In order to discover the history of our Loyalist ancestors who came to Chaleur Bay (Baie des Chaleur) Gaspé Peninsula in 1784, you must go back in time to a period of great strife in North America, following the French surrender to the British at Quebec and how that historical period impacted on the Thirteen American colonies.

That period in Loyalist history is covered within the pages of this publication so I will begin with the encampments at Quebec and the journey of our Loyalists to Chaleur Bay.
From 1776-1783, the Loyalists made the long arduous journey from the Thirteen Colonies to Quebec where they were sheltered at Sorel on the Richelieu River and at Camp Machiche, at the mouth of the River Yamachiche, on the shore of Lake St. Peter, which is a 30 mile lake west of Quebec City converging with the St. Lawrence River. These camps were overcrowded with men, women and children of all ages.

Sir Frederick1 Haldimand appointed Major Nicholas Cox, as the first Lieutenant-Governor of the Gaspé, ordering him to scout possible areas for settlements for the Loyalists. In 1776/77, Cox made his first inspection tour of the Gaspé, where he established a temporary government seat at Gaspé and toured the Chaleur Bay.

Faced with overcrowded camps at both Machiche and Sorel, Haldimand needed to find a place to settle the thousands now in the camps. In the spring of 1783, Haldimand sent Captain Justus Sherwood to the Gaspé to search out possible locations at which to settle the Loyalists. Sherwood spent six weeks mapping and selecting suitable sites.

In his report to Haldimand on the 23rd of August 1783, Sherwood states that the area is most suitable for a Loyalist settlement. He found the landscape and soil most attractive. Sherwood was so taken with the land mass from Sandy Point to Paspebiac Point that he petitioned Haldimand to grant him that tract of shoreline.

Major Cox found that the area from the Gaspé Basin to Paspebiac were the most likely places, in which to settle the refugees. His recommendation was Paspebiac, as the area west from Bonaventure to the Restigouche River was settled by the Acadians (1760) and these settlers did not take kindly to the English displacing them, since they had fled from Nova Scotia, when the English drove the French from Acadia.

Acting on the findings of Sherwood and Cox, Governor Haldimand made the decision to settle some of the Loyalists at Chaleur Bay and ordered that a notice be placed in the Quebec Gazette in February and May offering free land and passage to Loyalists who would go to Chaleur Bay. Only about 400 people answered the advertisement.

In the spring of 1784, Lt. William Vondenvelden, (discharged at Quebec from the Hessian Army) an engineer/surveyor was sent to begin planning the towns and country lots around Petite Paspebiac and Carlisle. Town lots were set at one acre; town park lots at one acre wide by 8 acres deep and country lots at 100 acres each. Therefore, any settler entitled to 100 acres would be able to draw a country lot or any combination of “town” lots. Town lots were to be drawn mostly by tradesmen or retired army personnel.

Very little is written about Nicholas Cox, his military career and/or service as Lieutenant-Governor of Gaspé or his life and death at Quebec City. There are numerous letters to Haldimand and reports that reflect the state and needs of Gaspesia settlers and militias during the Cox administration.

Major Cox 5 served under Generals James Wolfe, Sir Guy Carleton, and Sir Frederick Haldimand. He was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Quebec in 1776.
Nicholas Cox was born 1724, at Dunmanway, Ireland, the son of Sir Richard Cox. He married Debora/Deborah WICKHAM, born in England c1746/47. Little is known of the Wickham family. Nicholas Cox died on the 8th day of January 1794 at the age of 70 years in Quebec City. Deborah Wickham COX died in 1815. Both are buried in the Holy Trinity Anglican Cathedral, Quebec City. Cox was not a Loyalist.

Cox joined the 47th Regiment of the British Army as Ensign in 1741 rising through the ranks to Major. This regiment was engaged in Scotland during numerous uprisings and Ensign Cox was taken prisoner at the Battle of Preston and tortured by the Scots. In 1750, he came to Halifax, Nova Scotia and in 1752 was promoted to Captain. He served under General James Wolfe at Louisburg and at Quebec 1757/59. He commanded the 47th Regiment and helped defeat Montcalm at Quebec, on the 13th September 1759 at the Plains of Abraham.

Nicholas Cox and his wife Deborah had several children before the family came to the Gaspé. William was born in England c1766; the other children most likely in Quebec City. Their last issue, a daughter Deborah, may have been born on the Gaspé but she was baptized in Quebec City at Holy Trinity Anglican Cathedral.

