In this issue:
- Queen Elizabeth II 1926-2022
- Unpacking a Black Loyalist’s Petition, by Stephen Davidson UE
- Atlantic Loyalist Connections: Finding Loyalists in Parish Records
- Common Place: A Minister’s Desk? Reanimating Space, Rethinking Furniture
- John Cadwalader, Twice Refuses to be a General
- Book Review: The Battle of Gloucester 1777
- Ben Franklin’s World: The Early History of the United States Senate
- Women’s Hair in Georgian Times – Its Maintenance and Care
- Book: The Gaelic and Indian Origins of the American Revolution: Diversity and Empire in the British Atlantic, 1688-1783
- Slang, Euphemisms, and Terms of the 1700 and 1800s – Letters E and F
- UELAC Loyalist Directory: New Contributions
- Upcoming Events
- Kawartha Branch Meeting Sunday 18 Sept. 2:00 ET, Canadian Navy and Peterborough
- Toronto Branch In-Person, Elaine Cougler about Col. John Butler, Sept 18 2:00
- Kingston Branch “American Occupation of Montreal” by Mark Gallop 24 Sept
- St. Alban’s Centre, Adophustown ON. A Musical Harvest, Sun. Sept 25 @1:30
- In The News:
- Editor: Significance of 798
- From the Twittersphere and Beyond
Connect with us:
“Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was steadfast in her service to Canada, the Commonwealth, and its people. It is with a heavy heart, but deep appreciation, that we will come together to honour Her Majesty – whose lifetime of public service is an extraordinary example to us all.”
– Prime Minister Trudeau
Book of condolences for Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada
Canadians are invited to sign and view the online book of condolences.
96 rings for 96 years. On September 9, 2022 a bell ringing was held at Old Holy Trinity Church in Middleton, Nova Scotia to honour the late Queen Elizabeth II. Watch and listen to this video of the bell ringing
Brian McConnell UE, Chair, Old Holy Trinity Charitable Trust, Middleton, N.S.
‘Felt like family’: New Brunswicker reflects on Queen Elizabeth II’s visits
A year ago Global News approached Loyalist NS Branch President – Brian McConnell about stories about the Queen. Brian had remembered me remarking I had
seen the Queen 3 times. Fast forward they had contacted me again recently and i did a face to face interview with them about my experience. It was aired on Global NB TV Friday evening. Read comments, watch video.
Angela Donovan UE, Genealogist, New Brunswick Branch
Signed Book of Condolences in Halifax at Government House this week in remembrance and respect for Queen Elizabeth II. Brian McConnell UE
18th Century Fashion plates illustrating the Second Court Mourning period, when white and grey could be worn with black clothing.
Unpacking a Black Loyalist’s Petition
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
Then, as now, if you want to get something done, the best way to do so is to “go to the top”. In 1785, a Black Loyalist did just that and sent a petition for help to Thomas Carleton, the lieutenant governor of New Brunswick.
With the help of someone used to the wording and structure of a petition, William Fisher sent the following to Carleton.
“The humble petition of William Fisher and a Black Man, most humbly showeth that having left New York in the year of 1783 and came in the ship Peggy… in July…I then joined Captain Walker’s Company at the same time. Came as his servant having since got my freedom from his lady, I have since I came to myself got no provisions or any sign of it or any land nor Neither have I received any one article that is allowed from government and will grant me the same as is granted to all other loyalists…”
Although it is very brief, this petition contains clues to the larger story of this Black Loyalist. By consulting the Book of Negroes, a ledger that contained the names of all the free and enslaved Blacks who left New York City in 1783, it can be ascertained that a Loyalist named Richard Walker accompanied a free Black named William Faucett on the Peggy when it set sail for “River St. John’s” on July 29th. This is clearly the same William who wrote the petition. The difference in the spelling of his surname is no doubt due to either a poor transcription of primary documents or an error made by the civil servant compiling the Book of Negroes entry.
