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2022 UELAC Conference Presentation: “John Norton and the Indigenous Great lakes, 1780s-1820”
Conference: “From Heartbreak to Hope in the Heart of the Continent”
May 25th to 29th, 2022. Hosted by Manitoba Branch, UELAC. Mark the dates.

The 2022 Dominion Conference Presentations: “Eclectic and Inclusive”.

Dr. Carl Benn will be presenting two sessions: “John Norton and the Indigenous Great lakes, 1780s-1820” and “The Ohio War. the Toronto Passage, and the Birth of Urban Toronto, 1783-1796“.
Dr. Benn was educated at the Universities of Toronto and Ryerson, obtaining his PhD. from the latter. He has been a professor at Ryerson since 2008. Prior to that he worked for 34 years in the museum sector, ultimately serving as Chief Curator of the City of Toronto’s Museums and Heritage Services”.
Dr. Benn’s areas of expertise include North American Museums and Public History, Material Culture, the Great Lakes Region, Indigenous and Colonial Relations, and Colonial Military History.
His published work has appeared in many journals and his books include History of Fort York, The Iroquois and the war of 1812, Mohawks on the Nile: Natives among the Canadian Voyageurs in Egypt, 1884-85 and many more. He is presently researching the history of the Royal Ontario Museum.
See more about Carl Benn, including a list of his publications.
See more about Fort York.
Mary Steinhoff, Chair, 2022 Conference Planning Committee, Manitoba Branch

