“Loyalist Trails” 2014-07: February 16, 2014

In this issue:
Continental Jackets and Horse-whippings: The Persecutions of 1783, by Stephen Davidson
The History Of The Sir John Johnson Manor House
Book: Poisoned by Lies and Hypocrisy, by Gavin Watt
Where in the World is Geri Wilson?
From the Twittersphere and Beyond
Additions to the Loyalist Directory
Last Post: Donald Bruce Allen, UE
      + Susannah Booth


Continental Jackets and Horse-whippings: The Persecutions of 1783, by Stephen Davidson

A letter that Sir Guy Carleton wrote in the first week of April 1783 spoke of a troubling trend that he was powerless to stop – patriots’ persecution of loyalists as they prepared to depart for Nova Scotia. The British commander-in-chief asked a patriot official to send him a report on the “state of the prosecution against the persons concerned in plundering the house of Caleb Jones in Jersey in December last and ill-treating him and his family.” The attack on Jones would be the first in a series of malicious assaults on loyal Americans.

The May fourth letter of Cavalier Jouet gave a long and detailed description of how vicious this “ill-treatment” could be. He wrote to Carleton in the hope that the commander-in-chief would bring the matter “up in his conferences with General Washington.” Jouet went to New Jersey “after the publication of an armistice between the belligerent Powers” to get a feeling for the “spirit and temper of the times there”. He was trying to determine if he could continue to live in New Jersey as a loyalist.

Jouet went to Woolbridge where he had lived on parole as a prisoner of war. Despite being their prisoner, the people of the town treated Jouet – a man who demonstrated “the strictest loyalty and fidelity to the cause of my rightful Sovereign” – with civility so he had every reason to believe that he would be allowed to continue living among them after the Revolution.

Instead of a warm welcome, Jouet, “received the most outrageous insults, and narrowly escaped the most shameful and degrading abuse. A number of fellows came about me with sticks and whips (the most of whom had formerly treated me with great courtesy)”. The men of Woolbridge said that Jouet had no right to be there because he had “proved a traitor to my country and had joined the enemy, and they were determined that no such damned rascals should ever enjoy the benefits of the country.” They were determined – Jouet wrote Carleton – to either give him a “continental jacket” (tar and feathers) or a whipping. Others called out “hang him up, hang him up!”

When he appealed to a local magistrate, Jouet was told that this was how loyalists were commonly treated. “It was with infinite difficulty I escaped their clutches” Jouet wrote. Had it not been for the intervention of a clergyman and a patriot who had been kindly treated by one of Jouet’s sons, Jouet would certainly have come to harm. He told Carleton that he could have written of more examples of “a most intolerant spirit prevailing among” the patriots, but he felt his Woodbridge story would be sufficient to illustrate the plight of loyalists.

Later in that same month, Oliver DeLancey wrote a letter describing how he had received “maltreatment as a loyalist by {a} party of about fifty men under the command of Israel Honeywell.” The tide of hate was rising. Just a week later, John Mitchell, of Cow Neck, Long Island “was attacked in his house in the night by a number of men and his grandson {was} shot.” The home invaders had crossed the Sound from Connecticut and made false accusations “to incriminate the refugees {loyalists}.”

The loyalists of Westchester County, New York wrote Carleton seeking redress from “lawless banditti” who preyed upon them because of their “position between the British and American lines.” In early June, Prosper Brown told Carleton about “barbarous and inhuman treatment at the hands of the Americans” and begged to be allowed to sail with the fleet to Nova Scotia. John Leonard, who described himself “as far advanced in life and unused to labour”, confessed to Carleton that had to “abandon the idea of remaining in this country and intends to go to Nova Scotia.” He asked for an allowance of a dollar a day and for some Nova Scotian land.

Edmund Ward wrote the commander-in-chief asking for some financial relief. In addition to being banished by the patriots of Westchester County, Ward’s farm had been confiscated and his wife had been ordered to leave the property. For many loyalists, Nova Scotia or Canada had become their only options.

Later in June, Carleton received more news of persecutions. Three loyalists, Nathan Hubbill, John and James Wall and Josiah Fowler, wrote to say that they were ill-treated when they visited near Stamford, Connecticut, “being set upon by a party of men and beaten with split hoop poles, the reason assigned for the abuse being solely that they were refugees and had fought for the King.” Samuel Clarke reported that he had been beaten with clubs and canes and was “scarce able to walk.”

Things were no better in Rhode Island. Having successfully settled his financial matters in Martha’s Vineyard, Thomas Hazard returned to his Rhode Island home. He anchored his schooner in a convenient harbour and went ashore to see his family. Rebels arrested him, and imprisoned him for five days. They confiscated his vessel and seized all of its contents. The rebels then threatened to execute Hazard unless he paid “the most extravagant charges” to let him go. Ransoming himself, the loyalist was told never to return to Rhode Island “upon pain of death”. Hazard was furious. He concluded his letter to Carleton by saying “if the friends to Government are to be treated in this manner and no notice taken of it, I should be glad to know how to conduct myself for the future.”