Fisher had once been enslaved by David Faucett of Sinepuxent, Maryland. The village, located in the state’s Worcester County, no longer exists, having been destroyed in a hurricane in 1818. Fisher escaped from his master in 1780, and made his way to New York City. The Book of Negroes records that he was one of the 15 Blacks who sailed aboard the Peggy. Three of those were regarded as the property of white Loyalists, but Fisher’s entry indicates that he had received his General Birch Certificate and was therefore recognized as a free man by the British government.
However, being free required one to find a way to make a living. William Fisher decided to enter the employ of Richard and Elizabeth Walker. Given that a Black Loyalist –a free man– later described his relationship to the Walkers as that of a servant means that he was an employee rather than a slave. (In the documents of white Loyalists, “servant” is often used a euphemism for “slave”.)
Another clue to the fact that Fisher did not become a slave after reaching New Brunswick can be found in the will of his employer. Just six months after the Walkers, their two daughters, and Fisher arrived at the mouth of the St. John River, Richard Walker died. He must have had a sense that he was in danger of dying in January of 1784 as he wrote his will on the fifth of that month. He died sometime before February 9th.
Walker’s will says that it was dated at the “Town of Carleton, Entrance of the River St. John near Fort Howe, Nova Scotia”. Before being incorporated into the city of Saint John, there were two settlements at the mouth of the St. John River – Carleton on the west and Parrtown on the east. Fort Howe stood on a high hill between the two settlements and had a commanding view of the harbor. It was not only a British garrison that guarded the entry to the St. John River, it also served as both a commissary for the Loyalist refugees and the local prison.
Walker’s will stated that he was born in East London in Wapping parish situated on the north side of the River Thames. This suggests he may have been a British soldier (or a recent immigrant to the rebellious colonies) who decided to remain in British North America rather than return to England following the American Revolution. Walker willed his wife Elizabeth half of what he owned in “this town of Carleton”, as well as half of “what is my right and due through the world”. The latter refers to the £900 he expected to receive when his grandmother, Esther Walker, upon her death and the £46 bequeathed to him by his Uncle John Walker. Walker’s daughters, Esther and Mary Abigail were to receive equal parts of the remaining half of his estate. Nothing in Walker’s will indicates how old his orphaned daughters were at the time of his death.
If William Fisher was actually the slave of the Walkers, he would have been listed as property in the Loyalist’s will and would have been bequeathed to someone in the family as was customary in other Loyalist wills of this era. Walker’s will underscores what William said in his petition – that he was a servant and that he had been given his freedom (i.e., released from employment) by “his lady” Elizabeth Walker in 1784.
Unemployed in the middle of a New Brunswick winter, William looked to the newly established lieutenant governor for the provisions and land that had been given to other Black Loyalists. For the past six months, he had witnessed fellow Africans receiving grants of land in Carleton and accessing provisions from nearby Fort Howe. Because Fisher had been employed by the Walkers when he arrived in the colony, he had not received any of these benefits. No longer able to earn a living from an employer, he sought to be granted “the same as is granted to all other loyalists”.
Both the Walker family and William Fisher vanish from the documents of the era following the Black Loyalist’s appeal for aid in 1784. It is likely that Elizabeth Walker and her daughters returned to England where they had relatives and financial support. Fisher may have remained in New Brunswick, but if he did, it is doubtful that he received the government aid he requested. In commenting on Fisher’s petition, historian Hazel Hazen observed that many whites considered the Black Loyalists to be merely “black refugees” rather than “true” Loyalists, and therefore were not deserving of equal benefits.
A similar petition to New Brunswick’s lieutenant governor was made by a Black Loyalist named Zimri Armstrong in 1785. He was told that there was nothing that could be done for him. Eventually, Armstrong left New Brunswick in December of 1791 to join 221 other disheartened Black Loyalists who were preparing to settle in Sierra Leone.
If William Fisher survived his first 8 years in New Brunswick without aid from its government, it may be that he was among the Black Loyalists who felt their best hopes for the future lay in sailing off to West Africa. However, not all of New Brunswick’s Black Loyalists joined the exodus to Sierra Leone. Some went west to Upper Canada while others tried to make the best of life in New Brunswick.
