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UELAC Annual General Meeting: Registration, Proxies and More
The UELAC AGM will be held Saturday, 28 May 2022 at 11:00 a.m. ET. during the annual conference.

Please note that registration for the AGM is separate from that of the conference.
Please see the Notice of Meeting for further details. Some deadlines especially for proxies are in early May, so don’t delay. Forms and additional details are available in the Members’ section – log in at for more information.

2022 UELAC Conference Invitation
The Planning Committee of the 2022 Dominion Conference would like to invite you to our virtual conference, “From Heartbreak to Hope in the Heart of the Continent“. Visit for more details and registration.

“Magnates, Mavens, and Miracle Workers: Loyalist Descendants in Manitoba”

The Honourable Colin H. Campbell, K.C.
Loyalist forebears: Alexander Campbell and Mary McMillan of Albany, New York.
Colin H. Campbell was born in Wellington Square, now Burlington, Ontario in 1859 to John Hook Campbell and Jane Kennedy. His great-grandfather Alexander Campbell joined the Royal Standard in 1777, married Mary McMillan, and settled in Glengarry County along with 48 loyalist families in a community that would become Williamstown.
He was educated in Wellington Square and studied law at Osgoode Hall. He was called to the Ontario Bar in 1881and moved “West “in 1882, settling in Winnipeg. He was called to the Manitoba Bar later that year and entered the first of many partnerships, his longest association being with Pitblado and Hoskin. His specialty was real estate law and his canny real estate investment would make him a fortune.
In 1884 Campbell married Minnie Julia Beatrice Buck. They built two grand homes, “Glengarry” on Colony and “lnverary” on Roslyn Road. They moved in the highest social circles. They were invited to Royal Coronations and she was presented at Court.
Campbell’s political career began in 1887 when he was elected to City Council. He ran federally for the Conservatives in Winnipeg in 1893 but was defeated by the incumbent, the Honourable Joseph Martin. He was elected MLA for Morris and was Minister without Portfolio in the brief government of Hugh John Macdonald in 1899-1900.
It would be in the cabinets of Rodmond Roblin that Campbell would make his greatest contribution to Manitoba. As Attorney General he introduced Juvenile Court. In 1905 it was he who introduced legislation to expand the boundaries of Manitoba. Perhaps his greatest achievement was as Minister of Public Works, for it was he who decided to ask the president of the British Society of Architects to select the winning design for the new Manitoba Legislative Building. Their choice of Frank Worthington Simon and Harry Boddington Ill of Liverpool produced the magnificent structure we have today.
Campbell would not live to see that building opened: broken by over- work he left politics in 1913 and sought medical help in New York City. The Campbells returned to Winnipeg in the fall of 1914. He died in October and was given a public funeral in Westminster Presbyterian Church. He is buried in St. John’s Cemetery.
It has been said of Campbell that he was “witness to three of the most wonderful decades of the city’s progress”.
Mary Steinhoff, Chair, On behalf of the 2022 Conference Planning Committee of the Manitoba Branch

