“Loyalist Trails” 2008-06: February 10, 2008

In this issue:
Peter Drummond, by Gavin Watt
Dutch Uncles — and Loyalists, by Stephen Davidson
History’s Future Depends on How We Present Our Past
Building Loyalist Longboats in Shelburne NS
“History of UELAC”: A New Addition
More Help Needed for the Moore House in Sparta ON
Centenarian Celebration: Marion Phelps
More Heritage Celebrations
      + Information on Caleb Swayze gson Thomas Sharp and Maria Sharwood
      + Information on Loyalists and Descendants Settling in Downsview Park, Toronto
      + Information about Sarah E(lizabeth) Wright
      + Queen Anne Union Flag and UELAC
      + Response re Bastedo Family of Princeton ON
      + Responses re John Cousins


Peter Drummond, by Gavin Watt

Drummond is noted as one of Daniel McAlpin’s officers, who assisted in raising the American Volunteers [AV] (note: there is some disagreement whether this unit name is simply a generic one, or specific. My opinion is that it’s specific.) Neil Robertson is another. I’ve found no mention of either man’s pre-war militia career and no suggestion of earlier service in the Seven Years’ War (Drummond is not found in the rolls of the New York Provincial Regiment), so why they were chosen as officers eludes me.

Drummond and Robertson took the first contingent of the AV north, joining with the Jessup brothers on their way to join Carleton. According to a memorial to Haldimand dated 13Nov80, Drummond joined McAlpin in Sep76 and received pay from 25Oct76 onwards. i.e. the day when the AV party and the Jessups joined Carleton at Crown Point.

An excellent little book on the history of McAlpin’s AV is J. Fraser’s, “Skulking for the King, A Loyalist Plot” (Erin, ON: Boston Mills Press, 1985). Fraser cites two letters from Drummond to Haldimand. One is dated 02Jul80, HP, AddMss21874, f.168 and the other is dated 13Nov80, ibid, f.218. I have not seen these letters.

In Jessup’s King’s Loyal Americans’ [KLA] earliest return dated 24Jan77 at Point Clair, Peter Drummond was listed as the lieutenant in Captain Edward Jessup’s Company. Neil Robertson as ensign in Capt Jonathon Jones’ Coy. This means that both men had been absorbed by Jessup in the absence of McAlpin. See, HP, B167, (AddMss21827, pt.1) pp.5-?

At Point Clair on 30Jan77, both men were listed as being sworn into Jessup’s KLA by Major James Gray, 1KRR – Drummond as a lieutenant and Robertson as ensign. See MG13 (WO28/10, pt1).

On a subsistence roll of the KLA for the period 25Jun-24Oct77, both Drummond and Robertson were shown as ending their service with the regiment on 22Aug77. See HP, AddMss21827, pp.43&44.

A detailed list of the dispositions of the officers and men of Edward Jessup’s Coy for the period 25Jun-24(Oct77?) does not even list Drummond. See, HP, AddMss21827. However, a Pay Roll of Jonathon Jones’ Coy shows Ens Neal Robertson’s pay ending 22Aug77. ibid, p.53.

From what I can see, both officers left the KLA and rejoined McAlpin’s AV. LCol Eben Jessup referred obliquely to this event in a memorial to General John Burgoyne dated 17Jul78. He complained of Captain McAlpin as “Misconstering [sic] &c your good order of the 21st Augt for Incorporating or Classing Men in the Provincial Corps” as one of several reasons for being unable to complete the KLA. As both Drummond and Robertson left the KLA a day later, I see this as the reason for Drummond being ignored in Edward Jessup’s detailed account.

On a Monthly Return of Volunteers dated 01Dec77 prepared somewhere in Quebec, the following note was made. “Capt Peter Drummond taken Prisoner in the Field of Battle the 19th Sept. and is now confined in Irons in Albany.” See MG13 (WO28/10, p.100) So, less than a month after leaving the KLA, Drummond was captured in action. This battle is known as 1st Saratoga to most Americans and as the Battle of Freeman’s Farm to the rest of us.