George Washington’s Letter and the Story of a Black Loyalist
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
In a letter written on September 8, 1779, General George Washington proudly reported a Patriot victory at the Battle of Newtown in northwestern New York. Among the statistics included in the letter was the fact that “a Negro and a white were taken prisoners”. Given that the defeated enemy was comprised of men in Butler’s Rangers –a Loyalist regiment–, this reference to a Black prisoner of war deserves further investigation. Who was the Black Loyalist captured by the victorious Patriots on August 29, 1779?
As it turns out, the Black prisoner was also mentioned in a letter written by General James Clinton — and he appears in the wartime journals of no less than 11 rebel combatants. Given these 13 accounts, the story of the service of one Black Loyalist can now be pieced together.
General Clinton’s letter to his brother identifies the white prisoner of war as Charles Hoghtelling (Houghtelling/Houghdaline/Hoghtalin). By consulting William Smy’s 2004 research in An Annotated Nominal Roll of Butler’s Rangers, we discover that the Black Loyalist who was captured along with Hoghtelling was a man named Colly Morse. Allan W. Eckert’s 1978 Wilderness War gives Morse’s rank as private. The historian Benjamin Quales quotes a source that describes Morse as “an enlisted Negro in one of the Tory companies”.
Colly Morse fought in a Loyalist corps that was largely comprised of men who had once lived in New York’s Schoharie, Herkimer and Montgomery Counties. It seems reasonable to assume that he had once been enslaved by a settler in that area, and then sought his freedom by aligning himself with the British forces. Like other local Loyalists who had to flee the possibility of imprisonment or execution at Patriot hands, he found sanctuary in Canada, eventually joining Butler’s Rangers at their garrison near Niagara Falls.
Morse’s service as a private in the Rangers made him a combatant in the Battle of Newton, a battle that was supposed to stave off the Continental Army’s incursion into Iroquois territory. The rest of his story is found in the journals of Patriot officers who defeated Butler’s Rangers
Major John Burrowes noted in his account of the Battle of Newtown that men in Brigadier General Edward Hand’s Light Corps “sent a Negro to headquarters. Some of his men took him {while he was} running off.” Morse became separated from his company during his regiment’s retreat and was “almost scared to death”.
Lt. John Jenkins‘ account said that Hand’s riflemen took Morse “in the evening about two miles from the enemy’s works“. Facing a devastating barrage of Patriot artillery during the battle, Butler’s Rangers made a hasty retreat, leaving many of their dead behind. According to Burrowes, Butler’s men “were much alarmed at our artillery and hastened their retreat greatly.” While most of the Rangers were able to escape capture, Hoghtelling and Morse had not been so lucky.
Hoghtelling was the first of the two rangers to be captured. Lt. William Barton’s journal entry states, “We likewise took one white man, who appeared to be dead, and was stripped, when an officer came up and examined him, said he was not wounded, gave him a stroke and bade him get up; he immediately rose up and implored mercy, and was kept a prisoner sometime.”
The victorious Patriots questioned Hoghtelling about the strength of his regiment, the names of its officers, the number of Indigenous allies, and how the British and Loyalist forces had fed themselves. In his journal, Major Jeremiah Fogg said that the interview with the Black who was taken after Hoghtelling “gave nearly the same account”.
The rebel officers’ cross-examination of the two Rangers provides details about Morse’s experiences leading up to the Battle of Newtown. Morse’s commanding officers were Joseph Brant, Lt. Col. John Butler, and his son Walter. Captain John McDonell and (John?) Young as well as “other Indian Chiefs” were also in charge. Some Patriot officer’s journals said that there were 200 whites and 600 Iroquois warriors. Others said 400 warriors and 300 “Tories”. The British component was listed as being anywhere from 12 to 20 troops. Washington’s letter said that warriors came from seven different Iroquois nations.
Morse and his fellow Rangers had been waiting for the Patriot forces “for some time, intending to cut off provisions and hinder their advance into the country“. As he waited for the approach of the Continental Army, Morse was “kept on an allowance of seven ears of corn per day” for eight days. This diet was supplemented by beans in addition to herbs and roots found in the forest – all consumed “without bread or salt”.
Given the amount of detail that Morse and his fellow prisoner were able to provide the Patriot commanders, it is clear that despite being mere privates, they were well informed — and no doubt had great confidence in their leaders and the strength of their forces.
Lt. John Jenkins must have been present as the two Loyalist prisoners were examined, as his journal is the only one to give a direct quote of Morse’s. His account indicates the sheer terror felt by the Loyalist forces as they faced heavy artillery fire. It seems likely that the First Nations warriors were in the frontlines as they were the first to turn away from the barrage of bullets and cannon fire. Morse said, “As the Indians ran away, so did the white people run, too. The rangers run, and the officers hollered, ‘top [stop] rangers!’ ‘top rangers!’ but the rangers not ‘top.
Sgt. Thomas Roberts said that the Loyalist forces “took their killed and wounded off on their retreat. By the Appearance of the Blood they Lost a great many men.” The impact of the Patriots’ deadly assault was apparent when the dead were counted. The bodies of 11 Iroquois warriors and one Indigenous woman were found on the battlefield. Lt. Jenkins wrote that one of the Patriot general’s party took 12 Indigenous scalps — no doubt those of the dozen casualties.
Dr. Jabez Campfield said that 17 of the enemy had been killed, “one of them an Indian of distinction”. The doctor stated that 3 Patriots had been killed in the battle and 30 had been wounded. Lt. Col. John Butler would later report that five of his Loyalists had been “killed or taken and three wounded” while five Iroquois had been killed and nine wounded. Jenkins also recounted that “Our soldiers found a large number of the enemy’s packs, blankets, and some young horses, and brought them in.”
Colly Morse’s capture and testimony give posterity a glimpse into the role that a Black Loyalist played in a decisive battle of the American Revolution. Historian Allan W. Eckert wrote: “The Battle of Newtown — was most certainly a significant one. This was the battle that broke the back of the Iroquois League … and the hearts of the people of the Six Nations.”
Following the accounts of his capture and interrogation by Patriots, Colly Morse disappears from history. He may have died in captivity; he may have been incarcerated in a prison in Connecticut or he may have survived the war to settle with other veterans of Butler’s Rangers. But although his ultimate fate is a mystery, the brief account of his capture following the Battle of Newtown, demonstrates that Black Loyalists fought for the crown on the western frontier as well as along the Atlantic seaboard. Men of African descent such as Morse were part of the war effort in multiple theatres of the American Revolution.
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at

