“Loyalist Trails” 2018-24: June 17, 2018

In this issue:
Thanks Saskatchewan Branch for the 2018 Conference
Introduction to The Loyalists and UELAC
We Have a Winner! New Scholarship Logo
Scholarship Fund Challenge 2018 Branch Appreciation
Human Nature Being What It Is, by Stephen Davidson
Help Protect The Jeptha Hawley House (c.1784)
Atlantic Loyalist Connections: Death on the Sea: The Crew of the Eclipse
Borealia: Environmental History: We Will All Be Early Moderns
JAR: Pell’s Point: John Glover Saves Washington’s Army
The Junto: Black Women Intellectuals and the Politics of Dislocation
Ben Franklin’s World: Origins of the American Middle Class
The Loyalist Roses
Renovations to Sir John Johnson House in Williamstown ON
Where in the World?
Region and Branch Bits
From the Twittersphere and Beyond


2018 UELAC Conference: Discover Your Roots

Greetings from the UELAC Conference – see photo on the UELAC homepage.

Introduction to The Loyalists and UELAC

By Barb Andrew UE, Past President at UELAC Conference Church Service

Myself and the oddly dressed people with me this morning, who you have so graciously welcomed to worship with you today are folk who are dedicated to celebrating and keeping alive a particular part of our Canadian national heritage. We are the descendants of the United Empire Loyalists, people who lived in the Thirteen Colonies and who, during the American War of Independence between 1775 and 1783 when the colonies rebelled against Britain, remained loyal to the crown and fought on the British side. It was of course, the losing side, and during and after the war, many Loyalists left the new nation, the majority of them coming to the colonies Britain retained in North America, colonies that were later to become Canada.

At certain points those Loyalists were to play a decisive role in the direction of Canadian history. I’ll mention just three today. First, the Loyalists brought with them the system of free hold land tenure, British laws and representative government. In 1791, British parliament passed the Canada Act which provided for the division of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. Both colonies were granted an elected assembly and the free hold system of land tenure went into effect in Upper Canada ..later to be known as Ontario. Those laws clearly show the influence of the Loyalists.

Secondly, the Loyalists and their children were instrumental in helping to repel American forces and put a halt to American expansionism during the War of 1812. Thirdly, and of particular interest here on the prairies, during the 1880’s, many descendants of Loyalists participated in the agricultural settlement of the West in tandem with the building of the national railway, forestalling the Americans at another time when they were very much looking north in search of more territory.

Canada has now evolved into a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural nation, welcoming people from all over the world. But the fact that there is a Canada to come to may in some measure be attributed to the loyalties and efforts of those first refugees to this great land..the United Empire Loyalists.

The United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada was formed by an act of parliament on May 27, 1914. Today there are 28 Branches operating in communities across this great land and recently in keeping with the times…a virtual Branch has received a charter.

The mission of the Association is as follows: To preserve, promote and celebrate the history and traditions of the United Empire Loyalists.

We will accomplish our Mission by:

1. Uniting, in a Canadian-based association, descendants of families who remained loyal to the British crown during the American Revolutionary War, as well as persons interested in the Loyalist era and early Canadian history.

2. Supporting the collection and cataloguing of documents, books, artefacts, memorabilia and genealogical data relating to the United Empire Loyalists.

3. Facilitating and publishing research related to the United Empire Loyalists in the form of historical and family research journals, books, newsletters and digital media.

4. Providing Loyalist education resource materials and encouraging research through scholarship support.

5. Assisting in the construction and preservation of Loyalist monuments and memorials in Canada.

6. Participating in projects and activities which honour and celebrate the legacy of the United Empire Loyalists.

Saskatchewan is home to a thriving Branch of the association and welcomes folks who think they may be descendants of Loyalists as well as anyone interested in early Canadian History to join with them.

Thank you for your attention and for welcoming us to your worship service this morning.

We Have a Winner! New Scholarship Logo

See the fresh new look!

Thank you to everyone who participated in the 2018 design competition. We are delighted with the turnout! Thank you to Amanda Fasken UE, Creative Director at Riverhead Brewing Company, for each of the outstanding designs.

The winning logo received 56 of the 134 votes cast (or 41.8%). We could not be more pleased. Watch for the UELAC scholarship banner as we continue to promote and reward Loyalist scholarship.