The return also noted that Lieut Thos Fraser had gone to meet his family by McAlpin’s leave. More on him later.

McAlpin expanded upon Drummond in his memorial to Haldimand dated Quebec 18Nov78. “Your Excellency’s Memorialist did appoint Mr. Peter Drummond to be Captain of a Company and Several others Good Men to be Subalterns. Capt. Drummond had the Misfortune to be taken prisoner in the field of Battle on the 19th Septr 1777 when he was exerting himself in the Execution of his duty & he has Since Sufferd much being a long time Confined in Irons in a dungeon.” See HP, AddMss21874, pp.79&80.

On an AV return dated Verchere 24Jan78, Neil Robertson was listed as senior lieutenant and having joined on 01Aug77. Little discrepancy there, but nothing unusual. William Fraser, brother of Thomas, was shown as 2nd senior lieutenant. More on him later as well. Neither Drummond nor Thos Fraser were listed, as both are still absent. See HP, AddMss21827, pp.138-40.

So, moving to an American source now.

The minutes of the Albany Commission for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies noted on 31Jul78, that Peter Drummond, who was confined last fall for being with the enemy was requesting to be “eliberated.” This was agreed to “on his entering into Bond with a sufficient Surety until his Exchange can be procured.”

On 03Aug78, Drummond and two other Tories were discharged from confinement and permitted to go at large after entering into a Recognizance for good behaviour and giving bail of 500 Pounds each.

On 10Oct78, Drummond appeared before the commission and requested a pass to go to Poughkeepsie to solicit New York Governor George Clinton to arrange an exchange for an officer of equal rank. A pass was granted.

On 27Nov79, the commission noted, “Resolved Peter Drummond be & is hereby discharged from the Recognizance by him entered into before this Board & that his Bails be discharged in Like Manner.”

See “Minutes of the Commissioners for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies in the State of New York, Albany County Sessions, 1778-1781” (3 Vols, Albany, NYS, 1909).

I can no longer find my reference for the date of Drummond’s exchange, but an order from Haldimand’s HQ dated 05Dec80 set up two Independent Coys. One led by Lieutenant Peter Drummond with Lieutenant Niel Robertson and Ensign James McAlpin; the second commanded by Lieutenant William Fraser with Lieutenant Thomas Fraser and Ensign Gideon Adams. All of these officers were from the AV. It is likely that the men were drawn from the AV as well as other small loyalist corps. See, Archives of Ontario, Jessup’s Orderly Book, entry for 05Dec80.

This event shows Haldimand’s great confidence in Drummond and Fraser, as many other Provincial officers would have yearned for this honour and active employment.

Oddly enough, I have not found any details of the assignments given to Drummond’s Independent Coy. In contrast, there is much known about Wm Fraser’s company, which participated in Capt John Munro’s raid on Ballstown in Oct80, before being established as independent. Thereafter, Fraser’s Independent Company manned the two Yamaska blockhouses on the river of the same name. The river’s course was a key entry point for rebel spies and couriers and a potential route of invasion.

On 12Nov81, Haldimand combined all of remnants of Burgoyne’s loyalist corps into a single battalion known as the Loyal Rangers under the command of Major-commandant, Edward Jessup. Drummond’s and Fraser’s companies were absorbed.

Of interest, on disbandment on 24Dec83, Wm Fraser was listed as the Loyal Rangers’ 5th senior captain and Drummond as 7th. How William catapulted over Peter is a mystery.

On 13Oct84, Captn P. Drummond and a servant were shown as settlers at Royal Township No.6 (Edwardsburgh.) Norman K. Crowder, “Early Ontario Settlers, A Source Book” (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1993) 54.

I have not found a pension deposition by Drummond and, mysteriously, only one soldier mentions him by name in the hundreds of depositions on record. See, “United Empire Loyalists, Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario” and W. Bruce Antliff, “Loyalist Settlements 1783-1789, New Evidence of Canadian Loyalist Claims.”