The Black Loyalists, Loyal Blacks, and A Matter of Equality
by Brian McConnell, UE
It was noted in 1983 by a leader in the Black Nova Scotian community that “historians have paid little attention to the political orientations of Nova Scotia’s black immigrants following the American Revolution.” In his article published in “The Loyalist Gazette” in Autumn 1983 on page ten, F.S. Boyd, Director of the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia, described how they were “polarized ” into “two parties or bodies of opinion, the conservative Black loyalists (and) the radical left, the loyal Blacks.” Thomas Peters, a member of the second group, led 1,100 Blacks to Sierra Leone in 1792 partly in consequence of mistreatment and inequality regarding failure to receive promised land and provisions from government officials in Nova Scotia.
The Autumn 1983 edition of “The Loyalist Gazette“, a journal published by the United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada, recognized the Loyalists’ Bicentennial of their arrival in Canada in 1783 and also included the following other articles: “Unshaken Attachment – the Loyalists in Nova Scotia, 1779 – 1809” by Hugh Taylor, former Provincial Archivist of Nova Scotia, “A Loyalist Foundation – The University of King’s College” by John F. Godfrey, President of the University of King’s College in Halifax; and “Portrait of a Quebec Loyalist – William Smith of New York” by Professor Hereward Senior of McGill University.
I was reminded in reading the discussion in the article “Loyal Blacks: Political Radicals in Nova Scotia” of a recently published book entitled “A Mater of Equality: The Life’s Work of Senator Don Oliver”.
Donald Oliver is a descendant of Black Nova Scotians who came to the province to escape from slavery in the United States. He was appointed to the Senate of Canada in September, 1990. Read more…

Ontario Heritage Trust: Celebrating Black History Month 2022
In February, join the Trust and many others as we celebrate Black History Month. This month of commemoration, which is recognized provincially and federally, was advanced from its earliest stages in Ontario thanks to the advocacy of the Ontario Black History Society. Through the resources below, you will see how we are applying the lenses of equity, climate change and economic recovery to our work.
Visit Uncle Tom’s Cabin, virtual Tour

Black Veterans of the War of 1812
In celebration of Black History Month, on Wednesday, Feb. 16, 2022 at 7 p.m. via Zoom, the Orillia Museum of Art & History (OMAH) presents Fred Blair with his talk Local Black Veterans of the War of 1812.
The War of 1812 was declared by the United States against Great Britain, threatening the poorly defended British Colonies to the north. Black men served in local militia regiments and during the first year of the war at least 54 of them volunteered to join the segregated Coloured Corps which fought on the Niagara Frontier.
Some of these Black families had arrived in Ontario with the United Empire Loyalists in the late 1700s. The Coloured Corps was initiated by Private Richard Pierpoint, a Black Loyalist who had served in Butler’s Rangers during the American Revolution.
In 1819, the Black community on Wilberforce Street in Oro Township was initially created to reward veterans of the War of 1812 with land grants. Lots were also granted to men who had immigrated after the war.
Read more… and sign up for the webinar if you wish.

Ben Franklin’s World: Whose Fourth of July?
To help us investigate what the Fourth of July meant for African Americans in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, we are joined by Martha S. Jones, the Society of Black Alumni Presidential Professor and Professor of History at Johns Hopkins University, and Christopher Bonner, an Assistant Professor of History at the University of Maryland. Listen in…

JAR: Prelude to Yorktown: Washington and Rochambeau in New York
by Benjamin Huggins 3 February 2022
The months leading up to the Battle of Yorktown in October 1781 are often glossed over in histories of the Revolutionary War. But they should not be. They were crucial months of preparation for the campaign to come. The events of late June to mid-August 1781 tell the important story leading up to the most consequential decision made by Gen. George Washington during the Revolutionary War. The resulting march of the allied French and American armies from New York to Virginia to confront the British forces operating in that state would culminate in a battle that would decide the outcome of the war.
During the months of June, July, and August, the two armies and their commanding generals undertook numerous actions that were critical to building trust and confidence in their ability to undertake military cooperation, starting with the movement of the French army from Newport, Rhode Island, to New York’s Westchester County. Some of the most interesting of such actions were the joint reconnaissances the two generals conducted of the defenses of British-occupied New York City in anticipation of a siege. In addition to the two generals sharing personal hazards and building trust, these scouting operations involved the joint movement of the two armies—crucial experience for later operations. Read more…