A Loyalist’s Forgotten Last Words
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
If historical events had had different outcomes, our heroes would also be different. Because republican rebels were victorious in the American Revolution, Nathan Hale’s last words (“I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”) have appeared in history texts for over two centuries. Had the British suppressed the revolution, the words of Loyalist James Iliff might have been the ones that posterity revered and remembered.
Both Hale and Iliff were executed by their enemies — Hale for being a spy, and Iliff for recruiting soldiers for the British. Memorialized in statues, a postage stamp, school names, and even a submarine, Hale’s life is well documented. It’s time to shed some light on James Iliff the Loyalist.
Iliff was born in Nockamixon township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania around 1733. At the age of 22 he married Elizabeth Calvin. The couple would go on to have one daughter and five sons, the last of whom was born in 1770. Iliff acquired farmland in Alexandria Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, and tended his estate until he joined the Fifth Battalion of General Cortlandt Skinner’s New Jersey Volunteers. The fact that he had the rank of lieutenant indicates that he received his commission for raising a particular number of recruits. It also demonstrates that he must have been a very persuasive man with multiple connections within New Jersey’s Loyalist community.
In the summer of 1777, the New Jersey Volunteers were based on Staten Island from where they conducted a number of foraging raids on Patriots in New Jersey. At some point in time, Iliff and fellow officer John Mee/Mea were given warrants to recruit men for their corps.
When members of the Fifth Battalion set out to obtain arms and clothing from the British Army in late November, disaster struck. As they made their way back to Staten Island, rebel forces ambushed them in Hunterson County, New Jersey. Up to 75 Loyalists, including James Iliff and John Mee, were captured. The prisoners then walked from Quibbletown to Trenton and then to Burlington before finally marching from Princeton to Morristown, New Jersey where they were incarcerated for about a week.
Following a trial by jury, only 35 of the Loyalist prisoners were convicted of treason and sentenced them to be hanged.
In his 1905 history of Morristown, Andrew Sherman recounts the following.
From a Morristown militiaman, who was on duty at the county jail when the thirty-five Tory prisoners previously spoken of were sentenced, we learn that orders were given by the officer in command of the guard, that the wives of the condemned Tories, who might so desire, should be admitted into the jail to take a farewell of their husbands.
Among those who did this was one devoted wife, who polished her husband’s shoe, knee and stock buckles, and also his shoes. She washed his linen and his white pantaloons, and brushed his coat and hat, that he might present a gentlemanly appearance on the gallows.” Whether this was Elizabeth Iliff, James’ wife, is unknown.
On December 2, 1777 — the date set for the Loyalists’ execution– the head jailor addressed the 35 men who were to be hanged that day. Except for Iliff and Mee, the other prisoners were offered a “reprieve from the gallows” if they agreed to enlist in the Continental Army for the remainder of the war. They would also have to pay a fine of 18 pounds each.
The condemned men took advantage of the opportunity to live another day. But they had not abandoned their king or their cause. The 33 men who escaped being executed along with Iliff and Mee promptly deserted from the Continental Army and returned to Staten Island.
It is not clear why Iliff and Mee were not granted the opportunity of a reprieve. Perhaps the clue can be found in a letter written a month after their execution. New Jersey’s Governor William Livingston said, “Iliff was executed after a trial by jury for enlisting our subjects, himself being one, as recruits in the British army, and he was apprehended on his way with them to Staten Island. Had he never been a subject to this state he would have forfeited his life as a spy. Mee was one of his company and had also procured our subjects to enlist in the service of the enemy.
The two Loyalists walked out from their prison cells to gallows that had been built on the Morristown Green. As later reported in the New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Sheriff Alexander Carmichael hoped to score some points for the Patriot side. He “exhorted them to make a confession of their crimes, and acknowledge the justness of their sentence“. It would seem that there were those in the crowd of spectators who felt that Iliff and Mee’s execution was anything but just.
One of those who recognized the injustice of the Loyalists’ execution was Peter DuBois, another prisoner held in the Morristown jail. He wrote an account of the hanging to Sir Henry Clinton, the commander of British forces in the colonies.
Yesterday was executed here pursuant to their sentence, Mr James Iliff & Mr. John Mee. Mr. Iliff was a lieutenant in Col. Barton’s Regiment … During his confinement and at the place of execution he behaved with great calmness of and fortitude, declaring that he had acted from a principle of duty to his King and enjoyed the satisfaction of an approving conscience in his last moments.”
Another account, gives Iliff’s response to the sheriff’s exhortation as being, “We are guilty of no crime, save loyalty to the King of Great Britain; hence we have no confession to make.”
The New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury’s account of the execution noted “They answered Mr. Carmichael, very cooly, and told him, they supposed they were to die for being good Subjects, that they knew no other Crime could be laid to their Charge, and that he might do his Duty as soon as possible.”
Unable to get the desired confession of the Loyalists’ crimes, Carmichael put the nooses around Iliff and Mee’s heads and saw to it that they were “hanged until they were dead.”
Dubois’ eye-witness account adds further details. “I cannot for want of time by this opportunity tell you how much all these poor people have suffered nor how their suffering have been aggravated by every species of insult. The corpses of Iliff & Mee were drawn on a sled from the gallows & thrown into the room in which Dr. Forman & his companions are confined in irons. And the gallows was placed before their prison window.
The historian Harvey Bradsley sheds some light on what became of Elizabeth Iliff and her children. After her Loyalist husband was hanged, British officials went to the Iliff home and arranged to have Stephen (18) and Thomas (13) taken to England as wards of the king. They felt that “their father was too brave a man for his sons to be raised in America”. Charity (16), the Iliff’s only daughter as well as Robert (8) and James Junior (7), the younger sons, remained at home with Elizabeth. Charity later married Benjamin Garrison and died at the age of 74 in Ohio. Family tradition says that Stephen and Thomas eventually returned to America. All of the Iliff sons married wives in the United States.
The legacy of James Iliff, Loyalist officer, is his descendants. Had the Patriots been defeated in the War of Independence, he would no doubt have had monuments raised in his honour — memorials that would have inscribed on them his famous last words, “I have acted from a principle of duty to my King and enjoy the satisfaction of an approving conscience in my last moments.”
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at