I’ve just completed the above study of Captain Peter Drummond’s experiences while I am also working on some other materials for publishing.

…Gavin Watt, Honorary Vice President UELAC

Dutch Uncles — and Loyalists, by Stephen Davidson

There is an old expression about speaking to someone “like a Dutch uncle”. It meant that you were talking in a firm or severe manner. However, on a chilly Tuesday in February of 1778, two Dutch uncles who were anything but strict and hostile stood before the loyalist compensation board. Martin and John Middagh had travelled to Montreal from near Williamsburg (Ontario) to plea for their two nieces and two nephews. Henry, Charles, Rachel and Mary Bush had lost their loyalist parents during the American Revolution.

The records of the loyalist commissioners’ proceedings contain the claims that refugees of the American Revolution made to the British government for their losses sustained during the war. So much was not put down on paper during the proceedings –beyond short stories and lists– that we are left trying to imagine all that families, widows, and orphans had to endure during the War of Independence. One story of Dutch-descended loyalists from New York has managed to survive, giving us a poignant look into the past.

The four Bush children had once called Marbletown, New York their home. Like so many other towns in the Thirteen Colonies, Marbletown was deeply divided by the American Revolution. It was originally a Dutch settlement; its early Huguenot families included Middaghs, Bosches, Koks, and Van Meterens. Patriotic fervour was so strong that for a month’s time Marbletown became the rebel capital of New York. The Committee of Safety met there in October and November of 1777.

Marbletown was obviously not a good place to be a loyalist. Born in 1747, Hendrick Bosch (or Henry Bush) grew up in Marbletown where he eventually inherited a 50 acre farm from his father and became a weaver. He married Neeltjen Middagh who lived in nearby Kingston. She was the sister of John and Martin Middagh. All four of Henry and Neeltjen’s children were born before the outbreak of war; in 1776 Henry Jr. was six years old, and Mary, the youngest, was just two.

Henry Bush was remembered as one who was “from the first a steady Loyalist … who always declared in favour of the British Government”. Rebel persecution forced the Bushes to flee to the safety of the British lines along the Delaware River. There the Bushes began to clear four or five acres. However, the family’s land, horses, loom, tackling, and furniture had to be abandoned when Henry joined Brant’s Volunteers, a unit of loyalist fighters under the leadership of the Mohawk warrior, Joseph Brant.

This First Nations ally of the British was so highly regarded that men of all races were eager to join him in his fight against patriots along the frontiers of Pennsylvania and New York. Henry Bush served in several of Brant’s scouting parties and was almost killed when rebels fired on him in one engagement.

In 1779 Henry and Neeltjen Bush “came into Canada with the other loyalists who were driven from their homes”, settling in a place called “Masishe”. There Neeltjen was reunited with her brothers John and Martin Middagh. Within a year Henry Bush was dead; Neeltjen died at almost the same time. Martin Middagh did not give the cause of his sister’s death, but given the smallpox epidemic, it may be that both Bushes died of the virus that had killed so many on both sides of the revolution.

Martin Middagh opened his home to his sister’s four children, looking after them for eight years. When he appeared before the compensation board in Montreal in 1788, Henry Jr. was 18, Rachel was 17, Charles 15, and Mary 14. In the language of the times, the four were considered “all infants”.

Rachel Bush was living in the Williamsburg home of Captain Richard Duncan that February. The loyalist officer had married his second wife, Mary Wright, in Montreal in 1784, and it may be that Rachel Bush served the Duncans to help with their growing family.

If John and Martin Middagh were not successful in receiving compensation for their sister’s children, then Henry, Charles, and Mary might have to hire themselves out as Rachel did. Once again, the records of the loyalist commissioners are all too silent, and the fate of the four Bush children remains a mystery to this day. They were more fortunate than other loyalist soldier’s orphans, however, because they had two loving uncles who were willing to brave travelling through a Canadian winter to seek justice on their behalf. And who knows? Their descendants may be among us today.