Washington’s Quill: Benjamin Montanye and General George Washington’s Mail
by Jeffrey L. Zvengrowski, 31 January 2022
{Editor’s Note: This article is very complementary to the item above “Prelude to Torktown”]
Benjamin Montanye (1745–1825) is one of the more colorful characters introduced in vol. 31 of The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series. A blacksmith who became a Patriot postrider in 1776, Montanye carried letters between Gen. George Washington at New Windsor, N.Y., and Philadelphia during the spring of 1781. On March 29, Montanye was waylaid in the mountains near Haverstraw, N.Y., by British lieutenant James Moody, a Loyalist raider who brought Montanye along with several Washington letters to British-controlled New York City.1 Montanye endured a stint in prison there, and in the years following, it appears he grossly exaggerated or perhaps even purposely misrepresented the importance of his capture. Read more…

JAR: Constant Avery, Continental Soldier
by Michael J. F. Sheehan 1 February 2022
Constant Avery of Eaton, in New York’s Madison County, travelled sixteen miles to the county seat in Wampsville in the first week of October 1832. On October 8 he appeared in open court to apply for a federal pension for his years as a soldier in the Continental Army. Avery was “aged seventy three years on the fourteenth day off November last,” which indicates he was born in 1758. Originally from Groton, Connecticut, Avery didn’t move to Eaton until 1798, where he raised his family. Luckily for historians, Constant Avery delivered a brief but detailed account of his services during the American Revolution that 1832 day in Madison County—one of danger, battles faced, and long periods of travel.
Constant Avery appears on a roll for Captain Gallup’s company of militia on October 31, 1776, but as it offers no detail, we can extract little from this. If in fact this is the same Avery, he made no mention of it in his pension application, preferring to date his start in the service as “the third day of February in the year 1777,” which muster rolls confirm. Avery enlisted under “Lieutenant Stephen Billings of Groton . . . in Col. Herman Swift’s regiment,” the 7th Connecticut, in his home town, with about “fourteen others that were enlisted by said Billings at the same time & place.” They were then marched the twenty-five miles to “Killingsworth . . . & there joined the [remainder] of the men who made up the company,” Read more…

Benjamin Franklin Living in Passy, France
By Geri Walton 27 May 2015
Benjamin Franklin living in Passy, France happened after he began serving as that country’s Ambassador from 1776 to 1785. He lived in France from March of 1777 to July of 1785 and for much of that time chose Passy, a rural area then located about three miles outside of Paris. However, today it is an area that is included within the realms of Paris. Passy was appealing partly because it was situated on a lofty hill on the Seine’s right bank and was an area known for its expansive gardens, beautiful parks, and numerous chateaux. Read more…

Rare Footage of Clifton Hills in Niagara Falls in the 1980s
Long considered by many to be one of the most colourful and vibrant main streets in all of North America, Clifton Hills in downtown Niagara Falls is a tourist’s delight.
The land was first owned by Phillip Bender, who got it through a United Empire Loyalist land grant, back in 1782. Just 50 years later, the streets and property lots took real shape when the land was purchased by British Army officer Captain Ogden Creighton. He was the man who named the area “Clifton” after then same-named settlement on the gorge of River Avon in Bristol, England.
While the area was named Clifton, the street itself was named Ferry Road as it was close to the launch of a ferry system that used to shuttle people back-and-forth from Canada to the U.S. back in the early days.
Ownership of the land would change hands a half dozen time before it would transform into the tourist attraction that it is today. Read more…

Commonplace Call for Submissions
Commonplace is now accepting submissions of approximately 2000 words that analyze vast early America before 1900. We seek a diverse range of articles on material and visual culture, critical reviews of books, films, and digital humanities projects, poetic research and fiction, pedagogy, and the historian’s craft. We are especially interested in deep reads of individual objects, images, or documents. Read more…

Who are the People In The Picture?
Go to Who’s In The Picture (WitP). Feb. 2, 2022. This photo from the the Governor Simcoe Branch (Ref. Code 46-4-27-1) shows a group of 25 individuals standing on a circular stairway. The fact that it’s black and white, along with the fashion, suggests it was taken in the 1950s or ’60s. (It could also be possible that it is not connected to the UEL and simply got misplaced within the Governor Simcoe Branch documents.) It is from the Elizabeth Richardson fonds.
Do you recognize any of them?
If so, please send an email to Carl Stymiest, Leader of the Library and Archives Committee at — please note the date and reference number of the photo. Any additional relevant comments are welcome, and appreciated.
Carl Stymiest

UELAC Loyalist Directory: New Entries
The reworked version of the Loyalist Directory is now active and people looking for it are directed there. The data brought over from the older version is the same. So what is new?
Entries which have been added, or revised, this week.