THE KING’S COLOUR: Lord of the Lake
by Stuart Manson April 2022
The April 2022 issue of The King’s Colour has been published.
A frantic arms race took place on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812, with the British Empire on one side, and the USA on the other.
Read about “The Largest Lord of the Lake: HMS St. Lawrence”
The Broadside can be accessed on The King’s Colour page.
Visit Stuart’s website for more details about Stuart and his services.

Borealia: Collecting the World in Newfoundland
By Misha Ewen 28 March 2022
Sugar, tobacco, porcelain, and cod. These worldly goods—that came to define early modern empires and networks of global trade—could all be found in the homes of Newfoundland women Sara Kirke and her sister Frances Hopkins. The Pool in Ferryland was their home throughout the middle and later decades of the seventeenth century. Their lives were shaped by English colonial and commercial expansion in this period, as well as the social, political, and religious tumult of the English Revolution. Both sisters suffered personal loss through their close ties to the Crown, but they lived long enough to witness the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660. In fact, Frances was probably in London when Charles II returned to the city. During August 2019, when I arrived in St John’s, Newfoundland, for a three-week research trip, I knew very little about the sisters. But over the next few months, I’d become intimately acquainted with their families, their ideas, and the contents of their homes.
When I started my research in St John’s, I’d already been in Newfoundland for a couple of weeks—hiking and wild camping with my partner in Gros Morne and Terra Nova. At the end of our holiday, I drove him to the airport and settled into my rented studio loft, overlooking a tranquil pond. I’d come to Newfoundland with quite a bit of naïve expectation. Recently I’d spent a couple of weeks at the Barbados National Archives and was overwhelmed by the amount of material I’d found there, in wills and deeds, on English women and their role in the early colonial history of the island, including plantation slavery. I’d long been interested in English women’s investment in the Jamestown colony, Virginia, but during my three-year postdoc at the University of Manchester I was interested in venturing into new terrain, in multiple senses.
Newfoundland was a place that, for me, was constantly in my peripheral view when researching Virginia for my PhD. It usually received brief mention in renowned texts on Atlantic history and when I was scouring the archives, especially in southern England, I frequently stumbled across references to Newfoundland in the depositions of sailors and accounts of parish churchwardens. But Newfoundland wasn’t my focus, and I’d only occasionally make notes if something particularly caught my eye (like the time I read a Southampton deposition, in which sailors discussed the purchase of an enslaved African in Newfoundland).
My complacency—Newfoundland was, after all, always popping up—meant I was quite unprepared when I ventured to the provincial archives in St John’s for the first time. There I was told they had no records for seventeenth-century Newfoundland: I’d need to visit the National Archives and British Library in London. I decided that during my visit I would focus on the historic sites of Ferryland and Cupids Cove instead, where scholars and archaeologists Barry Gaulton and Bill Gilbert assured me there was a wealth of material available. Read more…