History’s Future Depends on How We Present Our Past

By now, many UELAC members will have received their special collector’s issue of The Beaver with the focus on “Quebec at 400”. They will find much to enjoy in the articles that range from the alliance between the First Nations and the French through to the riots that broke out as Queen Elizabeth visited Quebec City in 1964. Hopefully, they will also read the essay by Deborah Morrison, President and CEO of Canada’s National History Society and apply it to the work of UELAC. Starting with the thought provoking title, History’s future depends on how we present our past, readers will have cause to reflect on the ideas of the three presenters at the National Forum on Canadian History held in 2007. For instance, Jocelyn Létourneau, Canada Research Chair at Univeristé Laval, concluded that “our children acquire a basic national narrative early in their formative years – not from the schooling they receive, but from the influences of family, community, and public commemorations of that history.”

Positive that there has been progress in history education, Ms Morrison proposes three reasons for the improvement over the past decade. Unfortunately, in one of those factors, she did not include UELAC when she credited the emergence of national public organizations – such as the Dominion Institute, Historica, and Canada’s National History Society for contributing to a stronger awareness of Canadian history outside of the classroom. Perhaps we were considered subliminally when she wrote “many Canadians are looking for ways to bring our national story to life in their communities, often times initiated with little, if any public financial support”. We all have our stories about that challenge.

I would encourage you to locate a copy of the latest The Beaver on the newsstand or in your neighbourhood library. That Morrison essay will provide a sound base for further discussion.

…Fred H. Hayward UE, Senior Vice President, UELAC

Building Loyalist Longboats in Shelburne NS

We have started the construction of the 2 Royal Navy Loyalist era Longboats as part of our celebrations this year. The website has an initial page setup to introduce what we are doing and the plan is to add to it every week or so as the project goes along with commentary and images of the whole process.

We thought it might be of interest to you and your members – click here for our “Longboat Chronicle.”

Halifax-Dartmouth Branch has made a donation towards the construction and fitting out of the longboats.

…John Oswell, Loyalist Landing 2008 Society

“History of UELAC”: A New Addition

Since this folder was posted to the web, we have received many compliments on the access to the history of our Association. One of the best responses has been the provision of additional data to supplement the material. This week, Colleen Martin of the Governor Simcoe Branch and the 3x great granddaughter of Major-General Aeneas Shaw through his son Aeneas Jr. has provided considerable information regarding George Alexander Shaw, the third signer of the UELAC charter. Thank you Colleen for keeping this history as a “work in progress.” Click here for the main page.

…Fred H. Hayward UE, Sr. Vice President UELAC.

More Help Needed for the Moore House in Sparta ON

Last fall, the Ontario Minister of Culture’s office issued a stop order on the proposed demolition of this historic property. Their recent decision resulted in choosing not to designate the home, and instead allowing the current owners to convert the first floor into a garage. This will change the historical features of this home in significant ways. I believe that the Minister needs to hear that this is not a good decision. If you feel the same way, would you write a letter? I think it would be helpful for the Minister to hear from as many people as possible on this issue.

Criteria for provincial designation of a property include contributions to Ontario’s history, especially unique or rare aspects, contextual importance, a high degree of creative technical achievement for the time, and a strong association with the entire province. Moore house is one of the few remaining residences that exemplifies the Quaker influence on property design and construction. The Moore family were active in the Rebellion of 1837, which eventually lead to important legislative changes in Ontario.

The home was built with materials from the farm land on which it sits including brick that was made from Elgin lime. Not protecting this property sends the wrong message to developers and municipalities. Property owners’ rights have won over historical preservation.

I can provide additional details about the home. I appreciate any support you are able to give.

…Donna Moore, UE, London ON {d DOT moore3 AT sympatico DOT ca}

Centenarian Celebration: Marion Phelps

Retired teacher, Marion Phelps, who is archivist of Brome County Historical Society, and an honorary (associate) charter member of Sir John Johnson Centennial Branch where she has been a super asset in documentation of members; will celebrate her 100th birthday on Saturday, February 9, 2009. A celebration will be held in the Centennial building of the Brome County Historical Society. I don’t know whether there are any other UELAC centenarians. Click here for additional information on the branch.