What is known about this Black Loyalist is what can be found in three documents of the 18th century — a last will and testament, a ledger, and a petition to an unsympathetic colonial government. Minimal though the details may be, it is more than is known of the 14 other Blacks who sailed with Fisher aboard the Peggy on that distant July in 1783.
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Atlantic Loyalist Connections: Finding Loyalists in Parish Records
By Brian McConnell UE, 14 September 2022
“At Trinity Church Jeffery Jenkins, coloured, originally a slave, liberated since he came to Nova Scotia with the Loyalists of 1783. He was one hundred years of age.”
This fascinating extract dated November 4, 1857, is from the burial records of the Anglican Church for the Parish of Wilmot, Nova Scotia. I discovered it on a recent trip to the Nova Scotia Archives at Halifax and viewed on microfilm. (Wilmot Parish, Anglican, Records 1789 – 1973, Public Archives, Halifax, NS, Microfilm Reel 12000) While there to research the records for this Parish I came upon several references to Loyalists.
The Trinity Church referred to in the burial record was constructed in 1789 at Middleton in the Parish of Wilmot following the settlement of a large number of Loyalist refugees in the area. Read more… (See the comments for access to a digitized copy of these microfilm records)
Common Place: A Minister’s Desk? Reanimating Space, Rethinking Furniture
By Caylin Carbonell, Sept 2022
What happens when we place furniture into a context of lively and fraught interaction?
A desk made of pine and maple sits in the corner of the study. Its turned legs gesture at its decorative appeal, while the spacious writing table and drawers hint at its functionality. It is easy, perhaps too easy, to imagine its owner—an eighteenth-century Massachusetts minister—sitting down to conduct both earthly and religious affairs. Historians have long imagined what desks like this one may have meant to the ministers who sat before them to read and write. But these imaginings only offer a partial view. The reality was considerably busier. Such a desk would have seen regular daily traffic, as it occupied a multi-functional space and witnessed far more interaction both upon and around it. What happens when we repopulate the room and consider the many women and men who interacted with such a furnishing? How might we use this object to think about these diverse lives all taking place within this shared space? What happens when we place furniture into a context of lively and fraught interaction? Read more…(thought provoking!)
John Cadwalader, Twice Refuses to be a General
by Jeff Dacus 13 Sept. 2022 in Journal of the American Revolution
During the Revolutionary War, several men refused commissions as generals in the Continental Army. Seth Pomeroy and John Whitcomb were unable to accept the honor due to ill health. John Philip de Haas concentrated on his business after distinguished service as a colonel. One officer, John Cadwalader of Pennsylvania, not only turned the down the offer from Congress for the appointment of brigadier general but he did it twice.
Born in New Jersey, Cadwalader was the son of a respected doctor and a cousin to Philemon and John Dickinson, two important leaders in the middle colonies. Thanks to a privileged upbringing, Cadwalader became a wealthy merchant with an eye for grand furniture in his beautiful home. He served on the local committee of safety in the years prior to the outbreak of hostilities.
When the events at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775 signaled the beginning of a violent conflict with the mother country, Cadwalader was commanding a company of militia in the Philadelphia Associators, referred to derisively by some and respectfully by others as the “Silk Stockings.” Read more…
BOOK Review: The Battle of Gloucester 1777
Review by Michael C. Harris11 Sept. 2022 in Journal of the American Revolution
The Battle of Gloucester 1777 by Garry Wheeler Stone and Paul W. Schopp (Yardley, PA: Westhome Publishing, 2022)
Garry Wheeler Stone’s and Paul W. Schopp’s The Battle of Gloucester 1777 comes to us as a part of Westholme Publishing’s new Small Battles series. The 152-page book highlights the small action that took place outside Gloucester City, New Jersey on November 25, 1777. A relatively unknown action, the conflict at Gloucester marked the end of the fighting that swirled along the Delaware River in the fall of 1777 as part of British Gen. William Howe’s Philadelphia campaign. On the American side, the Marquis de Lafayette’s prominent role in the fighting at Gloucester is the focal point of the narrative.
