“Loyalist Trails” 2011-04: January 30, 2011
In this issue:
– Conference 2011: Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve – by Roy Lewis
– Black Loyalists Sailing for Germany: Part Two — © Stephen Davidson
– Reverend John Beardsley (1732 – 1809) © George McNeillie
– African Heritage Month
– 1776TORY Resolution
– The Tech Side: I Know Where You Live — by Wayne Scott, UE
– Dates in 2011
– Ancestors Make You Better
– Wanted: Loyalist Military Uniform
– Last Post: Eric Lawrence Teed
– Last Post: Margaret (Peggy) Grant, UE
Like visitors of today, Loyalist settlers travelling along the upper St. Lawrence River would most certainly have been impressed by the pristine beauty of the 1000 Islands region.
The islands in the St. Lawrence stretch for a distance of approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) from a point where the river is born at the eastern end of Lake Ontario to where they end at Brockville. Most of the rocky granite islands, there are actually about 1,800, are tree covered adding to their beauty.
And not only people who live in this region as well as those who visit are acutely aware of the significance of the area. In November of 2002, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designated the region a biosphere reserve as part of its Man and the Biosphere program. The official name of the designation is the Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve. Along with the 1000 Islands, the biosphere includes a region, consisting of 2,700 square kilometres (1,042 square miles) running approximately 56 kilometres (35 miles) to the north of the river and includes portions of neighbouring Frontenac County.
The Frontenac Arch is a geological designation given to an ancient ridge of granite that sweeps across the upper St. Lawrence River forming a corridor between the Canadian Shield and Adirondack Mountains. Where the ridge intersects the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence, it forms the 1000 Islands. Five separate forest regions are found within the boundaries of the arch creating a great richness of plant, insect and animal species making it the most biodiverse region of the 15 designated reserves in Canada.
To be selected as a biosphere, a region must be globally significant in terms of its ecology and through education and support must work toward sustainable community development. The Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve is administered by a non-profit organization of approximately 200 committed volunteers along with groups, governments and agencies that operate as the Biosphere Network. Its office is located in the heart of the 1000 Islands near the approach to the Canada-U.S. 1000 Islands Bridge.
The biosphere has already become a national model for sustainable tourism. Following discussions with trail organizations in this region, local staff have been involved in discussions with almost 40 trail organizations across the province and have worked towards developing a draft agreement with the Ontario Trails Council, something which has never been done in Canada before.
The reserve is also one of the few regions to receive two UNESCO designations. In 2007, UNESCO designated the Rideau Canal, which runs through the western side of the biosphere, as a World Heritage Site.
As of May of 2010, there were 564 UNESCO designated biospheres in 109 countries around the world. Along with recognizing the reserve, UNESCO also challenges people living within its boundaries to conserve the environment while at the same time meeting the economic, cultural and social needs of its residents and visitors.
The third of a series of articles describing interesting historical facts about Brockville and the surrounding region of the St. Lawrence River and the 1000 Islands where Conference 2011 “Catch The Spirit” of our Loyalists’ Ancestors will be held. Hosted by the Col. Edward Jessup Branch, the United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada’s annual Conference will be held from June 2 to 5.
In the summer of 1783, while three thousand black loyalists sailed for the Maritimes, 51 Africans were evacuated to Germany, travelling with Hessian soldiers These are the stories of those forgotten refugees of the American Revolution.
According to the historian, Dr. Robert A. Selig, every Hessian regiment contained black soldiers, beginning as early as 1777. In August of that year, 250 ships brought the Hessian General Knyphausen, Britain’s General William Howe, and 18,000 soldiers to Maryland. Their objective was the capture Philadelphia, the largest city in the Thirteen Colonies. To achieve that goal, the two armies recruited local loyalists, both black and white.
A patriot named Benjamin Rumsey wrote to the rebel governor reporting that two “Wirtenbergers” (another colonial name for German soldiers) had deserted and then supplied the rebels with information about the enemy’s troops and location. Rumsey went on to say that the enemy forces “receive all negroes and servants, and promise them fine clothes, etc., as an inducement.”
Two of the Africans who accepted the British offer of freedom were nine year-old James Joseph and his father. The pair went on board one of the naval vessels, but within two years, the elder Joseph had died. Taking the only option for survival open to him, James signed a seven-year indenture agreement with the captain of the Aurora. After the ship arrived at the port of Bremer Lee, 15 year-old James Joseph would still have to remain aboard for three more years.