…Adelaifde Lanktree, UE

More Heritage Celebrations

Ontario‘s HERITAGE WEEK 2008 kicks off at 9:30 a.m. on Friday, February 15 in Hamilton. This year, the Ontario HeritageTrust will be partnering with City of Hamilton and the area heritage groups at the Scottish Rite Club, corner of Queen and King Streets. The Hamilton Wentworth Heritage Association will recognize our Volunteer Award nominee, Frances Showers Walker, for her long service to the Hamilton Branch with the presentations at 10:00 a.m. You are invited to come and spend the morning with like-minded people.

BURLINGTON celebrates Heritage Day the next day, Saturday February 16 at the Burlington Central Library from 9:30 to 3:30. Our Burlington members will be volunteering at our booth and hope to see you there.

…Gloria Oakes UE, Hamilton Branch


Information on Caleb Swayze gson Thomas Sharp and Maria Sharwood

Isaac Swayze m.c.1774, unknown place, Bethia Luce. That he was married three times to Bethia Luce, Sarah Secord and Lena Ferris is additional data for me. Thank you! Isaac developed the Pomme Gris apple.

Caleb Sweezy Swayze, Sr. m. c.1744, Roxbury, Morris County, NJ, Elizabeth Pitney.

– Their daughter, Susannah Swayze m. Anthony Antonius Scharfenstein Sharp.

– Anna Filman, m. Morris Sharp, c.1826, unknown place, d. Jul 9, 1876.

– Thomas Sharp m. Maria SHARWOOD. They were part of the congregation of Methodist Rev. John Miller.

– Theodore Sharp b 12Aug1837 in Barton or Glanford Township m 31Dec1865, Detroit, Hannah Elizabeth (nee unknown). She had first been married to (1) David W. House (unknown location, but found in Grimsby), and (2) Michael M. Moses (in Windham township ).

The SHARP family are of German origins from The (northern German) Palatinate, settlers in Roxbury Township, Morris County, New Jersey.

Thomas Sharp. 1825 and 1833, Upper Canada Land Petition, York…

There is a SHARP Thomas, St David’s United Church, Lincoln, Niagara.

I am seeking more information about Thomas Sharp m. Maria SHARWOOD, especially their marriage, c.1809, Ontario, and their burial places. Was he involved as a Loyalist? Also, was she related to Samuel Sherwood, Butler’s Rangers?

…Howard Lawrence {howardl AT inreach DOT com}

Information on Loyalists and Descendants Settling in Downsview Park, Toronto

My name is Kathryn McLeod and I am a Master’s student at the Frost Centre for Canadian Studies and Indigenous Studies, Trent University. The topic of my research is an exploration of what constitutes the heritage of Downsview Park in Toronto and how or why this heritage is relevant to park development as it moves forward. Downsview Park is located in north Toronto bordered by Sheppard Ave. to the north, Wilson to the south, Keele to the west and basically Dufferin to the east.

At present, I am researching the early settler heritage of the Downsview area, and have come to realize that much of the land in this area was settled by United Empire Loyalists. Might anyone have suggestions of where I could find information pertaining to Loyalists who settled in the Downsview area? Any suggestions would be most appreciated. I have already spent quite a bit of time researching aspects of local history, but none approach the subject from a UEL perspective exclusively.

…Kathryn McLeod {kamcleod AT trentu DOT ca}

Information about Sarah E(lizabeth) Wright

I am looking for information on Sarah E(lizabeth) Wright, b. abt 1835 in North Marysburg, PEC. I believe that she was the daughter of Edward W and Nancy Wright, though I am not certain. Sarah married William Henry Spafford, my g.g. grandfather.

William was born in Athol Township in 1834. He was the son of Solomon S (probably Sheldon) Spafford, b. 1806 and Emeline Stevens, b 1817. Solomon S was the son of Colonel Solomon Spafford, b. 1759 and Sarah Sheldon, b. 1759. Col. Solomon and his brothers Job and John were Patriots as far as I can make out. Yet Solomon and his brother Job came to PEC and settled there.