  • Feb. 4, 2022: A new record for Samuel Hull has been added to the Loyalist Directory. Thanks to Andrew Payzant.
  • Feb. 4, 2022: A new record for Benjamin Pollard has been added to the Loyalist Directory. Thanks to Kevin Wisener.
  • Feb. 4, 2022: Information about Donald Ban McDonell has been added to the Loyalist Directory. Thanks to volunteer Jo Ann Tuskin.
  • Feb. 4, 2022: Information about Lewis Mosher has been added to the Loyalist Directory. Thanks to volunteer Jo Ann Tuskin.
  • Feb. 4, 2022: Information about Gilbert Orser has been added to the Loyalist Directory. Thanks to volunteer Jo Ann Tuskin who contributed new information from branch records.

For Members: Recorded Presentation “Back Country Cunninghams in the American Revolution”
Without a doubt the Cunningham family were the most influential Loyalist family of South Carolina before the revolution. When William Henry Drayton brought his passionate brand of Patriotism to the back country in 1775 the Cunningham brothers (Robert and Patrick) stood with the Crown.
Wayne Lynch has been researching the Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution for about 20 years.
This presentation describes the Loyalist Cunninghams and their Patriot competition in the Ninety Six area of South Carolina, and how devastating a Civil war – neighbour against neighbour – was.
To access the recording, members should log in at and go to “Presentations to Branches” – this recording is dated 2 Feb. 2022

Upcoming Events:

Assiniboine Branch: “British Home Children- Canada’s Unrecognized Builders” by Louise Stitt Sat 12 Feb at 11:00 CST (noon ET)

While conducting research, Louise Stitt, a self-described amateur family historian wondered why she wasn’t able to find any information about her Great Grandmother, Eliza Rogers Murray. She didn’t even seem to exist prior to her 16th year, as found on an 1881 Canadian census document. Only after attending a British Home Child presentation from Ontario in 2020 did she find this part of her ancestry. Now Louise is eager to share the information she has been able to uncover and create a greater awareness of a mostly unknown group of children who helped build our country and her family’s legacy.
Contact for the ZOOM link. Please indicate if you are a UELAC member, and if so, which branch you belong to.

Victoria Branch – Affirmations of Black Loyalists by Allister Barton, Sat 12 Feb @10.00 PST (1:00 ET)

Affirmations of Black Loyalists is a story that explores General Henry Clinton’s Company of Black Pioneers’ journey during the American Revolution, from Virginia to Nova Scotia, and their pursuit for the promise of freedom and land.
The speaker is Allister Barton. Read more about Allister, the Barton family and the Black Loyalists of Nova Scotia in Halifax man traces roots to the Black Loyalists of Digby.
To participate, ask and indicate if you are a member of UELAC (if so indicate which branch)

St Alban’s Centre: “Loyal They Remained” by Jean Rae Baxter Monday 21 Feb 7:00 ET

Hosted by the St. Alban’s Adolphustown Centre. Honouring Loyalist history through fiction. This event is supported by The Writers’ Union of Canada and the Canada Council for the Arts.
See flyer with more details. about the presentation, Jean Rae Baxter and St. ALban’s Centre. To register and obtain link, please email