JAR: Under the Banner of War: Frontier Militia and Uncontrolled Violence
by Timothy C. Hemmis 29 March 2022
In 1777, the third year of the American War for Independence, little had gone in the favor of the Patriots especially in the borderlands. They controlled Fort Pitt and several other outposts, but they were far from the main fighting; the region was considered a backwater theater. British governor of Detroit Henry Hamilton issued a proclamation that encouraged Native Americans to attack rebel settlers in the region. Hamilton’s proclamation created a panic among frontiersmen as they remembered Pontiac’s War in 1763-1764 and the more recent Lord Dunmore’s War in 1774. The British hoped the renewing of an Indian war would force the rebels to send valuable resources to the western borderlands, ultimately weakening American forces in the east. Hamilton’s Proclamation reignited the racial hatred of the frontiersmen against Native Americans, and they used the banner of war to exact revenge against their enemies—indigenous and Anglo alike.
Despite the remote nature of the frontier, Fort Pitt and junction of three rivers that it overlooked was a strategic position controlling commerce and travel that would be important for the young republic. The Second Continental Congress, even before Thomas Jefferson penned the Declaration of Independence, understood the importance of the Western Department. Congress wanted a military and Native American diplomat that knew the region and people. Read more…

JAR: The Use of the Declaration of Independence as a Military Recruitment Tool
by Marvin L. Simner 31 March 2022
It contains principles “both universal and eternal,” that are said to form the bedrock for American democracy. The first celebration of its importance took place in Philadelphia on July 8, 1776, while the final celebration that year occurred in Georgia during the month of August. Between these two periods massive celebrations, as described in 1906 by John H. Hazelton,were held in communities across the country when the Declaration was read to assembled crowds.
Historian Pauline Maier asked “what exactly were they celebrating?” In answer, she wrote, “The news, not the vehicle that brought it; independence and the assumption of self-government, not the document that announced Congress’s decision to break with Britain.”
It is possible that the Declaration could have had a more pedestrian purpose. According to Maier, “By raising the spirit of the people, the Declaration might also encourage men to join the army and so help American affairs ‘take a more favorable turn,’ as John Hancock and the Congress hoped.”
Did it work? Read more…

Ben Franklin’s World: Everyday People of the American Revolution
Woody Holton, a Professor of History at the University of South Carolina and the author of Liberty is Sweet: The Hidden History of the American Revolution, joins us to explore and discuss why it is important to view the many parts of the American Revolution together as a whole event.
During our exploration, Woody reveals what Woody sees as the primary cause of the American Revolution; The event Woody sees as the start of the American Revolution; And details about several events of the American Revolution that we’ve yet to explore on this podcast. Listen in…

The Great West Point Chain Hoax
Con artists were no strangers to early New York City. At one time or another, nearly every major landmark in the city had been sold by a ‘matchstick man’ or grifter. Around the turn of the twentieth century one such fraud was successfully performed by two men who targeted an artifact of slightly less renown: The Great West Point Chain.
The Great West Point Chain was the linchpin of the American’s defenses at West Point during the Revolutionary War (I covered the Chain and its creation in more detail here). Prior to the Chain, various other methods of securing the Hudson River Valley from invading British vessels had been tried, but none with success. First installed across the Hudson at West Point in 1778, “General Washington’s watch chain” would guard the River for four years, being taken in for the last time in the fall of 1782.
After the War the Chain was left to rust on the riverbanks. The new country was nervous that they would end up in another war with Great Britain and didn’t want to dispose of the Chain in case it became necessary to seal off the Hudson again. However, when war did break out again in 1812 the Chain sat idly by and finally, in 1829, it was melted down.
Or so it seemed. Read more…

New Book: The Price of Loyalty by Gail Copeland
When I began my interest in genealogy years ago, I discovered that my fourth great-grandfather Jacob Keefer was a United Empire Loyalist. He left New Jersey in 1790, at the age of fifteen. He and his seventeen-year-old brother George left their family behind and set off to find a new home in the British Colonies. His father was George Keefer who fought for the British, was captured in August 1777, held prisoner on Staten Island and died of typhoid in December 1778. The Keefer family has previously been mentioned in the Loyalist Trails newsletter as one of the founders of Thorold, Ontario.
I always wondered what it would have been like for two teen-aged boys to have left everything they knew behind, with no idea of when they’d return. The thoughts of this journey melded nicely with my interest in trying my hand at writing a book.
I have self-published this book. The Price of Loyalty by Gail Copeland is available through in both soft cover and eBook. It will appeal to anyone whose Loyalist ancestors came to Ontario from New Jersey.
The American Revolution, the plight of the Loyalists, the geography, clothing, food, flora and fauna were researched for two years before the writing process began. It’s a tale geared toward the middle grade reader, but most of my readers so far are adults and have quite enjoyed it. My dream would be to have this book find its way into the school system. Teachers are welcome to contact me!
My hope is that readers will find it a good adventure as well as a learning experience. Although the book is a work of fiction, it closely aligns with the true story, and I like to imagine it could be the story of the Keefer brothers.
Gail Copeland

