda Heartwell (Berry)