The 1777 Philadelphia campaign began in earnest during the summer, when Gen. Howe chose to transport 18,000 personnel to the Philadelphia region by sea rather than march overland from the New York City area. Following a grueling sea voyage, Howe’s army unloaded in northeastern Maryland on August 25 and began a slow, methodical approach towards the colonial capital. Lafayette joined George Washington’s army late that summer as a major general but basically served as an unattached officer on Washington’s staff. During the fighting of September 11 at Brandywine, Lafayette was severely wounded assisting the neophyte Continental Army. Read more…
Ben Franklin’s World: The Early History of the United States Senate
Three historians from the Senate Historical Office—Betty K. Koed, Katherine Scott, and Daniel Holt—join us to investigate the creation and formation of the United States Senate.
During our investigation, these Senate historians reveal the structure of the legislative branch created by the United States Constitution; details about the early U.S. Senate, including its powers, organization, and process for doing business; And how divisive party politics influenced the work of early U.S. Senates and eventually led to the creation of the modern-day filibuster. Listen in…
Women’s Hair in Georgian Times – Its Maintenance and Care
By Geri Walton | January 12, 2015
Women’s hair in Georgian times went from the towering headdresses that Marie Antoinette, the Princesse de Lamballe, and the Duchess of Chartres had embraced and popularized to a more natural look. These new styles that began in the late 1700s were taken from styles popularized long ago by the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. To achieve these styles, women embraced everything from the right color to brushing and combing their locks to sleeping in nightcaps.
Color was probably one of the most important considerations for women’s hair in Georgian times and getting the right color could easily be accomplished through a lady’s maid as that one of the tasked she provided. As colors varied there were also several ways to get the right color. For instance, if a woman decided she wanted black hair that involved washing her hair with spring water, dipping a comb into oil of tartar, and combing the oil of tartar through the hair while sitting in the sun. This process was to be repeated three times a day. It was promised that by doing so “at the end of eight days at most the hair will turn black.” Read more…
Book: The Gaelic and Indian Origins of the American Revolution: Diversity and Empire in the British Atlantic, 1688-1783
By Samuel K. Fisher
How did an unlikely group of peoples–Irish-speaking Catholics, Scottish Highlanders, and American Indians–play an even unlikelier role in the origins of the American Revolution?
Drawing on little-used sources in Irish and Scottish Gaelic, The Gaelic and Indian Origins of the American Revolution places these typically marginalized peoples in Ireland, Scotland, and North America at the center of a larger drama of imperial reform and revolution. Gaelic and Indian peoples experiencing colonization in the eighteenth-century British empire fought back by building relationships with the King and imperial officials. In doing so, they created a more inclusive empire and triggered conflict between the imperial state and formerly privileged provincial Britons: Irish Protestants, Scottish whigs, and American colonists. The American Revolution was only one aspect of this larger conflict between inclusive empire and the exclusionary patriots within the British empire.
In fact, Britons had argued about these questions since the Glorious Revolution of 1688, when revolutionaries had dethroned James II as they accused him of plotting to employ savage Gaelic and Indian enemies in a tyrranical plot against liberty. This was the same argument the American revolutionaries–and their sympathizers in England, Scotland, and Ireland–used against George III. Ironically, however, it was Gaelic and Indian peoples, not kings, who had pushed the empire in inclusive directions. In doing so they pushed the American patriots towards revolution.
This novel account argues that Americans’ racial dilemmas were not new nor distinctively American but instead the awkward legacies of a more complex imperial history. By showcasing how Gaelic and Indian peoples challenged the British empire–and in the process convinced American colonists to leave it–Samuel K. Fisher offers a new way of understanding the American Revolution and its relevance for our own times.
Oxford University Press (July 28, 2022), 320 pages,
ISBN-10: 0197555845; ISBN-13: 978-0197555842
Slang, Euphemisms, and Terms of the 1700 and 1800s – Letters E and F
By Geri Walton 6 November 2013
The following historical slang, euphemisms, and terms for the letter e and f are primarily taken from Francis Grose’s Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue published in 1811. Here they are:
- A grave was also called an EARTH BATH.