Young Joseph was not the only African crew member among the 51 blacks bound for Germany in 1783. George Bishick was the 26 year-old cook on the Antelope Gordon. He had been born free in Virginia, but marines serving on the sloop Otter had captured him six years earlier. The Anne and Elizabeth also had an African in its galley. 47 year-old George Barnes had been certified a free man in Rhode Island in 1770. In the intervening years he had married, lost his wife, and suffered a decline in health. His seven year-old daughter Rachel travelled with him.
One ship that carried German soldiers home had two free African sailors. A 19 year-old Virginian named Will and 47 year-old West Indian named Anthony Ricks worked aboard the Rebecca.
The records of the 15 ships bound for Germany contain very little information about the black loyalist passengers who were female. We can only assume that they were household servants, laundresses or seamstresses for the German forces during the Revolution. 16 year-old Judith had been an indentured servant to a settler in Philby, Canada, but was now free. Hannah Stewart was the wife of the drummer, Francis Stewart, and the stepmother to his daughters, Peggy and Christiana. Nancy travelled with her 30 year-old husband York and their four year-old child. It is hard to imagine what life in Germany would be like for these African children and their parents.
22 year-old Kitty was a single mother who had escaped from her master in South Carolina in 1779. Her daughters, Sarah and Lucy, had been born within the British lines. Hannah was a 26 year-old woman who carried her year-old son George up the gangplank of the Milford. She had no husband to help her adjust to a new life in Germany. Since not one African woman is ever described as being a widow in The Book of Negroes, we cannot be sure of the marital status of either Kitty or Hannah. If they had been married, their late husbands may have died fighting with the king’s forces or they may have succumbed –as hundreds did– to smallpox.
Betsy (28) and Bess (20) were fellow passengers on the Rebecca. They travelled with Major Gable (or Gabel). It may be that he was one of the many Hessian officers who were Jews. Jeanis, a 19 year-old girl from Georgia, was also a passenger on the Rebecca. Rosannah Mott, was the only black loyalist of either gender to sail on the William and Mary. She is noted as carrying a General Birch Certificate which would indicate to all that the British government recognized her as a free woman.
Not all of the Africans bound for Germany were free. Hessian soldiers had purchased five slaves in America, ranging in age from 7 to 27. Lt. Anhalt Zerbel of East Friesland had bought little Dan from a man living in Oyster Bay, New York for seven guineas. Quartermaster Hunter of the Knoblauch Regiment purchased 15 year-old John on Long Island; Lieutenant Fleck of the Angellells Regiment bought 18 year-old Michael while stationed in Philadelphia. Ten year-old David became the property of Major General Kosporth in the same city. The young boy is noted as being unable to remember his American master’s name. 27 year-old Peter was a wedding gift to the daughter of Stephen Townsend when she married Officer Kineschmidt in Charlestown, South Carolina in 1781. Used to living along the Atlantic coast, both Peter and the new Mrs. Kineschmidt must have found it difficult as they adjusted to life in the interior of Germany.
The destination of the 15 ships carrying Hessian soldiers in the summer of 1783 was Bremer Lee, a port on the western coast of Germany (modern day Bremerhaven). The troops of the Prince of Hessen-Kassel did not live near this port, but originated in the interior of modern Germany. 5,723 came from Brunswick, 1,225 were from Waldeck, 17,000 from Hessen-Kassel, and 1,119 were from Anhalt-Zerbst. Hessen-Hanau sent 2,600 men, and Brandenburg-Anspach accounted for 1,040 soldiers. In other words, when the black loyalists of the American Revolution followed their Hessian friends back to Europe, they were to begin their new lives in as many as six different German states.
As is so often true in Black Loyalist history, some of the most fascinating stories have been lost entirely. We are fortunate to have even the briefest glimpses of those loyal Africans who began new lives in the states of Germany in 1783.
The following resolution was passed by the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of New Brunswick:- “That a tablet, commemorating the Masonic work of Brother the late Rev. John Beardsley, be placed in Trinity Church, Kingston, with the consent of the Rector, Church Wardens and Vestry.” [The Grand Master’s Report here follows.]