According to a spy employed by Carleton, the persecution of the loyalists seemed to be abating by August of 1783. The unnamed (and apologetic) secret operative had been ill and with the “cessation of hostilities in America” had not been able to submit regular intelligence reports. Nevertheless, when he submitted the results of his latest espionage activities, he said he believed “the vindictive spirit against the loyalists is subsiding”. The states were at loggerheads over a variety of issues, there was a lack of confidence in Congress, and he believed that the people “are sick of democratic government.”

The spy’s report was a bit premature. Thomas McDaniel had lived in Pauldings, Dutchess County where, during the Revolution, he served (and suffered) for the crown. In the last days of August, 1783, McDaniel was driven from his home by eight armed men, publicly horsewhipped and ordered to leave the state within four days. Little wonder, then, that he asked to go to Nova Scotia “on the same footing as other loyalists.”

No wonder the number of refugees flooding into New York City swelled with the approach of the fall. The 1783 rebel persecutions pushed into exile thousands of loyalists who would otherwise have been content to stay in their home colonies. All through September, October and November, Carleton scrambled to find enough evacuation ships to take these abused colonists to Nova Scotia, England, and the West Indies. His efforts secured the refugees’ safety, giving them a second chance at a life free of continental jackets and horse-whippings.

The History Of The Sir John Johnson Manor House

(From the Glengarry Archives) The national historic significance of the Sir John Johnson House lies in its historical association with Sir John Johnson, its age as one of the oldest surviving buildings in Ontario and in its architectural design.

In 1776, at the start of the American Revolutionary War, Sir John Johnson left his substantial estate in the Mohawk Valley in New York, and came to Canada. During the war, he organized, funded and led the King’s Royal Regiment of New York, which was involved in many border skirmishes. In 1784 he became responsible for the settlement of Loyalists who had fled the United States, in the area from Lake St. Francis to the Bay of Quinte. He was given a substantial grant of land for himself, part of which included the land on which the hamlet of Williamstown is located today. On his Williamstown property, sometime between 1784 and 1792, Johnson had built a one and a half story, five-bay log structure on a rise of ground, near the Raisin River. A grist mill and a saw mill were built on the river in the same period.

While there is little to suggest Johnson ever lived in his Williamstown house, the mills were the focal point in his vision for the community he hoped to encourage at that location. The house was occupied by the overseer of the mill for at least part of Johnson’s ownership of the site. The features which can be associated with this period include the original portion of the house and the sites of the former mills.

(More history on the house.)

Book: Poisoned by Lies and Hypocrisy, by Gavin Watt

In 1775, Governor Guy Carleton returned to Canada after a four-year absence in England to discover that political unrest in the American colonies was at a fever pitch. Soon after, open warfare erupted in Massachusetts, quickly followed by a rebel invasion.

Historian Gavin K. Watt explores the first two campaigns of the American Revolution through their impact on Canada and describes how a motley group of militia, American loyalists, and British regulars managed to defend Quebec and repel the invaders.

More from Gavin (PDF).

Gavin K. Watt is a founding member of the Museum of Applied Military History and the author of two books on the American Revolution as waged from Canada: Burning of the Valleys and The Flockey. He is also the co-author of The King’s Royal Regiment of New York and The British Campaign of 1777. Gavin often comments in this newsletter, is an Honorary Vice-President of UELAC and is a great friend of us Loyalists.

Where in the World?

Where is Col. John Butler Branch (Niagara area) member Geri Wilson?

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is. If you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well – send to Jennifer Childs.

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

Additions to the Loyalist Directory

As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:
– Davy, Peter – from Barry Baker with certificate application
– Lambert, Cornelius – volunteer Sandy McNamara
– Milross, Andrew – from Kathleen Roys Lynch (Volunteer Sandra McNamara)
– Rogers, David McGregor – from Robert Rogers
– Roys, Evan Jr. – from Kathleen Roys Lynch (volunteer Sandy McNamara)

Please help us build the directory by contributing more information for it. Contact loyalist.trails@uelac.org for instructions and guidance.

Last Post: Donald Bruce Allen, UE

(1783 United Empire Loyalist descendent, 6th generation proud Canadian) Losing his five-year (September 2008) battle with painful throat cancer, at age 80 lifelong bachelor died on February 3, 2014 at Toronto East General Hospital. He was a direct descendant of J. Schell/Shell and F. Markle/Merkley (paternal line) and F. Albrandt/Albrant, J. Alt/Ault, M. Kerman/Carman, J. Juntz/Coons (maternal line). All were privates in the King’s Royal Regiment of New York 1776-1783, all were Lutherans, all Palatine immigrants from the Rhine Valley, Germany, all farmed in the Mohawk Valley, former Province of New York and after the American Civil War for Independence, all farmed in the Royal Township No. 4 pioneering what is now Dundas County (originated) the Province of Upper Canada 1791 which became the Province of Ontario in 1867.