Scholarship Fund Challenge 2018 Branch Appreciation

“Giving is not just about making a donation, it’s about making a difference.” — Kathy Calvin

At the Friday evening ‘Prairie Feast’ at the 2018 UELAC Conference in Moose Jaw, SK, recognition was given to nine branches for their support of the 2018 Scholarship Fund Challenge. This year we asked for a commitment of $200 per branch for the Scholarship Endowment Fund. Each branch honoured at the 2018 conference donated at least $200.00 in celebration of twenty years of UELAC Scholarship.

Congratulations and a rousing standing ovation to — Abegweit Branch, Nova Scotia Branch, New Brunswick Branch, Kawartha Branch, Governor Simcoe Branch, London and Western Ontario Branch, Assiniboine Branch, Saskatchewan Branch, Vancouver Branch. See this announcement with photo of the named recipients from these branches.

The amount received to date – June 15 – is $5,088.00. Each year we are impressed with the number of individuals who choose Loyalist scholarship as a priority in giving. If you would like to see that total rise, please consider jumping in and supporting this year’s scholarship challenge. You can be assured that your donation is gratefully received by graduate students immersed in the collection and study of our Loyalist ancestor stories.

This year we set an ambitious goal of $10,000 and donations are rolling in! Please keep in mind that once the July 1 deadline has passed, we are still open for business and will happily accept donations throughout the year.

See how to donate and follow our progress on the 2018 Scholarship Challenge. For this fundraiser please mark your donations ‘Scholarship Endowment Fund.’

Thank you to everyone who supports UELAC Scholarship through giving. Together we are building a legacy.

…Bonnie Schepers, Scholarship Chair

Human Nature Being What It Is

© Stephen Davidson, UE

As genealogists and historians piece together the events and characters of the loyalist era, they have to keep in mind that human nature has not changed with the centuries. For the researcher, one has to fight the very human tendency to put an ancestor or historical figure high up on a pedestal, resisting the urge to apply generous layers of virtue to the character and actions of that person. There is no such thing as a plaster saint. A loyalist had the same capacity to be cruel, dishonest or unfaithful as anyone in our own day.

Let us consider the story of David Beveridge as a cautionary tale. Uppermost in the researcher’s mind should be two mandates. 1) Beware assumptions! 2) Seek out as many resources as possible before settling on a final portrait of any refugee of the American Revolution.

We’ll start with one nugget of historical data found in some victualing musters. Between the summers of 1783 and 1784, the British garrison at the mouth of the St. John River gave out provisions to thousands of loyalist refugees from its commissariat. The victualing musters of Fort Howe give the names of the heads of households, their former occupations, the evacuation ships upon which they sailed, and the members of their households (spouse, children and servants).

David Beveridge (Beverage/Beveradge) challenges the assumptions of the researcher immediately. Who ever imagined that a loyalist might earn his living as a hairdresser? (In fact, Beveridge is the only one of that profession listed in the muster.) While no home colony is given, the data on Beveridge shows that he came to the mouth of the St. John River with his wife and servant aboard the Ann that left New York City on July 8, 1783. The refugee couple was part of Company #28 under the leadership of Robert Chillas.

A safe assumption is that when one sees “servant” listed for a loyalist household, it is actually referring to an enslaved African. But even safe assumptions should be verified. The Book of Negroes, a ledger containing the names of free and enslaved blacks who sailed on loyalist evacuation ships, requires consultation.

Five blacks are listed as being aboard the Ann in July of 1783; four were free Black Loyalists and one was the property of a Peter FitzSimmons. There were no blacks who accompanied David Beveridge and his wife. Their servant, therefore, was Caucasian. Our “safe assumption” was wrong.

New York documents reveal that David Beveridge married Margaret McGloan on October 20, 1779. But a review of New Brunswick newspapers indicates that it would be false to assume that this is the name of the woman who accompanied Beveridge on the Ann. The July 11, 1814 edition of Saint John’s City Gazette carried the news that Beveridge’s widow, Elizabeth, died two days earlier at age 62. Who, then, was on the Ann in 1783: Margaret or Elizabeth?

One could make several reasonable assumptions. Perhaps Margaret, David’s wife of 1779, died before the 1783 evacuation (childbirth was often fatal). Or perhaps she left David a widower sometime after the couple arrived in New Brunswick. It is here that one’s assumptions fail to take into account the darker side of human nature.