“In accordance with the resolution the tablet was prepared and unveiled at a service held in Trinity Church, Kingston, on July 4th, 1915, before a large congregation of the parish and an assembly of upwards of sixty of the brethren.
“The Grand Lodge convened at the consolidated school at Kingston with the following officers [names of 22 officers follow]. There was also present a good representation of the brethren from the Corinthian Lodge (Hampton), and Zion Lodge (Sussex), and a number also from St. John.
“Weather conditions in the afternoon proved all that could be desired, and the services in the church were conducted (with the assistance of Brother Crowfoot of the Corinthian Lodge) by Brother C.G. Lawrence, rector of the parish, who preached the sermon.
“There followed a brief account of the life and work of the great pioneer missionary as well as of his work in Freemasonry, by the Grand Master, when the tablet was unveiled by Right Worthy Brother Thomas Walker, P.G.M., whose early associations in school days at the old Kingston Grammar School rendered his assistance particularly appropriate on this occasion.
“Our late Brother Beardsley was elected the first Junior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of New York in 1781. in 1783, with the Grand Master, the Deputy Grand Master and the Senior Grand Warden, he resigned and shortly afterwards came to New Brunswick with the Loyalists. He was the first Mason to preside in the East within the limits of our Province, and he was afterwards instrumental in establishing the four lodges – one at Maugerville, one at Kingston, and two in Fredericton. All of these ceased to exist many years ago, but the influence of his work and the record of his achievements we have with us today.”
Excerpt from Book of Family History, by The Ven. William Odber Raymond, LL.D, FRSC. © 2009 George McNeillie – all rights reserved [published here with permission; see footnote].
The Black Loyalist Heritage Society is celebrating African Heritage Month in February. Some of the events:
– Chocolate Festival and Floral Demonstration, Feb 6 in Birchtown NS
– Dinner and Movie “The Slave Route” Feb 26 in Birchtown
– Readings and Song, Feb 27 in Shelburne
2011 is The International Year for People of African Descent.
…Lew Perry, Halifax/Dartmouth Branch
Reading personalized licence plates can bring unexpected dividends. Before the Fall Dominion Council was adjourned, Shirley Dargatz, RVP Pacific Region, asked me to tell the story about my adventure the day before. While running last minute errands in town, I pulled into the parking lot of one of our upscale grocery stores, Whole Foods, right behind a big brown Dodge 4X4. Now I like to think that I know every United Empire Loyalist descendant in Oakville, or at least those who have shared their connections, but I had not encountered the licence 1776TORY before. Lacking both the necessary time to sit in the car until the driver came out, as well as a pencil or pen to leave a message, I knocked on the window of the car beside me, disrupting the attention of a young lady busy sending messages with her thumbs and her Blackberry. I was lucky she also found a pen. A few days after our meeting, I received an email from Calvin Arnt of St. Catharines advising me that he had found the message stuck to his window.
Calvin, originally from BC, was actually involved in the Thompson Okanagan Branch UELAC before work brought him to Ontario twelve years ago. Although he does not have UEL ancestry, he always had an interest in the early history of Canada. He soon joined a local group of Butler’s Rangers. In 2001, he and others in Niagara branched out into the War of 1812 forming the only unit of Lincoln Militia, the next generation of settlers whose families originally came as Butler’s Rangers. They were proud to carry on the tradition of their parents by fighting for the King, this time in the War of 1812. In 2005, Calvin and a few reenacting friends in the area decided to form their own unit of Butler’s Rangers and established the Colonel’s own company. He admits that growth has been slow since the focus as of late has been on 1812, but they “press on regardless”, proud to emulate the efforts of Col. Butler and his men.
Following considerable research, they did a complete overhaul of the uniform. Changing the facing colour to white was the main change that happened, but it wasn’t the only one. They also wear a different hat and trousers than most other Ranger groups. The preferred musket is different than what the others use. They shy away from (though not reject totally) the absorption of Native styles in their dress, convinced that Butler was more concerned with impressing British officials and out-doing the Johnson family, than with adapting to Native ways. Calvin has his research paper on this topic published on their website under the Research link. He also offered to speak about this to the UELAC.
Thus the story that Shirley wanted to hear again now has a happy ending. As a result of a special personalized license plate and extensive communication, UELAC has established links to both of Calvin’s websites now identified in our Military folder. Another quest has been resolved.