At age 18 (September 1951) he was employed at Orenda Engines, Malton on the famous, legendary but defunct CF100 Arrow Interceptor, a division of A.V. Roe Aircraft, Malton for 3 years as a final engine turbine blade polisher. He then went to (September 1954) de Havilland Aircraft Company Limited, Downsview and for 15 years he worked on the Beaver, Otter, Caribou and Buffalo, all state-of-the-art STOL aircraft, as a progress expeditor.

Ever the entrepreneur, among his many ventures he then founded Donald B. Allen Company Limited (1968-1985). He retired in May 1986. He was an (June 1975) Alumnus of the University of Toronto majoring in history/political science. He was a lifelong member of Ancient Free & Accepted Masons, Grand Lodge of Canada.

Finally, his true passion, he was a founding (June 1978) member, Number 0016 of Cathedral Bluffs Yacht Club; after a 25-year membership of which 7 years as a 365-day year round live-aboard, he was retired in 2003. He was “skipper” of Yacht Legacy, a 1981 C&C30 sloop, DOT Certificate of Registry 800605, 7.98 tonnage, which he single-handedly sailed from Toronto, Canada to Havana, Cuba then back to Toronto one full year ending July 1, 1989. Over 10 years of preparations (1978-1988) quietly he honed his solo sailing skills in different dramatic weather conditions; he laboured, invested, studied, and rehearsed seamanship, navigation skills and safety drills throughout Lake Ontario and at age 56 it was “now or never!” His odyssey began at 4 a.m. on July 1, 1988 cast off from dock K25 and sailed into the unknown and in the end his story, his solo voyage is one of triumph! An achievement many C.B.Y.C. club members aspire but few attain. It was a year of discovery – who are you? So many risks, a constant exhilarating adrenaline rush, confronting your worst fears – of one adventure after another and on a daily basis, a record that still stands in the 2011 C.B.Y.C. Honour Rolls of notable individual achievements. “To those original C.B.Y.C. members from whom I learned, thank you; and to those who carry on our best traditions today, thank you too.”

He was proud of his lineage, a 6th-generation English-speaking Canadian; subsequently he became on April 30, 2007 a full member of the United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada, Toronto Branch. Late in life he was an avid amateur genealogist and historian writing, “A Genealogical Sketch of UK, Royal Navy Able Seaman John Allen 1782-1861”, a direct descendant who fought under Rear Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson 1758-1805 in the Battle of Trafalgar 1805 as well as the Battle of Baltimore 1814 USA. He leaves no heirs, nevertheless his UEL heritage is continued on by his brother, retired Toronto businessman Leonard Howard Allen and his two daughters Linda Ruth Soave (nee Allen), RN and Barbara Jane Farlow (nee Allen), B.Eng. Sci., (Honours) MBA and their thirteen children.

His worst decision: he didn’t study “typing” so when the computer age quickly came upon the land he was a dinosaur. He would enviously watch in amazement while young people had the world’s knowledge at their fingertips; he was merely a bystander. Most memorable moment: while studying English at Danforth Collegiate and Technical Institute (Toronto Board of Education) 1948, he was introduced to the great poet and playwright William Shakespeare; and in his entire lifetime he read and re-read, time and time again his many poems, sonnets and brilliant plays. At the deceased’s request: 1. Cremation 2. No chapel service and 3. Private interment at Pine Hill Cemetery, therefore time and dates undisclosed. Contributions can be made to a charity of your choice. “This above all: to thine own self be true, and it must follow as the night the day, thou canst not then be false to any man.” – Hamlet. (Published in the Toronto Star, Feb. 8, 2014)

…Margie Luffman UE, Bicentennial Branch (Windsor area)


Susannah Booth

In the June 6, 2011 issue of Loyalist Trails, the George McNeillie article Samuel Hallett: Fourth Generation in America mentions, in Note 1, that William Hallett [1616 – 1706] married Elizabeth Fones. The following week in an Addendum to Samuel Hallett Richard L Thorne adds more details to the scandal around this marriage. Richard notes that “William married for a second time, Susannah (Booth) Thorne around 1668, although that marriage ended in a contentious divorce.”

Mary Pilfold-Allan, a Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellow in the UK, is currently researching Susannah Booth for inclusion in a book on settler women and wonders whether anyone has any further information about the said lady that does not appear on any websites?

She adds “All very intriguing. I would love to find out if anyone knows for certain when Elizabeth (Fones) Hallett died and William married Susannah. I have traced the court records of the separation etc. They really didn’t like each other!”

If anyone has any more information, please contact Mary.

Mary Pilfold-Allan