In this issue:

Connect with us:


Time flies: Thank You Stephen Davidson
The first issue Loyalist Trails” newsletter 2004-01 was published to a small group on April 28, 2004.
Not that long afterwards in Loyalist Trails” UELAC newsletter 2006-38: September 23, 2006 – 15 years ago (plus 3 days) – the first article by Stephen Davidson in Loyalist Trails was published – My Calamitous Situation: The Life of Polly Jarvis Dibblee.
Thanks Stephen for helping so many subscribers to Loyalist Trails and visitors to the website learn more about the Loyalist era. Happy ‘anniversary.’
….Doug Grant, Editor

September 1787: Butler’s Rangers Seek Compensation – Part Two of Three
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
On Thursday, September 6, 1787 just one veteran of Butler’s Rangers stood before the Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists (RCLSAL) to seek compensation for all that was taken from him during the American Revolution. For reasons unknown, Adam Young was the only Loyalist to make a claim to the board’s two commissioners on that day.
Born in the colonies, Young was living on a 2,600-acre farm in the Mohawk Valley when the war broke out. He had a sawmill, a potash works, horses, cows, sheep and hogs on his property as well as a trading post that had Indigenous people as its customers.
Henry W. Nelles, who spoke on Young’s behalf, testified that “he was always considered loyal”, a reputation that resulted in his being imprisoned by rebels for 11 months for refusing to take an oath to the United States. During that time, Young was incarcerated in a number of jails, the last one situated far to the east in Norwich, Connecticut.
Once he was released, Young returned to his wife Catharine and their five children in the Mohawk Valley. Upon discovering that the Loyalist was once again in their midst, local rebels “came and burnt his house and all his buildings and took away or destroyed all his effects”. Such harsh treatment was justified, they felt, on the grounds that Young was helping Loyalist fugitives make their way to Canada. At one time he helped as many as 74 flee persecutors in the United States.
Following the destruction of his home, Adam Young and two of his sons joined Butler’s Rangers in 1778. He was 61 years old at the time. Later, two more of his sons joined Young. One died during the revolution. John Young, a son who survived the war, served in the Indian Department, an important non-combatant position that made sure Indigenous allies remained loyal to the crown.
With the end of hostilities, the Young family settled on the Grand River, about 60 miles from Niagara. Based on Young’s testimony and that of his two witnesses, the RCLSAL commissioners concluded that he was “a very good man”. Given that he was 70 years old when he presented his claim for compensation, Young was also among the oldest veterans of Butler’s Rangers to have made the 660 km journey to Montreal from the Niagara region.
On the following day, Joel Austin had his opportunity to speak to the RCLSAL commissioners. He had joined the Rangers in 1778 after helping a fellow Loyalist named John Burch deliver cattle to Col. John Butler. Burch testified that Austin was “a very honest man and very Loyal. He served all the war.” The Loyalist once had a farm at Pataukunk in New York’s Ulster County, but he lost his crops, house, livestock, and furniture when rebels confiscated them. Unusual for its inclusion in a claim, Austin’s clothes –which had also been taken from him– were valued at £30 to £40. (This was the same value for an adult African slave.)
The only person who travelled with the Ranger veterans to appear before the RCLSAL on September 8th was William Vanderlip Junior. He sought compensation on behalf of his siblings as his father —William Vanderlip Senior—had died four years earlier. The Vanderlip family had initially settled in Yamachiche, a Loyalist refugee camp (near modern day Trois Rivieres) before making a new home in the Niagara region.
William, along with his parents and two single sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, had found sanctuary in Canada after fleeing from their home along the Susquehana River in Pennsylvania. The oldest brother, John, had also been a member of Butler’s Rangers, but he decided to return to the United States at the end of the war.
Thirty years earlier, William Vanderlip Senior had immigrated to New York from the Netherlands. By 1777, the Dutch family had a 300-acre farm, horses, cows, sheep and hogs. They raised grain that they stored in a small barn.
After William and his two sons joined the Rangers, local rebels confiscated the family’s livestock and then burned the grain and “all the buildings” on the Vanderlip farm. William Senior served in the Rangers for three years before being discharged “on account of illness”. William Junior served for a year and a half. But because he was “then quite a boy”, he was discharged as “being too young”.
Testifying on behalf of the Vanderlip family was John Depue/Depuy who had impressed the commissioners when he stood before the RCLSAL on August 30th to make his own claim and also to serve as a witness for a Loyalist of German ancestry. Depuy could validate the service records of all three Vanderlip men. In the end, the commissioners felt that young William was “very fair”, and they agreed that compensation should be paid out to William and his sisters.
A week later, German-born George Kentner made his case to the compensation board. He had immigrated to the British colonies 22 years earlier and had a farm on the Pennsylvania section of the Susquehanna River. After leaving home to join Butler’s Rangers during the seige of Fort Stanwix in 1777, Kentner became a prisoner of war. He was eventually released and joined the 2nd Battalion of Sir John Johnson’s Regiment, serving with them until 1783. During his absence from home, Kentner lost livestock and property to both friends and foes.
Some of Kentner’s cattle were taken by none other than Butler’s Rangers in 1778 when they went on an “expedition” in the Susquehanna Valley to round up food supplies for the troops. The foragers did not discriminate between livestock belonging to Patriots and Loyalists. Testimony at Kentner’s hearing indicated that the Rangers “killed or carried away all the cattle they met within the settlement … some of them from persons known at the time to be Loyalists and from others whom {Butler} knew to be Loyalists“.
Local Patriots made off with the remainder of Kentner’s livestock, furniture, and farm tools. At the revolution’s end, the Loyalist and his family sought refuge at Yamachiche, but finally settled in the Bay of Quinte area. Frederick Auger, a fellow veteran and German immigrant, testified on Kentner’s behalf after having his own claim heard 3 weeks earlier.
This series on the veterans of Butler’s Rangers and the September 1787 hearings of the Loyalist compensation board will conclude in next week’s Loyalist Trails.
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at