…Frederick H. Hayward, UE, President, UELAC
Technology can be a wonderful thing, but sometimes it can be downright scary. Take for instance, your digital camera. Nowadays you can take hundreds of pictures with your camera or cell phone and just one small sd card.
Many people post the best of their pictures on FaceBook or other social network sites where everyone can enjoy the pictures – even people who do not have your best interests at heart.
Did you know that embedded on your picture file is the exact location of the shot, often within 5 metres of the exact location using GPS technology? The wonderful anniversary/birthday pictures you posted so proudly also show the contents of your home and the gps location (address) of your house. This is part of the “metadata” that is contained on each picture that tells the computer a lot about your picture, including where it was taken, when snapped – date and time.
Since pictures are available to be viewed by anyone who has found your FaceBook page, so is the metadata information. Because of the availability of this information, a thief can literally pick and choose what they want to steal, and know where to steal it. Check out icanstalku.com. There are tips on how to prevent metadata from being posted.
I am thinking that you are not happy at the thought of sharing all of this information. The easiest way to prevent this type of information from being broadcast around the world is to not post pictures at all. You can remove your pictures from social networking sites without difficulty. However, doing this sort of goes against the whole premise of ‘social networking’, or the sharing of information. Is there another way?
Some photo editing programs such as Photoshop Elements will allow you to remove metadata prior to posting on a website, FaceBook, etc. Check out photokaboom for help for a number of different levels of expertise. The simplest solution seems to be to save your pictures for the web. Many photo editing programs will allow this. When saved for the web, the metadata is removed in an effort to make the picture files smaller.
Cell phone pictures can be taken without the metadata contained in them. You will likely have to go to the original manual that came with the iPhone or other android phone for the correct procedure. If the manual isn’t available, a Google search will likely give you the information that you want. Follow the instructions carefully so that you only remove the metadata, not visual aspects of the picture.
Some newer digital cameras will allow you to prevent the metadata from being added to the picture. Again, the manual or Google will walk you through the process of removing the metadata feature.
All of this discussion is rather moot if you don’t post pictures to the Internet in some fashion or another. In some cases the metadata is important to you. If you are geocaching, location information can be important. Genealogy pictures of burial sites are enhanced by the metadata giving the exact GPS co-ordinates. Future generations may thank you for having and using this feature when looking at your research. So having metadata is a two-sided coin. Fortunately if you turn the metadata feature off on your cell phone, it can be turned on again if needed. You just need to remember what mode your camera or cell phone is in before using it.
When new technology enters the market, it is advisable to read the fine print. Sometimes the ‘Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ’s) will offer some insight into the inner workings of the technology. Reviews from reputable technology sources will often highlight some of the more obscure aspects of new devices that hit the market.
An informed consumer is a much safer consumer.
You can email Wayne Scott to get in touch with questions or comments.
This year we will experience 4 unusual dates — 1/1/11, 1/11/11, 11/1/11, 11/11/11.
Now go figure this out. Take the last 2 digits of the year you were born plus the age you will be this year and it WILL EQUAL… 111
“Next time you need a boost, think about the story of your ancestors,” The Boston Globe says. “In a new study, researchers found that thinking about one’s ancestors motivates people and can even improve performance on intelligence tests. It didn’t matter whether people thought about long-dead ancestors or living grandparents, or whether they considered positive or negative aspects of their ancestors. Thinking about friends or oneself didn’t generate the same effect, suggesting that ancestors have a special association with success and perseverance.” from Globe & Mail, Facts & Arguments, Jan 24, 2011.
…Mark Gallop, UE (Branch Genealogist, Heritage Branch)
I have recently joined the Little Forks Branch and have joined the executive. To help me in my various roles, I am looking for a second-hand Loyalist military uniform – preferably from early Revolution Period (1776-1779). Ideally the uniform would be of the Royal Greens (green coat with royal blue facings). I also require a tricorn hat (size XL). I weigh 220 pounds. Other Loyalist clothing or gear would also be appreciated.
If you can help me with clothing or gear, or can offer suggestions, I would appreciate your message.