Rivington’s Royal Gazette, New York City’s loyalist newspaper during the revolution, takes us down a path our assumptions did not even entertain. A notice placed in its November 7, 1781 edition puts David Beveridge in an unexpected light.

Margaret Beveridge, the hairdresser’s wife of 1779, advertised that she was seeking employment because “her husband has deserted her and is leaving for England with a woman named Elizabeth Bryan”. Margaret’s marriage to David lasted only two years.

Runaway spouses were regular news items in the Royal Gazette throughout the war, but women deserting their husbands made up the majority of such scandals. Whether David and his first wife ever formally divorced or not is unknown. Beveridge may have been a bigamist for the remainder of his life. And did the hairdresser and his new wife actually resettle in England? We only have Margaret’s word for it.

What can be cobbled together from the documents that have been reviewed is that David Beveridge was known as a hairdresser in New York City as late as 1779. By 1783, he and his new wife (and their white servant of unknown gender) had boarded an evacuation ship in New York harbour. Nothing can account for the four years between these dates beyond sheer speculation. The couple may have spent some time in England in the intervening four years or they may have simply made a home for themselves somewhere in New York for the duration of the revolution.

And what do we know about David and Elizabeth Beveridge after their arrival in New Brunswick? Esther Clark Wright’s landmark book, Loyalists of New Brunswick, lists David Beveridge as a barber and a grantee at Parrtown (now Saint John). A historical sketch of freemasonry in New Brunswick (featured in an 1884 edition of Saint John’s Daily Telegraph) indicates that David Beveridge was one of the 58 members of the province’s first Masonic Lodge. Neither the early probate records of New Brunswick nor Lorenzo Sabine’s loyalist biographical dictionary add anything to our knowledge of the loyalist hairdresser.

The Saint John Gazette of October 5, 1807 informs us that David Beveridge was a “native of Edinburgh, North Britain {Scotland}” and that he died at age 56 on the Friday morning of October second. Some quick subtraction tells us that this loyalist was born in 1751, making him 32 when he and his second wife sailed into Saint John’s harbour.

Seven years after her husband David’s demise, Elizabeth Bryan Beveridge died. The last appearance of loyalist’s name in the local newspaper was on May 5, 1819 when Saint John’s City Gazette noted the passing of Mary, the wife of John Clark of Wickham, Queens County and the daughter of the late David Beveridge “of this city”. Mary died at 34, placing her birth in 1785 — just two years after her parents found sanctuary in New Brunswick. Mary Beveridge and John Clark married at Saint John’s Trinity Church in 1815, allowing us to assume that the Beveridge family was Anglican.

We have completed our review of the surviving documents that flesh out the life of David Beveridge. Thorough research has proven many of our initial assumptions to be false. Human nature being what it is, David Beveridge certainly had his flaws, demonstrating that the loyalists were no better — and no worse—than the rest of us.

To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

Help Protect The Jeptha Hawley House (c.1784)

Provincial Plaque: “The Hawley House. This house, the oldest in the Bay of Quinte district, was built about 1785 by Captain Jeptha Hawley (1740-1813), a Loyalist from Arlington, Vermont. The Hawleys, an old Connecticut family, had sent several representatives, including Jeptha’s father, to the legislature of that colony. Jeptha joined the Royal Standard in 1776, served under General Burgoyne and was later in charge of Loyalist refugees at Machiche, Quebec. In 1784 he settled here in Ernesttown Township. The stone portion of this building was added between 1787 and 1799 as quarters for the Rev. John Langhorn, the district’s first resident Anglican clergyman.”

The Loyalist Township Heritage Committee recommended that Council place the house on the municipal register of places of cultural heritage interest or value on May 28th. The placement is referred to as listing.

The current owners of the property have asked to be removed from the register.

If Hawley House is removed from the Register, this historic structure would lose the 60 day interim protection period in which designation could be considered as the means for preserving this significant building.

Loyalist Township Council will be considering this request at the July 9th council meeting.

If council approves the request, the Hawley House is at risk of potential demolition for the purpose of building a new structure with waterfront access.

Historic Significance: This house, built c. 1784 by United Empire Loyalist Jeptha Hawley, has provincial and national significance and has been marked with a provincial plaque since 1959 as one of the oldest houses in Ontario.