JAR: The Varick Transcripts and the Preservation of the War
by Justin McHenry 21 September 2021
Five years into the war, with his papers piling up and stuffed into overflowing trunks that followed the general from headquarters to headquarters, George Washington took the extraordinary step of asking for help to organize and preserve these papers, seeing them for what they were, “valuable documents” of public importance, living histories of the fight for American independence. He reached out to Congress to approve the hiring of a team of clerks to organize, transcribe, and ultimately preserve this historical record. The resulting project would come to be known as the Varick Transcripts.
The project, headed by Lt. Col. Richard Varick, ultimately created a backup copy of Washington’s official papers created during the American Revolution, and brought order to a large amount of material that had been hauled around with the general from Virginia to Boston to New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and elsewhere. This would make it the first act of archival work sanctioned by the new country.
Throughout the war, Washington employed a small but impressive team of aides who were in charge of handling the bureaucratic morass that comes with managing a large army spread up and down the east coast from Quebec to Florida and out to the western frontiers. These administrative officers were responsible for drafting correspondence (to Congress, individual members of Congress, foreign dignitaries, state and local leaders, officers, etc.), all orders issued from Washington to his subordinates in all of the various departments, notes and proceedings taken during councils of war, and many other types of records. Read more...

JAR: Trophies of War: The Guns at Elk (Disposing of them…)
by Joseph Lee Boyle on 23 September 2021
Elk Landing, Head of Elk and Elkton all refer to the same geographic area in Cecil County, Maryland. Head of Elk was a key focal point for the transportation of troops, food, animals, armaments, etc., being, as Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart stated, “in a key position, geographically speaking, to the armies of the northern and southern colonies and was a thoroughfare for the troops of both sides, traveling by land or water; it was a frequent stopping place for officers—Washington, Lafayette, Rochambeau, Howe, and others.”
The British surrender at Yorktown was a windfall for the American military establishment. Henry Knox and the Ordnance Department were particularly blessed. Several different estimates were made of the artillery captured. Knox prepared “A summary return of the Ordnance Arms and Military Stores taken in the Enemies posts of York and Glocester 19th October 1781” which showed 140 “Iron Cannon of different calibre” and 74 “Brass Cannon & mortars.” …
Washington was anxious to move out of Virginia. Five days after the surrender Knox’s aide-de-camp Samuel Shaw relayed the general’s orders that “You are to proceed with the first division of Vessels with Canon and Stores to the Head of Elk. Read more…