We sadly announce the sudden passing of Eric Lawrence Teed, O.C., C.D, Q.C., Kt.D., B.Sc., B.C.L., B.A. of Saint John, New Brunswick on December 30, 2010. Born in Saint John on May 19, 1926 he was the son of Muriel Vivian (Wetmore) and John Francis Hanington Teed Q.C. Survived by his wife of 61 years, Lois Anita (Smith); sons: Robert, Peter (Cathie Hurley) of Saint John; Christopher (Brenda) of St. Stephen; Terrence (Karen) of Moncton; David (Julia) of Saint John; loved by many grandchildren.
Also survived by his brother Hugh (Betty) of Toronto, and sisters Gloria Trivett (Donald) of Clifton Royal, NB and Mary Gillis of Nova Scotia, he was predeceased by his brother George, and sisters Hazel Hazen, Beth Young, and Alice Teed.
Called to the Bar of NB in 1949, he had a distinguished law career for 60 years, retiring in June 2009. Appointed a Master of the Supreme Court of NB in 1958 and Queen’s Counsel in 1966. Extremely knowledgeable and passionate about law, he loved to share his knowledge and lectured on environmental, municipal, labour and civil liberties law at UNBSJ. During his tenure as Mayor for the City of Saint John, the Tucker Park lands were granted to establish the current UNBSJ campus. Eric served as an MLA for Saint John from 1970-74.
In 1964, the New Brunswick Loyalist Society was re-activated after a latent period of 25 years. Eric and his mother, Muriel V Teed, were eventually responsible, in 1967, for facilitating its change-over to the New Brunswick Branch of the national UELAC. Eric remained passionately interested and involved in the NB Branch and in all things related to New Brunswick’s Loyalist heritage. Right up until his death, he tirelessly hatched projects and programs designed to keep the Loyalist presence alive in Saint John.
Eric was a Freemason and a Past Master of Albion Lodge, and was an Honorary Member of the Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers International Union.
In recognition of his long standing community service, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1987. He was awarded the Queen’s Silver Jubilee Medal in 1977 and the Queen’s 50th Jubilee Medal in 1992. Full death notice here.
…Val Teed, New Brunswick Branch
Peggy Grant (nee Warner) passed away on Sunday, January 23, 2011 at the Hospice Wellington in Guelph at the age of 87 after a lingering illness. Peggy loved her family, and was much loved by them. She leaves husband Donald and sons Allan of London, Ken of Campbellford, Gordon (Kathy) of Oakville and Doug (Nancy Conn) of Toronto. A person who had great affection for all children, she leaves ten grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren. Peggy is survived by brothers-in-law Stewart Grant (Cathie) of Cranbrook BC, George Grant of St. Marys, and Dr. Ross Grant (Doreen) of Kitchener; by sister-in-law June Hill (Bill) of Stratford; and a great many nieces and nephews.
She was the daughter of Russell O. and Jean (Hunter) Warner. Peg was proud of her family heritage and proudly displayed her loyalist certificate as a descendant of Michael Warner of Osnabruck. Peggy was raised in Mimico, where in Wesley United Church she married Don on 4 Sept, 1943. Don was in the air force stationed on the west coast. A year later when he was posted to Victoria, she joined him for the last year of WWII. They then returned to Avonbank where they took over the family homestead farm which Don’s forefather had taken up from the Canada Company in 1845. Peg had first visited the farm through family connections in 1936 and it was here that all four sons were born.
Peg became an integral part of the community. In 1962 they sold the farm and moved to Campbellford, then to Woodstock in 1971 and finally to Guelph in 1977. In all places Peggy was very active in the United Church; at St. Johns in Campbellford she received her life membership in the UCW but remained very involved at St. David’s in Woodstock and Harcourt in Guelph. Peggy actively volunteered for many other groups, including the Red Cross and Meals on Wheels. From the former she received the provincial 20-year volunteer pin before age forced her retirement. She and Don developed a love of travel and visited six continents. They established strong lasting friendships with people from places like Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia. At Peggy’s request, cremation has taken place.
Peg’s proven Loyalist ancestor (there were probably more) was Michael Warner of Osnabruck. She and Don were members of the Gov. Simcoe Branch in Toronto.
…Doug Grant, UE
[Editor’s note: Dad and I, with other family members and friends, were with Mom when she passed away last Sunday. There was no issue of Loyalist Trails last week.]