I was always told that my family was of UEL stock, but I’ve never been able to prove it. Now it looks like, if true, my UEL ancestry must flow from one of my grandmothers. Now I just need to work out which one!

…Gerald Britton {gerald DOT britton AT gmail DOT com}

Queen Anne Union Flag and UELAC

Do you know when the Queen Anne Union Flag was adopted by UELAC as a symbol?

From Bill Smy “I believe the first “official” statement that connected the Queen Anne Union with the UELAC is in the description of the Armorial Bearings. Perhaps a search of the Loyalist Gazette would uncover photos of early usage of the flag by the UELA.”

The UELAC Bylaw, Article 25.03 says: “25.03 (a) The flag to be used to symbolize the Association shall be the Union Flag of 1707. [1974, 1994]” soit has been recognized as a symbol since at least 1974.

Can anyone provide more background information or suggestions?

…Brandt Zätterberg {bzatterberg AT xplornet DOT com}

Response re Bastedo Family of Princeton ON

In William Reid’s book, “The Loyalists in Ontario”, Jacob Bastedo of Kingston and Stamford married Clarissa Jean Van Slyke. Their fourth child was John of Stamford, who married Mary Flewelling.

…Gavin Watt, H/VP UELAC

Responses re John Cousins

Your question re John Cousins’ Loyalist credentials was passed to me by my good friend Gary Carroll, PEI’s best genealogist. I am a great great grandson of John Cousins who came to the Island around 1785 and married Mary Townsend. I am descended from his youngest son David Cousins and so I would be a distant cousin of your wife.

[1] Is the PEI John Cousins the same as the John Cousins in the Loyalist Directory on the web site? Yes he is. And he is the John Cousins mentioned in “An Island Refuge'” and in “The Wrights of Bedeque”

[2] Can anyone provide details as to why the PEI John Cousins is considered a Loyalist?

This is a more problematical question and although this may make me a heretic among the Cousins clan, I really do have doubts about his Loyalist credentials. I am just beginning work on my direct line back to John so I may change my mind if I find something different but I will tell you what I think.

First, tradition has the Cousins as French Huguenots and I believe that is correct.

Second, tradition has them coming from England to New England and that is correct also.

Shortly after after the American Revolution [mid 1780s] John Cousins [born 1759] came to PEI. That is correct.

Tradition has him coming from New Hampshire which I do not believe is correct.

Tradition has them as Quakers which evidence suggests is correct.

But the fact is that there is not a shred of evidence, not one detail, no piece of documentation about them before John Cousins came to the Island in the mid 1780s. And I can find no evidence at all that the original John Cousins ever claimed to be a Loyalist. In 1841, [the year after he died] a comprehensive list of Loyalists was printed in the Journal of the House of Assembly. His name is missing from that list and from the earlier lists which date from the 1780s

Another family connection, Carl Campbell suggests that they may have come here from New Jersey as Quakers. His reasoning is as follows. The New Jersey Quaker colony was founded by John Fenwick [1618-1683]. The second name of John Cousins’ oldest son, John F, [your wife Marilyn’s direct ancestor] was “Fenwick” Carl feels that there was either a marriage/family connection of some kind to the founder of the New Jersey Quaker colony or pehaps John Fenwick Cousins was named after a figure of some importance in the Quaker religion. This of course is theory and has not been proven. Their might be some profitable work to do in the New Jersey archives.

Now, the following issues arise. Suppose the Cousins family were driven out because of their pacifist views. Surely there were others in the same boat. Has any historical research been done to “weed out” religious refugees from those who have proper “Loyalist credentials” And should they be “weeded out” if they chose to flee to territory still ruled by the monarchy under which they had lived? And if they received the same treatment from the Revolutionaries as the “Loyalists” received.

Regarding the Cousins family it may be that Quaker pacificism and religious considerations rather than strong political motives may have caused them to come to the Island. Or, alternatively it might have been a combination.