Old North Church (Boston), Slavery and a New Mission
The enduring fame of the Old North Church in Boston began on the evening of April 18, 1775, when church sexton Robert Newman and vestryman Capt. John Pulling Jr. climbed the steeple and raised two lanterns as a signal that the British were marching to Lexington and Concord across the Charles River, and Paul Revere embarked on his journey. This fateful event ignited the American Revolution. In 1860, with our nation on the brink of the Civil War, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow penned “Paul Revere’s Ride” to rally readers behind the abolitionist cause with the tale of a hero who bravely stepped forward to change the course of history, cementing the story in the country’s imagination.
But this famous legacy has obscured another fact of the site’s history. Old North Church was built by and for a wealthy congregation that included many sea captains and merchants, and funding for various aspects of construction traces directly to the products and proceeds of enslaved Africans’ labor. The site’s connection to human trafficking and enslavement is complicated, as we also have limited records of enslaved congregants who worshipped at the church. But a new discovery in 2016 revealed deeper ties than we previously knew. Read more…

Borealia: Policing and Public Houses in Newfoundland
By Keith Mercer on September 20, 2021
In the fall of 1807, the Royal Gazette listed the public houses licensed to operate in St. John’s for the coming year. Most of these 33 taverns catered to the business district around the waterfront, attracting patrons with drink, music, and vice, but also colourful signs such as Agincourt, Jolly Fisherman, Red Cow, and Nelson — likely named for Lord Nelson, after he fell at Trafalgar in 1805. The London Tavern, like the Ship before it, was the leading establishment and catered to a more genteel audience. Mary Hennessey and Margaret Walsh ran the Royal Standard and Sailor taverns respectively. Robert Parsons, owner of the West India Coffee House, doubled as the high constable. Booze flowed freely in this wartime port and would likely put modern-day George Street to shame.
At the end of this public notice, the Royal Gazette stated that “All persons licensed to keep public-houses are constables for the district of St. John’s.” That may seem strange, but it was no joke. For at least a generation, publicans were pressed into public service to moonlight as constables. This tavern-keeper system of policing lasted from the 1780s to 1812, when the first fulltime constabulary was established. The St. John’s magistracy was responsible for appointing constables and licensing tavern keepers, normally around the same time at the fall Quarter Sessions. Publicans could have their liquor licenses revoked, and livelihoods threatened, if they refused to serve as policemen or enforce court orders, or if they were caught running “disorderly” taverns. Court records show these men in action, performing the full range of police duties for the local justice system. In 1806, sailor George Provost was charged with burglary. Constables Robert Dooling, William McCarthy, and Augustus McNamara were ordered to find him before he escaped, arrest him, search his ship, and secure any evidence. They later testified in Provost’s trial at the Supreme Court. All three constables were on the Royal Gazette’s list of tavern keepers the following year.
This link between policing and public houses is long. Read more…

British Columbia’s History: Moments in Time
In Canada’s History 20 July 2021
The year 2021 marks 150 years since British Columbia joined confederation. The history of the area, however, is much older. While there are myriad events to choose from, here are thirteen moments in the long and storied history of the province of British Columbia.

  • Pre-Contact
  • 1778: First Contact
  • 1871: B.C. joins Confederation
  • 1885: The Last Spike
  • 1906: B.C. chiefs meet King Edward
  • 1914: The Komagata Maru incident
  • 1917: Women Enfranchised
  • 1942: Japanese Internment
  • 1947–1949: Expansion of provincial voting rights
  • 1972: The Beachcombers premiers
  • 2000: Nisga’a final agreement
  • 2010: B.C. hosts the winter Olympics
  • 2016: Great Bear Rainforest protected

A paragraph about each is here.

Fearnothing Seamen’s Jackets and Honey Comb Breeches: A 1760 Shipping Invoice for Ready-Made Clothing in the Memorial Libraries
Historic Deerfield 15 September 2021 by Tyler Rudd Putman and Henry Cooke
This fascinating document outlines a shipment of ready-made clothing sent from London to Boston merchant tailor William Waine in 1760, at the height of the Seven Years’ War. In total, it describes 176 garments, in sets of 6, 12, and 24, including greatcoats (outer overcoats), jackets, underjackets, drawers (underwear), and breeches (knee-length legwear). They would be packed in containers marked with Waine’s initials. A Boston merchant, John Hamock, outlined the inventory and the nature of the bargain: he had ordered these goods from London at Waine’s request and planned to provide them to Waine, essentially on consignment, for a year. If the war ended soon and insurance premiums fell, Hamock would pass those savings on to Waine. What can this document tell us about clothing in Boston in the middle of the 18th century?
William Waine was born in about 1724, probably in Boston, and likely apprenticed as a young man in the town. In the early years of his career, like most other tailors of the age, he worked entirely on “bespoke” or custom garments for men. Almost everyone in the early and middle years of the 18th century wore garments that were cut and sewn to their precise body shape and dimensions. Because there were many tailors — it was the most common occupation in cities – and their labor was cheap, even common workers could afford this sort of clothing. It was the material of your suit — not that it had been custom-made — that marked your level of social refinement. But this inventory reminds us that there was another path: the growing trade in ready-made garments. Read more…