- A small boy who wiggled through a window to rob a house was known as FAGGER or FIGGER.
- If you grew fat over time it was said you had FALLEN AWAY FROM A HORSE LOAD TO A CART LOAD.
- Oatmeal and water boiled to form a jelly or false compliments were known as FLUMMERY because they both said to lack nourishment.
- Roger Peterson has provided information about:
- Nicholas Peterson Sr. From Schraalenburgh, Bergen County, New Jersey before the war, he served as a private with Maj. Thomas Ward 1780, Capt. Peter Ruttan’s Co., Associated Loyalists in New York. He settled at Hallowell Bay, Sophiasburgh, Prince Edward County, Upper Canada and was married to Margaret Van Tassel
- Thomas Wardle has added more information to
- Stephen Booth through branch genealogist Jo Ann Tuskin has provided information about
- Cpl David Cole from Long Island NY, served in the 2nd Battalion Delaney’s Regiment and settled in Coles Island, Queens Co., New Brunswick
- Kevin Wisener has provided data about
- Cpl. Richard Moorfield who was possibly from Pennsylvania. He served in the 17th Regiment Light Dragoons. He received a land grant at Bedeque, Prince County, Prince Edward Island. He married Alice (Alse) Robinson May 31, 1778 at Old St. Paul’s Church, Philadelphia.
If you are willing to submit some information, send a note to email@example.com
All help is appreciated. …doug
In the lower floor of St. Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, at Hilliard and St. Paul’s Street, Peterborough, Ontario, Join Canadian naval author and historian, Roger Litwiller, and discover Peterborough’s connection to Canada’s Navy. His Majesty’s Canadian Ship PETERBOROUGH was a Flower class corvette that fought during the Second World War. Discover incredible personal stories and photos of Canadian Sailors from the area who served in HMCS TRENTONIAN and survived its tragic loss. Attend in-person or virtually.
Join Zoom Meeting https://us06web.zoom.us/j/82167567318?pwd=d3A4TzRJaEpZNFBlazB2MGlGV21KQT09
Meeting ID: 821 6756 7318; Passcode: 124256
If you plan to attend or have questions, email Grietje McBride firstname.lastname@example.org
At the Toronto UEL Office, at 40 Scollard St., Toronto, meeting in person. Elaine Cougler is the award-winning author of historical novels about the lives of settlers in the Thirteen Colonies who remained loyal to Britain during the American Revolution. Elaine is descended from a Butler’s Ranger herself.
We ask that those who are attending consider wearing a mask for everyone’s sake.
To confirm your attendance or if you have questions, email Sally Gustin Programme Coordinator, email@example.com
On Saturday September 24, 1:00 p.m., Mark Gallop will be the speaker at the Kingston Branch UELAC meeting, held in the church hall at St. Paul’s Church, corner of Montreal and Queen. His topic will be the American Occupation of Montreal 1775-76. It will be a hybrid meeting, both virtual and live. Mark Gallop will be presenting in person. Find further information and the Zoom link at http://www.uelac.org/Kingston-Branch/
The Accord Trio, featuring Kingston Community Strings musicians Fran Harkness on piano, Jennifer Tindale on cello, and Doug Handforth on violin/viola. The Trio’s eclectic repertoire spans from light classical music through to the featured works of Prince Edward County composer Gena Branscombe UE. They will also perform medleys from well-known musicals and some popular contemporary pieces.
Tickets at the Door: $20 (Children under 12 FREE)
Vital link on Trent River helped build Trenton
John Spitters 10 Sept 2022 in Quinte News
A simple paddle-driven wooden ferry was a crucial driver of growth for what we now know as Trenton.
Two-hundred and thirty-two years ago in 1790, United Empire Loyalist John Bleecker became the first settler on the west side of the Trent River. He built a trading post and home at the mouth of the river and launched Trent Port’s first ferry service there.