There being no viable Quaker community on Prince Edward Island, the Cousins family became Presbyterian.

As we know, things cannot always be clear cut and sometimes names such as Quaker and Loyalist conceal a much more complicated situation.

Now, what about this New Hampshire business? George Sanborn who spent his career at the New England Genealogical Society in Boston dismisses it. I have found no evidence for it either.

However, I do have a theory of how it might have got into the mix. On the south coast of England, in Hampshire, in the late fifteen and into the sixteen hundreds there were a number of Huguenot “colonies” refugees from the religious wars in France some of them via the Netherlands. There is testimony that some of those Huguenots became Quakers. I wonder if , through the passage of time, “Hampshire” did not turn into “New Hampshire”. This theory, along with most of the rest of my ideas I simply have not had time to test in research.

The Cousins have been a good family. David my ancestor, who was son of the original John moved to the western end of Prince Edward Island in 1845 and unfortunately our connection with the main group who remained in the French River/New London area was broken. Only in recent years have some of us begun to compare notes on our ancestry. My own direct line have been seamen.

My grandfather Will Cousins was a fine seaman, who captained trading schooners from the time he was twenty years old. He was also the justice of the peace in the fishing village of Campbellton where I was born. My father fished for sixty years. He had four sons and all of us fished with him at one time or another. I managed to get an education. I taught in one room schools beginning when I was eighteen and became a highschool teacher and administrator. I retired from the school system in 2000 and I teach Folklore and Folksong at UPEI, having done graduate work in Folklore at Memorial University Nfld in the mid 1980s.

To return to your question re John Cousins, it may be that he was a victim of “If you are not for me, you are against me” . That is, the pacifist views of Quakers in some New England villages may have caused them to be literally driven out.

PS, you may know that Lucy Maud Montgomery is a descendent of James Townsend, the father of Mary, wife of the first John Cousins. So we, including your wife, are related to Lucy Maud through the Townsends.

In the end, because I have not had time to do the research which needs to be

done, Consequently I have to hedge my bets.

John Cousins may have been part religious refugee and part Loyalist. I am giving you what I think may have been the case without documentary evidence. I would be mighty glad to correspond with anyone who knows anything about the Cousins family. I do not know enough yet. And I haven’t corresponded with anyone yet who can break through the “1785” barrier.

In conclusion, I have always been very proud to me a member of this old Island family. I grew up believing my people were Loyalists [and was very proud of it] But if they do not meet Loyalist credentials, then the thought that they were Quakers — good honest smart peaceful people who shunned violence – comforts me. It is what I would wish for my two sons.

I must thank you for posing this important question. I think if all the Cousins descendents work together we may uncover some fascinating things about this family. Regards,

…John Cousins

My great great grandfather, John Fenwick Cousins (1795-1870), son of the original John Cousins who went to PEI about 1785, married Helen/Ellen Montgomery (1800-1881), daughter of Hugh Montgomery (1765-1805) and Christy Penman (?- 1811). Hugh was the son of Hugh (1731-1824) and Mary McShannon and the brother of Donald Montgomery (1760-1845). Donald married Nancy Penman (1768-1837) and one of their seventeen children, called (Big) Donald Montgomery, born in 1807, was Lucy Maud’s paternal grandfather with whom she spent a great deal of time. Her parents were Hugh John Montgomery (1841-1900) and his first wife, Clara ‘Tillie’ Woolner MacNeill (1843-1876). Lucy Maud was born 30 Nov 1874 and thus her mother died when she was only two years old.

Thus, Lucy’s paternal grandfather (Big Donald Montgomery) and my great great grandmother (Helen/Ellen Montgomery, spouse of John Fenwick Cousins) were first cousins. Lucy Maud was a third cousin of my grandfather, Alexander Anderson Clay (1858-1925) and so she is my third cousin twice removed.

As you mentioned in your e-mail to John this is such an interesting part of this fascinating hobby. For me, connecting with John – a fourth cousin – was amazing and what I enjoy most about genealogy.

…Marilyn Clay Adair (Spouse of Bob Adair, UE)