A Guide to the Georgian Coaching Inn
23 September 2021
So, you have arrived outside an inn with rooms (the word hotel is unknown) in the late Georgian era. What kind of experience would you have?
The first question is- how did you get there? Did you travel there by private carriage, hired post chaise, stagecoach or did you, heaven forefend, arrive on foot?
If you arrived on foot, expect nothing. You will be all sweaty and dirty either from the mud of a rainy day, or much less well known, the filthy dust of a couple of dry days on the roads. Pedestrians may not even be let in. The inn may be obviously empty and you will be told that all beds are taken. If you are allowed food, you will be directed to the shabby kitchen to feed yourself. You will be called ‘master’ or ‘mistress’ and nothing will be too ordinary for you. Some beer, bread and cheese does not mean they will relent and give you a bed, or even a bench. You may be directed to another less salubrious establishment out of town that ‘may’ take you. The lowliest maid, used to being disregarded herself, may be the biggest snob about you.
Did you arrive in a stagecoach? This is more difficult. You will be let in, because you will be expected; indeed the landlord may well have put gold in other people’s pocket to get the coach to stop, and you will be expected to put that gold back into his. You are probably only staying for the time it takes to change the horses; it could be done in five, and if this was a Post Office coach it would be, but you need to eat and drink. So it might be twenty minutes or in might be an hour.
If you arrive on a hired post chaise, you are probably only staying as long as it takes to hire two new horses and attach them to carriage- it you want something, it will come immediately, and those in the kitchen may come and gawp at such fine people. When you removed the exorbitant price of food and lodging , travelling by private carriage was often not much more expensive than the public stagecoach.
Are you staying for the night or two? Then a whole new world opens up to you. Read more…

Norfolk County, Ontario: History and Challenges of Indigenous Acknowledgements
Initial European settlement (from Wikipedia)
By 1669, the French explorers De Galinee and Dollier de Casson had reached what is now Port Dover. They erected a cross with the arms of France claiming sovereignty for King Louis XIV over the Lake Erie region on March 23, 1670. A history of the area written in 1898 indicates an even earlier visit to what is now Norfolk County, in October 1626, by a Recollet priest, Laroche-Daillon with two Frenchmen Grenolle and La Vallee. The priest spent three months with the Neutrals First Nation. The same account also indicates that two Jesuits, Breboeuf and Chaurnonot, visited the Neutrals in this area in 1640.
The first European to live in the area, with the Neutrals, was William (Billy) Smith, son of Abraham Smith. He eventually settled near the current Port Rowan in 1793. This was in the first community, the Long Point Settlement (near what is now Port Rowan), where mills were built by United Empire Loyalist settlers. In the subsequent years, sawmills and grist mills were opened and the population increased. After the town site was surveyed in the late 1700s, the area was called Charlotte Villa and was later renamed Charlotteville.
19th Century
Norfolk County was originally created in July 1792 as a constituency for the purposes of returning a member to the new Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, and was described as having the following territory:

…to be bounded on the north and east by the county of Lincoln and the River La Tranche, now called the Thames, on the south side by the lake Erie until it meets the Barlue (sic), to be called the Orwell River, thence by a line running north sixteen degrees west until it intersects the river La Tranche or Thames, thence up the said river until it meets the northwest boundary of the county of York.

Norfolk County was reduced in size in 1798, with parts going to the counties of Oxford, Middlesex and Haldimand, and became part of the London District.