Query: Quakers and Hatters
I have a question on Quakers and Hatters. Is it possible that “hatter” was a name that Quakers were sometimes referred to as? One of my 4th great grandmothers was Elizabeth Brown. She married Samuel Newkirk, a loyalist and member of Butler’s Rangers, and they took up residence in Raleigh Township of Kent County, Ontario. He was killed by a falling tree while clearing his land. He left a widow and two young children behind. Victor Lauriston, in Romantic Kent, tells us that the widow Newkirk took her children, travelling by night, back to the Mohawk Valley, New York (page 30 — 31). My research has disproven this aspect of Victor’s writings (Victor Lauriston was a cousin of mine and I hate to disagree with such a distinguished historian, author, etc.).
Elizabeth actually remarried — to Edward Watson, who identified himself as a ‘Hatter from Philadelphia‘ in his UCLPs. They moved from Raleigh Township to Blenheim Township of Oxford County, where Edward attempted to garner land under the UCLP process to establish a Quaker Enclave. I found the remarriage reference in a volume in the possession of the Pennsylvania Genealogical Society – it’s a large family tree of the Descendants of Adrian Newkirk and Aeltjen Bogart that was assembled c. 1910 by all the descendants alive at that time.
I would definitely be interested in finding out if “hatter” does, indeed, refer to a Quaker.
Rick Thackeray UE

The Loyalist Gazette: Spring 2021 Issue Now Available Publicly
Development, Design, Proofing of the Spring 2022 issue of the Loyalist Gazette is progressing well. The digital copy will be posted for members when available; the printed copy will be mailed sometime in May.
As is our policy, one year after posting for members, issues are made available generally. At this point the Spring 2021 issue of the Loyalist Gazette is now available to all from Loyalist Gazette. Same articles:

  • What impact did the United Empire Loyalists have on the United Kingdom
  • Timothy Munro and his Rebellion Boxes
  • Rev. Davenport Phelps: The Life and Times of a Patriot Clergyman and Freemason
  • They had a Dream
  • Adams Pabst, Loyalist
  • MacKenzie Murphy Martinez: Finding her Loyalist Roots
  • and more

Who are the People In The Picture? A New Photo
Go to Who’s In The Picture (WitP). Mar. 31, 2022. This photo (Ref. Code 2-13-18), was taken on May 21, 1989, following a church service; Gerald Rogers captioned it “Sam Abbott B.C.S. Cadet Major (Ret.), Barbara Loucks, Bishop Matthews.” This leaves an unidentified woman in blue to the right of Bishop Matthews.

Can you help resolve the questions?
If so, please send an email to Carl Stymiest, Leader of the Library and Archives Committee at — please note the date and reference number of the photo. Any additional relevant comments are welcome, and appreciated.
Carl Stymiest

UELAC Loyalist Directory: New Entries
The reworked version of the Loyalist Directory is now active and people looking for it are directed there. The data brought over from the older version is the same. So what is new?
Entries which have been added, or revised, this week, with thanks:

  • Updates thanks to Marilyn Hardsand to:
  • A new entry was added for Ann Reynolds who settled at Manchester NS, submitted by Andrew Payzant
  • Thanks to Lynton “Bill” Stewart (each contains a family group sheet) for

NOTE: Six of the above submissions were submitted on the new template which we are testing; the remainder were submitted previously. We would welcome a few more people to help test – just send a note to me at – do please include the name of the Loyalist about whom you would like to contribute information and if that person is in the Loyalist Directory already (send ID number too), or is a new entry. …doug

Upcoming Events:

Gov. Simcoe Br. “My Notorious Ancestors: The Doan Gang” Wed 6 Apr. 7:30

Presentation by Janet Hodgkins UE. A band of brothers, known as the Doan Gang, became notorious in Pennsylvania during the American Revolution. One of the gang, Aaron Doan, was my 4th great-grandfather and my first Loyalist ancestor.
Janet is proud to be descended from seven United Empire Loyalists. She belongs to the Colonel John Butler (Niagara) Branch where she is a Director and the Programme Chair.
More details and registration, or Register directly