Architecturally, this frame, one-story settlers’ house with a stone wing is the oldest continuously occupied residence in Ontario.

Historically, Jeptha Hawley has significant associations with the start of settlement in this township. As a Loyalist, he served with the British as early as 1776. Hawley commanded fifty men in General Burgoyne’s il fated expedition into New York state by way of Lake Champlain. Hawley wa paid as a lieutenant in Captain Adams Rangers 1777 — 1780. Captain Hawley was overseer of the refugees at Machiche, where sixteen of Loyalist Township’s original settler families were living until June 1784. This was his role when families departed Machiche and started their trip up river to the township where they would receive grants of land.

After settlement, Hawley’s house was used as the place for Church of England worship. By the fall of 1787, the stone wing of the house was rented to Rev. John Langhorn until 1813. Langhorn was the Quinte region’s first resident Anglican clergyman and missionary.

Please help by providing support for the preservation of this historic house. Email or write before July 9, and be a delegate.

Read the Jeptha Hawley document which contains photos, more details about the situation and instructions about how you can help. Information provided by concerned residents in the area who would like to preserve this historic house.

Please help.

Atlantic Loyalist Connections: Death on the Sea: The Crew of the Eclipse

By Leah Grandy on 13 Jun, 2018

At the head of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, in 1831, the end came for seven sailors belonging to the brig Eclipse like many others employed in this potentially lethal occupation. The story of the crew of the Eclipse is just one of the dramas that is revealed through common, local county court documents. The primary documents assembled below demonstrate the very practical concerns surrounding shipwreck deaths and the treatment of its victims.

Shipwrecks were a regular part of life and death in the coastal communities of the Atlantic Provinces for generations. Drowning was a very common form of accidental death, and can readily be found amongst church records, such as in Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. While creating a finding aid for the Records of the Nova Scotia Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace for Shelburne County, a series of documents was revealed which outline a tragic sequence of events, humanizing the maritime past of the Atlantic World in detail.

The Eclipse had been stranded during a voyage from New York near Green Island and the Head of Cape Sable in late November, 1831. The crew were buried by December, attended to by locals.

Read more.

Borealia: Environmental History: We Will All Be Early Moderns

by Anya Zilberstein 11 June 2018

Most historians, whatever their subfields, do not ask big questions about time division.

Lately, it is climate history that’s produced the most conspicuous discussions of periodization in the field. On the one hand are scholars grappling with the continuous outpouring of new climatological data about the globally heterogenous Little Ice Age of the mid-fourteenth through mid-nineteenth centuries (a time frame which is itself the subject of controversy).

For me, the necessity of thinking about environmental history in terms of such discontinuities emerged from studying the production of knowledge about climate during the long 18thcentury, when inquiring minds in Britain and its colonies (let’s anachronistically call them early modern scientists) were debating whether or not human-induced climate change was possible. As one skeptic of the Anthropocene put it, North American settlers’ observations of shorter, milder winters must have been “the work of nature rather than … partial & transitory causes within the reach of man.” This was written in the late 1770s—long before the kind of climate warming we’re legitimately concerned about now was underway!

Read more.

JAR: Pell’s Point: John Glover Saves Washington’s Army

by Jeff Dacus on 12 June 2018

George Washington understood the importance of naval power. He recognized the futility of trying to defend New York City, surrounded as it was by water that the British Navy could use to maneuver around his flanks. “The amazing advantage the Enemy derive from their Ships and command of the Water keeps us in a State of constant perplexity.”

British General William Howe used the ships of his brother Richard Howe’s fleet to move their troops to Staten Island and then on to Long Island, resulting in a flanking maneuver that forced the evacuation of the island. Howe used the fleet again to land at Kip’s Bay northeast of New York City, easily dispersing the Connecticut militia assigned to protect that area and forcing Washington to evacuate the city. A few days later, the British made another landing on the American’s northeastern flank on the peninsula at Throg’s Point. Washington brought part of his army into a position to stall the British move but also began moving the remainder of his forces from the island of Manhattan. The British fleet sat at anchor off the shore. Would they outflank him again?

Read more.