Grappling with Indigenous Acknowledgements and Truth and Reconciliation
In July, Port Rowan Coun. Tom Masschaele suggested the county craft a formal statement about Norfolk’s Indigenous history suitable for the county website and for sharing at municipal functions such as council meetings. Masschaele and others on council say this would be a constructive contribution to Canada’s ongoing process of “Truth and Reconciliation” with Indigenous peoples.
United Empire Loyalists from the United States and the Haudenosaunee Confederacy of upstate New York migrated to southern Ontario at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. VanPaassen noted this migration coincided with an influx of immigrants to southern Ontario from Europe.
VanPaassen said there were no Indigenous tribes in southern Ontario at the time of European settlement in the 18th century. Read more…

Judge McLean Was the Ultimate Patriot
Margaret Haylock-Capon 19 September 2021
Eulogized as”an ardent patriot” Prince Edward County Court Judge Evan McLean,, died in 1943, at the age of 67. He was descended from a long line of United Empire Loyalist fore-bearers and, also, a distinguished member of the legal profession. His grandfather, at one time, was Chief Justice of Upper Canada.
In the First Great War McLean served as Captain and paymaster of the 235th Battalion, C.E.F., which for a time had a recruiting office in Picton. In Pembroke, following active service overseas, he was President of the Great War Veterans Association and headed the Patriotic Fund there. Read more…

Query: Did They Participate in Oriskany or Stone Arabia Battles
My ancestors below appear on muster rolls in 1783. I am interested to find out if they participated in the Oriskany or Stone Arabia battles.

  • George Philip Brouse–KRR
  • Jacob Van Camp–KRR
  • Simon Van Camp–KLR
  • Tunis Van Camp–both

(The Van Camp’s might be listed as Van Campen.)

Response to Query:
Sorry to be a disappointment. I list no George Philip Brouse in the KRRNY, nor do I find him in Butler’s Rangers, Jessup’s Loyal Rangers or Rogers’ King’s Rangers. As far as my research goes, he was not on the Burgoyne expedition of 1777 in any of the several small loyalist corps. Might he be a son of Peter below?
I have a John Brouse who enlisted on the very first day the KRR was formed — 19Jun76. He was in the Colonel’s Company, and as such, was very likely at Oriskany. He died of unknown causes on 18Oct77. John was the father of Peter Brouse, born 1766, who joined the KRR on 16May80 during Sir John’s raid to Johnstown that month. I can pursue Peter’s service further if he’s of interest.
Jacob Van Camp, born 1743, joined the KRR on 22May80, again the date of Sir John’s raid to Johnstown. In 1777, he was confined by the rebels in Hartford, CT for five months. So, participation at Oriskany is very unlikely. I note that he served in the Colonel’s Company from 1781-83, but I didn’t find which company he served with in 1780. The reason that that is important is that the Col’s Coy did not participate in the fall 1780 expedition against the Schoharie Valley and Stone Arabia. So, he may have been in that battle serving in a different company for which I have not found a muster roll.
Simon Van Camp is on the rolls of Jessup’s Loyal Rangers in Capt John Jones’s Coy on 01Jan83 with 8 months service. He was 18 as of that date. Judging from this, he was not at Oriskany or Stone Arabia.
Tunis Van Camp began his service on 17Aug77 in Hugh Munro’s Bateaux Coy that was part of McAlpin’s American Volunteers. This company was very active during Burgoyne’s expedition of 1777. He was discharged on 14Oct77 and no records were found about him for 1778&79. A return of McAlpin’s indicates that he arrived in Canada having returned from captivity on 12May80. On 24Jun80, he was in the works at Sorel as a member of McAlpin’s, but by 01Dec80, he was serving in Peter Drummond’s Independent Company. Yet, he was still returned in the American Volunteers on a roll of 01May-14Jul81. He finished his military career in Capt John Jones’ Coy of the Loyal Rangers as shown on a roll of 01Jan83. Same as Simon, to judge from Tunis’ information, he was not at Oriskany or Stone Arabia.
Gavin Watt <>

National Trust for Canada: Six Passport Places You Didn’t Know Existed In the Greater Toronto Area
From pristine gardens to family homes of remarkable Canadians, discover little-known, but profoundly meaningful stories, and reconnect with nature with six Passport Places in the Greater Toronto Area.
The GTA’s hustle and bustle is home to many hidden gems that illustrate its diversity and long, rich history. Unexpected places tucked deep within the city or a short drive away provide a refuge from the busy life of Canada’s largest metropolis and invite visitors to learn about Canada’s multifaceted history. From pristine gardens to family homes of remarkable Canadians, discover little-known, but profoundly meaningful, stories and reconnect with nature with six Passport Places in the GTA.