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • UNBArchives: Celebrating Black History today and every day! Please visit New Brunswick Loyalist Journeys to follow the stories of Black Loyalists Moses Simpson, Gabriel Johnson, and Richard Corankapoon.
  • Myseum of Toronto: After WWII, Toronto became the financial and political centre of Canada. Did you know that it also became the site for social and political agitation by Black railway porters fighting for social change in the country? If you’d like to learn more about the lives and contributions of Black Railway Porters in Canada, delve into our online multimedia exhibition
  • Trinity Anglican Church & Cemetery national historic site in Digby, NS where 1st church built by Loyalists in 1788.
  • Headstone for Rev. Abraham S. Hunt (1814 – 1877) in Dartmouth Public Cemetery, born Clements, Annapolis County, NS, grandson of U E Loyalist Benjamin Hunt from Westchester Co., New York. Rev. Hunt graduated Acadia Univ.,was Superintendent Education in Nova Scotia, 1870 – 1877.
  • This week in History
  • Clothing and Related:
    • The unadorned surface of this pair of mid c18th stays allows the craftsmanship of the staymaker to shine. Each hand stitched channel runs through the layers of green glazed wool & buckram, reinforced with the baleen strips. It creates that unique flattened silhouette
    • 18th Century women’s shoes, in kid leather, beautifully decorated with a painted design. The flower pattern on the toe, vertical lines & scalloped edges, resembles Brussels bobbin lace. The latchets would have been fastened with a buckle, 1760’s
    • 18th Century dress, rear view of Robe a la Polonaise, 1780
    • 18th Century dress, robe a la française, French, 1775
    • 18th Century dress, Robe a l’anglaise ca. 1780-90 via Colonial Williamsburg
    • 18th Century men’s matching three piece suit, silk, 1775-1785
    • Stunning 18th Century men’s silk waistcoat embroidered with a flower and grain pattern, French, c.1785 via The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
    • 18th Century men’s Court Coat with cutaway fronts, embroidered with sprays of stylised flowers & leaves in yellow, green, pink & cream silk. At the very edge is a simple border of leaves and sprigs. c.1790’s
    • Beautiful green (faux emerald) Georgian (1700s) cufflink found mudlarking today on the Thames foreshore
  • Townsends:
  • Miscellaneous
    • Canada Bill: William Jones Confidence Artist, By Geri Walton 31 January 2022. Chances are you even if you’ve heard of Wild Bill Hickok or Buffalo Bill, you haven’t heard of Canada Bill. He wasn’t famous like either of those Bills rather he was infamous because he was considered king of the confidence artists in the 1800s. Canada Bill operated in Canada and the U.S. and was described in 1917 as “the most notorious, smoothest-talking man that ever set foot upon Nebraska soil Read more…
    • Thanks to painstaking research (and our new website) you can now see a selection of our tokens online. Sharing stories of parents forced to give up their baby, and the future life of their child.
    • A handful of little treasures from today’s low low tide on the Thames. Lots of buttons and my absolute favourite is a Millbank prison guard button. Millbank was a notorious prison on the site of the Tate Britain, which opened in 1817 & shut circa 1890
    • There is something in the mood of this early American wallpaper – the colors, filigree, simplicity, subject matter – that seems bandboxish. Someone enjoyed it enough to frame it.
    • Have you ever wondered how our wonderful captain, crew and volunteers maintain Jamestown Settlement’s three re-created 17th-century tall ships? Join Carol for a behind-the-scenes look at how we upkeep our ships:

Last Post: HUFFMAN UE, Philip Fletcher 1931-2021
It is with heavy hearts that we announce Phil’s passing after a lengthy battle with cancer.
Born in 1931 at Fairlight Saskatchewan, Phil moved to Whonnock BC in 1947 and later, Maple Ridge. Phil worked as a Steam Engineer for various Lumber and Pulp and Paper Companies for years all over BC. Phil moved to Squamish in 1965 where he met, and later married, his wife Marilyn and they had 2 children, Shannon and Grant.
1972 brought new opportunities when Phil and Marilyn moved to Nanaimo BC where they owned and operated the Beverley Motel for 7 years. Phil and Marilyn enjoyed extensive RV travelling and cruising together.
Phil used his time travelling back on forth on the BC Ferries to work in Hammond BC to study for his Grade XII, which he proudly achieved in 1992. After retirement, Phil enjoyed many years as a self-taught Machinist, building a model tractor, sawmill and other small engines. Phil very much enjoyed his involvement with the Mid Island Vintage and Equipment Club (MIVTEC) and was active at Brechin United Church.
Phil has been lovingly described as kind, gentle, highly educated and a pillar of the family. He had a great sense of humour and told the best stories with a twinkle in his eye and a chuckle.
Predeceased by his Father Bill, Mother Grace, sister Alice and brother Jim, Phil will be sadly missed by his loving wife of 55 years, Marilyn, daughter Shannon (Larry and Haylee) and son Grant (Tobin, Kylie and Jaden), many loved nieces and nephews and other special family members and friends.
See Obituary at Arbor Memorial
Philip Fletcher Huffman UE was long-time member of the Victoria Branch. He received his Loyalist Certificate in 2007 having proved his descent from Jacob Huffman UEL

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