The Junto: Black Women Intellectuals and the Politics of Dislocation

by Adam McNeil on 11 June 2018

In light of the recent tragic stories of family separation occurring on the Mexico-United States border, what instantly came to my mind was America’s history of dislocation through American slavery. From the United States’s conception, the place of the country’s Black population, enslaved and free, was centered in debates on who this country was ultimately built for. There were factions that saw slavery as antithetical to the founding principles of “freedom, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” During the Revolutionary War, even British orators like Samuel Johnson, clearly saw this dichotomy. In his 1775 pamphlet Taxation No Tyranny: An Answer To The Resolutions And Address Of The American Congress, Johnson juxtaposed the colonist’s “Declaration of Rights,” and equivocated “If [s]lavery be thus fatally contagious, how is it that we hear the loudest yelps of for liberty among the drivers of negroes.”

Not all factions of the founding generation decidedly occupied one camp of pro-slavery or anti-slavery though. America’s first and third presidents denoted this friction. Washington and Jefferson’s stories denoted both held surface level anti-slavery positions, yet also owned hundreds of bondswomen and men; very similar to what Johnson characterized. This complication stemmed from the generation’s refusal to resolve the “slavery question” that plagued the new nation. Political compromises, like the counting of enslaved peoples as three-fifths a person, prolonged America’s reckoning, but only temporarily. However, a middle ground emerged by the early 19th century: colonization.

Read more.

Ben Franklin’s World: Origins of the American Middle Class

Jennifer Goloboy, an independent scholar based in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the author of Charleston and the Emergence of Middle-Class Culture in the Revolutionary Era, helps us explore the origins of the American middle class.

During our investigation, Jennie reveals how people in early America defined “middle class”; Details about merchants in early America, the work they performed, and why they were often members of the early American middle class; And, information about who could be members of the early American middle class.

Listen to the podcast.

The Loyalist Roses

The Lawrence Loyalist Rose: Mary F. Williamson UE reports that her Lawrence Loyalist Rose started to bloom on June 15 (see photo) after not blooming at all in 2017.

This rose bush was moved in 2004 from the nearby garden of Florence Lois Hawke Wightman UE. Lois and her husband moved into the house in 1946, and planted a cutting from the original rose bush which was at 61 Main Street East, Grimsby, the home of Lois’ grand-parents Jesse and Mary Ann Lawrence. This house and its garden no longer exist. The family tradition is that the rose bush was brought to Grimsby from Pennsylvania in the 1780s by Wlliam and Anna Lawrence, United Empire Loyalists. Read more in Lawrence Loyalist Rose and in “Lawrence Loyalist Rose Helps Solve Lawrason Genealogical Mystery.”

The Loyalist Rose: Just in time for Loyalist Day celebrations on June 19 in Ontario and in Saskatchewan, Bonnie Schepers reports the blossoming of her Loyalist Rose (see photo) in the Windsor ON area. Read more about the Loyalist Rose.

Renovations to Sir John Johnson House in Williamstown ON

Parks Canada has announced the completion of almost $700,000 in renovations to Sir John Johnson Manor in Williamstown. Ont. Renovations on the inside of the building are ongoing, however, the manor is open to the public, especially for archival research. Photo on June 7, 2018.

Workers are now concentrating on the interior. The committee is currently in the process of restoring two rooms on the main floor and continue to raise funds for the restoration work needed on the second floor to bring the house back to the 1700s.

The founder, Sir John Johnson, was probably the pre-eminent Loyalist leader and arguably the founder of eastern Ontario. Read more in the Cornwall Standard-Freeholder.

Where in the World?

Where are Pat and Gerry Adair of Saskatchewan Branch?

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at loyalist.trails@uelac.org.

Region and Branch Bits

From the UELAC branches, news and events of interest to others.

  • The Genealogical Association of Nova Scotia has published an article prepared by Brian McConnell UE, President of the Nova Scotia Branch UELAC entitled “Digby’s Loyalist Burying Ground” in the recently released Spring 2018 issue,  pages 7 – 14,  of The Nova Scotia Genealogist. It has also used a photo Brian submitted as the front cover. This is the first time that there has been a Loyalist related photo on the front cover since it began using photos. See the front cover and more information about the Association and the magazine.