  • Market Gallery, Toronto
  • Toronto Botanical Garden
  • Adelaide Hunter Hoodless Homestead, St. George
  • Griffin House, Ancaster
  • Fieldcote Memorial Park and Museum, Ancaster
  • Whitehern Historic House and Garden National Historic Site, Hamilton

Read more about each

Consider joining.
As a member, you will receive the National Trust members’ magazine, Locale, and discounts on the National Trust Conference. You can also start planning future visits, with free access to heritage destinations in Canada and abroad.

  • free access to over 80 historic places in Canada
  • free access to over 1000 National Trust properties in England, Australia, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and more

More details

Deadline for Loyalist Certificates to be Issued in 2021
For anyone planning to have or give a Loyalist Certificate for Christmas, the completed application must be in to the Dominion office by Oct. 31, 2021
Thanks Angela Johnson, Dominion Genealogist


St. Albans Community Yard Sale, Sat 2 October @9 am to 1 pm

Please drop by to discover the many treasures on offer.
Books! Books! Books!, Household Items, Clothing, Jewellery, Games & Puzzles, Children’s Toys, Sports Equipment.
Drop off donations to sell on Items can be dropped off on Thurs 30 Sept & Fri 1 Oct @9 am – 1 pm.
St. Alban’s Centre, 10419 Loyalist Parkway (Hwy. 33), Adolphustown ON

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • Founder of the Day: Dr. Richard Bayley may have been a Loyalist, but his contributions to medicine in post-war New York City was critical to the American Founding. Richard Bayley traveled from Colonial America to England as a young man to study medicine. Upon his return in 1777, Bayley joined the British Army as a surgeon. It is hard to determine why he made the decision to join the British. By this time, the redcoats had occupied New York City, where Richard and his family lived. It seems to me he may have just wanted to gain experience as a doctor, while giving himself the best opportunity to get back into British occupied NYC. Soon after joining the war, his wife became sick and he returned home. Read more…
  • This Week in History
  • Clothing and Related:
    • Brocaded Silk Shoes: James Adams, London Shoemaker, 1770s. I viewed these elegant court pumps from the collection of the Pilgrim Hall Museum, in Plymouth, MA. ( on my summer research road trip in 2018. They are stunners. Read more…
    • Many varieties of purse were made in the 18th century, including framed purses using the new types of alloy which simulated gold, known in England as pinchbeck after its inventor. The metal mount of this shield-shaped purse, which has a snap-fastening device, might be a pinchbeck. One one side of the purse is a lady in the character of Diana the Huntress, with a stag behind her. Read more…
    • Mitts, fourth quarter 18th century
    • 18th Century embroidery sample for a man’s Court coat, multicoloured silk embroidery in a floral design & net applique on a dark purple ground with wavy vertical blue stripes. c.1790’s
    • Rear view of an 18th Century dress, this 1760s gown features a rose-red silk with trails of ivory flowers woven in a complex technique. The fabric, a type of silk known as gros de tours, dates from 1740s.
    • 18th Century dress, an example of the most formal ensemble for a woman in the late 1770s, except for court dress. It is a robe à la française. Feathers, lace, raffia tassels and lengths of satin embellish an already embroidered satin.
    • 18th Century dress, rear detail of the bodice, Robe à la Polonaise with fichu, c.1775
    • 18th Century matching three piece suit of a vivid cyclamen hue silk, 1770-1780
    • 18th Century men’s waistcoat, 1780’s The influence of Neo-classical design is evident in the decoration. Medallions of twill silk minutely & skilfully painted in black with mythological classical figures have been applied to the front & collar
  • Townsends
  • Miscellaneous
    • Fellow mudlark Clay found this recently. Apparently people drank gin from similar glasses, so with the average Londoner quaffing around 40 gallons a year, it wasn’t just the glasses that got smashed! Can’t stop thinking about the 18th c air trapped in the bubble inside the stem.
    • Archaeologists unearthed 3 wooden railways, each one laid immediately on top of the last, on the Tranent Waggonway. Its research has identified the three phases of upgrades happening between 1722-25, 1728-30 and 1743-44. The Tranent to Cockenzie Waggonway was an early waggonway, possibly the first in Scotland, opened in 1722. It was 2+1⁄2 miles (4 km) miles long and connected coal pits at Tranent with the salt pans at Cockenzie and harbour at Port Seton in East Lothian, Scotland. The track was wooden, and wagons were drawn by horses. The Battle of Prestonpans in 1745 was fought across the line. More at Wikipedia…


Published by the UELAC
If you do not now receive this free newsletter directly but would like to, you can subscribe here.