Nova Scotia Br. “Birchtown: Its People and their Stories”. Sat. 9 April @2:00 AT (1:00 ET)

Stephen Davidson UE, Authour, Columnist, Historian will give the background to the formation of the Black settlement, and then zoom in on stories of some of its first inhabitants: a middle class couple, a group of coopers, a blind minister, as well as the more “typical” folks who made Birchtown their home.
Questions, or to register, email

Victoria Br. “Genealogy of Black Loyalists” Sat. 9 Apr. @10:00 PT (1:00 ET)

Allister Barton returns to present ‘Genealogy of Black Loyalists’, part two of his presentation in which he tells the story about his family research. How does Allister connect to the Town of Barton, Nova Scotia; or does he?
To register, email – please indicate if you are a member (which branch) or not.

Kawartha Br. “38 Hours to Montreal…” Sun 10 Apr @2:00 ET

Dan Buchanan will discuss his recent book, 38 Hours to Montreal: William Weller and the Governor General’s Race of 1840.
Governor General Charles Poulett Thomson is in a hurry. In response to the Rebellion of 1837-38, he has been urgently tasked by his masters in England to modernize and improve the governments in the Canadian colonies. After three months in Toronto and with politics heating up in Quebec, the Governor General must get to Montreal as fast as he can. More details at
Link to join the meeting. More details.
NOTE: Kawartha’s Annual General Meeting will follow the presentation.

Fort Plain: Benedict Arnold: Hero Betrayed Monday 11 April 7:00

Selections from the provocative new documentary will be shown. James Kirby Martin, executive producer of the film and author of the book will present the historical context and Tom Mercer producer and script writer will talk about the making of this ground breaking cinematic documentary.
About the documentary: Narrated by Martin Sheen and with literally a cast of thousands and dramatic special effects Revolutionary War events never before presented on film are brought to life. More details. Registration

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • “A Splendid view of the old Loyalist town of Guysboro, showing the main street.” (Source: Halifax Evening Mail, 14 June 1927, p. 19)
  • This week in History
    • 24 Mar 1765 Parliament passes Quartering Act; when US Constitution framed, 3rd Amendment resulted from this Act.
    • 25 Mar 1774 Parliament orders closure of port of Boston in retribution for the Boston Tea Party.
    • 28 Mar 1774 Parliament passes Coercive Acts in punishment for the Boston Tea Party.
    • 27 Mar 1775 Thomas Jefferson elected to represent Virginia to the Continental Congress.
    • 30 Mar 1775 King George orders all foreign trade with New England colonies banned.
    • 26 Mar 1776 The South-Carolina Provincial Congress adopts a new constitution & government.
    • 29 Mar 1776 Washington appoints Major General Putnam commander of the troops in New-York.
    • 31 Mar 1776 Abigail Adams urges her husband John to “Remember the Ladies” in making laws for the new nation.
    • 1 Apr 1776 Congress establishes Treasury as permanent office.
  • Clothing and Related:
    • 18th Century women’s shoes, in kid leather, beautifully decorated with a painted design. The flower pattern on the toe, vertical lines & scalloped edges, resembles Brussels bobbin lace. The latchets would have been fastened with a buckle, 1760’s
    • 18th Century dress, an example of the transitional fashion between the more structured dresses & the more relaxed Empire line gowns. The silk of this dress is more typical of the mid 18thC, indicating this fabric was repurposed. c,1795
    • 18th Century dress, 1760s gown features a rose-red silk with trails of ivory flowers woven in a complex technique. The fabric, a type of silk known as gros de tours, dates from the 1740s, dress was altered again in 1950’s for fancy dress.
    • What an absolute delight! This embroidered silk cape is British, dated 1795-1800. The extraordinary embroidery of this cape shows the delight of the British in the age-old tradition of representing nature in embroidery. The whimsy and pleasure expressed in the embroidery is evident.
    • 18th Century men’s Court suit of red velvet silk trimmed with silver embroidery & sequins. French, c.1770s
    • 18th Century men’s outfit of fine patterned silks, with a “Hercules Club” style walking stick, c.1795
  • Townsends:
  • Miscellaneous

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