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • Resources: We are indeed a connected global world. This collection of resources comes from Penny Allen in the UK. Finding Your Ancestors in Saskatchewan .  It is one in Penny’s Finding Canadian Ancestors Series.
  • The Liberty riot of 1768 ended with Bostonians dragging a boat to Liberty Tree and then Boston Common, where they burned it. Naturally. by J.L.Bell.
  • Today in History: Lars D.H. Hedbor @LarsDHHedbor (see his page for associated photos):
    • 16 Jun 1783 Mutinous soldiers march on Philadelphia for back pay; Congress flees to Princeton, New-Jersey.
    • 15 Jun 1776 Lower Counties of Pennsylvania declare independence from Britain – and Pennsylvania – as Delaware.
    • 14 Jun 1777 Continental Congress specifies that the American flag will be 13 stripes and 13 stars.
    • 13 Jun 1777 The Marquis de Lafayette arrives in South-Carolina, offering military leadership to rebel forces.
    • 12 Jun 1776 Virginia adopts Declaration of Rights, derived from England’s “Glorious Revolution” Bill of Rights.
    • 11 Jun 1776 Committee appointed by Congress to draft Declaration of Independence, incl. Jefferson, Adams, Franklin.
    • 10 Jun 1775 Congress starts the process of organizing the militia besieging Boston as a Continental Army.
  • Townsends
  • Samuel Lane details his life & world in almanacs from time as an apprentice to his father, to his old age. As a young man, Lane wrote “The last five years of my Service with my Father viz from 16 to 21 years of my age, I made 1430 pair of Shoes”. Lane’s #shoe production while still an apprentice averages out to 286 pairs a year. He was permitted to make horsewhips as a sideline. Lane Family papers are held at New Hampshire Historical Society. Image: possibly Huldah Lane’s shoe, c1759, by Lane family (Ebenezer?)
  • Out of the Ordinary: Variations on New England Building Practices. Historic Deerfield is offering a one-day program exploring lesser known building types and construction techniques found throughout various parts of New England.  Talks will focus on unique specimens of vernacular architecture dating from the late-seventeenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. Saturday, July 14, 2018, 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. at Deerfield Community Center, Deerfield, Massachusetts
  •  A Formal Ball Gown from the French Court, c1780. There are some garments from the past that become celebrities in their own right, featured over and over in books, exhibitions, and on Pinterest. The dress shown here qualifies on every count. It’s currently on display through July 29, 2018 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art as part of the Visitors to Versailles: 1682-1789 exhibition. This exquisite ball gown, or robe parée, would have been worn at only the most formal occasions at the French court at Versailles in the late 18thc.. Once linked to Queen Marie-Antoinette herself, the gown is still attributed to the queen’s dressmaker, Marie Jeanne “Rose” Bertin (1747-1813).
  • The Former Slave Who Became a Master Silhouette Artist. A new exhibit of silhouette artists surfaces Moses Williams, a former slave who created thousands of beautiful works of art but never got credit for them. Before photography, one of the most popular forms of portraiture was the silhouette. Quick to make and affordable to produce, the cut-paper works were prevalent in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For residents of Philadelphia, the place to go was Peale’s Museum, where a formerly enslaved man named Moses Williams created silhouettes by the thousands. Williams’s work is featured in Black Out: Silhouettes Then and Now at the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery in Washington, DC. Read more about Moses Williams.
  • Foot Ball, Trap Ball and Four Corners: Sporting Prints of the 18th Century. A series of six prints by Robert Dighton, held in the Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, illustrate a selection of the sports played during the latter half of the eighteenth-century, some now better known than others. From All Things Georgian.
  • What the USA Founding Era Meant by “Bear Arms”. A deeper dive into the term as it was used in the day when the American Constitution was framed, and some points about how the term changed. From Boston 1775.
  • Late 18th Century George III English antique leather firebucket in original condition now for sale.
  • The Wishing Females” 1780’s – Two fashionable young women watch the men of the military from their window
  • 18th Century dress (robe à l’anglaise), about 1785, Dutch Republic (now the Netherlands)
  • 18th Century men’s court suit, 1770s
  • 18th Century blue silk petticoat & overdress: loose fitting bodice & full skirt; sack back, worn over trimmed corset, 1730’s
  • Embroidery details of an 18th Century men’s court suit, 1790’s
  • 18th Century dress, robe à la française & matching Petticoat
  • 18th Century Highland wedding dress c1785