Saturday at the mouth of the Trent in Riverfront Square a plaque was unveiled honouring John Bleecker, his second wife Mary, and of course Bleecker’s Ferry itself. Read more…
Editor: Significance of 798
Just wondering ….
If one was to add the number of new UELAC Branch memberships to the number of Loyalist Certificates approved and issued in 2022, the total would probably exceed the half-way mark to 798.
So those do not account for the magic behind 798. Check this space again next week.
- Rev250 resource of the day — Two members of the reenacting group the 8th (the King’s) Regiment of Foot – Light Company and the Civilians of Canada recently renewed their wedding vows in 18th-century Anglican fashion, and we’re invited to watch:
- Jamestown & Yorktown Museum: What are the flavors of the African diaspora? These are some of the foods grown in the garden at the enslaved quarters on our Revolution-era farm.
- This week in History
- 11 Sep 1776 British Adm. Howe meets John Adams, Ben Franklin, & Edward Rutledge for fruitless peace talks.
- 14 Sep 1776, the latest smallpox outbreak in Boston was almost over. “Respecting the smallpox, there are now but eighteen persons sick. They are so far recovered, that the selectmen are determined to take off the guards from the Neck and the ferries after Wednesday next.”
- 14 Sep 1776 General Court at Watertown, MA blocks sale of two black prisoners, rules they be treated as other POWs.
- 15 Sep 1776 British armada arrives at NYC, completing the occupation and dealing a heavy blow to the American rebellion.
- 11 Sept 1777, the Battle of Brandywine was the largest single-day land battle of the Revolutionary War, with commanders Howe and Washington facing off across the Brandywine River for access to Philadelphia. Howe won.
- 13 Sep 1777 British General Burgoyne crosses the Hudson River near Saratoga, but will find his intended path toward Albany blocked by American forces.
- 16 Sep 1779 Savannah GA besieged by Americans & French; ends in failure.
- 10 Sep 1779 USS Morris surprises and captures HMS West Florida in Battle of Lake Ponchartrain.
- 12 Sep 1780 Skirmish between Loyalist and Patriots at Cane Creek, NC is a prelude to Battle of King’s Mountain.
- Clothing and Related:
- 18th Century mourning locket. 1775-1800. Hair was preserved as curls within the locket, or cut up and used to create designs. This example has both, & differences in hair colour indicate this might memorialise more than one person.
- Conservation work on our 18th century crewel work bed curtains!
- A jaunty French silk spencer, c. 1800. Ahhhh…..the clean lines of Neoclassical design.
- 18th Century dress, an example of the transitional fashion between the more structured dresses & the more relaxed Empire line gowns. The silk of this dress is more typical of the mid 18thC, indicating this fabric was repurposed. c,1795
- 18th Century dress, Robe à l’anglaise of silk tobine with cannellé maroon stripes with woven pale blue spots, white satin stripes with a narrow floral trail in green & blue. 1770-1775
- 18th Century dress, bodice detail, Robe a l’anglaise, c.1770
- William Kingsley’s pocketbook, dated 1773
- 18th Century men’s waistcoat, mauve striped silk with silk & metallic thread embroidery, metal beads, silk satin, printed & painted, 1790’s
- Detail of 18th Century men’s silk waistcoat with elaborate floral embroidery, French, 1775 – 1793
- I shared this 18th Century waistcoat previously but wanted to highlight the wonderful silk embroidery, silk grosgrain ribbon and delightful pastoral scenes. These details were much admired by the owner. Originally made in 1785, he had the waistcoat shortened in 1795 to keep up with the changing fashions. Not wanting to lose the delightful embroidered scenes a slightly awkward join has been created at the pockets.
- 18th Century men’s Court matching suit, brown figured silk tailcoat with 11cm-high stand collar, sharply curving front panels, beautifully embroidered in floss silks with sprays of forget-me-nots, c.1800
- Working with fabric is ephemeral, unlike ceramics or jewellery. So, these fragments of iron age textiles are as startling as they are beautiful. From the salt mines at Hallstatt, Austria.
Published by the UELAC
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