On the 9th June 1784, three hundred and fifteen men, women and children, together with 67 soldiers and sailors, embarked on three vessels, the Brig St. Peter, the Snow Liberty and the Brig Polly. They were led by Captain Azariah Pritchard. The convoy sailed into the St. Lawrence River, past Gaspé, into Chaleur Bay, landing at Paspebiac.

The vessels to Chaleur Bay were accompanied by 21 men in four whale boats – these men were; John Bartley; James Burns; Patrick Connor; William Coulter; David Foster; Jeremiah Francis; Eli Hawley; Philip Hurlbert; John Hurley; Wm. Kelly; Alexander Keys; Duncan McLellan; Mr. McLeod; James McNeven; Mr. Myers; Samuel Perry, Jr; Aaron Sampson; Theophile Sampson; Edward Spencer; Robert Tripe; Theodore Warring.8

Loyalist settlers to the Gaspé had among them disbanded soldiers of the 84th Loyal Highland Emigrant Regiment. These soldiers banded together in the Colonies, some were born in America but most had been emigrants from Scotland. A majority of the men were seasoned discharged soldiers who had chosen to remain in America, and were residents before the conflict began.

When the settlers came ashore at Petite Paspebiac, they were disappointed with the lay of the land and the quality of the soil as well. They came from the Colonies and envisaged creating a similar landscape. The convoy then sailed west a short distance until they reached the long stretch of beach at Carlisle, came ashore and found the landscape and soil more to their liking.

Assisting William Vondenvelden with the layout of land grants were Felix O’Hara, Stephen Tuttle and Josiah Cass, Jr. They finished laying out the lots on the 10th of August 1784. Within the next few days, the men drew free crown land. Those in authority, militia rank or tradesmen were entitled to town and country lots. The land had to be cleared, cultivated and a dwelling and other buildings completed before they were given patents. The farm lots issued to the men were at least 100 acres or more.

The arrival of the Loyalists forced Cox to change his proposed seat of Government from Perce to the area which became known as Cox Township (New Carlisle and Paspebiac). In November 1784, Cox wrote to Haldimand, expressing his concerns for the new influx of Loyalists and other discharged soldiers, asking for funds to appoint a Sheriff and Jailors.

The task fell to Capt. George Lawe, who appointed Thomas Mann, as Sheriff. The census report taken at that time shows that there were a total of almost 500 men, women and children in the township.

In 1785, Cox moved his seat of Government from Gaspé to New Carlisle. He decided to build a large house at Carlisle and requested some 50 pounds sterling to complete the structure. In 1789, he was moved to Quebec City where he lived until his death. The Cox home was sold to the family of Robert CALDWELLl and occupied by the spinster sisters, Sarah and Martha CALDWELLl, until their death. The house was most impressive. Today it is a preserved heritage site on Oriental Street in New Carlisle. Recently the town councilors in their limited knowledge of Loyalist history, decided Oriental was more impressive than CALDWELLl or Cox Street.

Problems with invading American marauders prompted Cox to write to Governor Henry Hamilton, requesting assistance. This is the transcript of his original letter:

The Honorable Henry Hamilton, Esquire 2

As Lieut. Governor & Superintendant of Gaspé & of the Trade & Fisheries on the Labrador Coast – I request a grant of a Vessel of One Hundred Tons or more, mounting of five Guns & navigated by Thirty Men, to put a stop to the Enormities committed by the Subjects of the United States, who have broken through the Treaty of the Articles of Peace, by landing, curing and drying Fish on several Places on the south shore of the Province of Quebec.

They have forced a Fishing Post, the private property of Mr. Peter Stuart – landed, laid their Netts above his and carried away many Tonnes of Salmon. They carry on Smuggling throughout the Gulf and Bays, to the prejudice of our Merchants & the public Revenue. A Vessel is therefore absolutely necessary for me to visit the many Fishing Ports from Restigouche River to Mount Lewis on the South Shore, & cross over from thence to River St. John’s on the North of Labrador Shore, to settle the Boundaries of the Fishing and Hunting Posts, both private and Public, the want of which has occasioned several assaults and animosities, amongst Individuals, & to prevent the Irregularities & abuses now perpetrated (p157) by the Subjects of the United States, which, if not timely prohibited, will in a little time be of the most Evil consequences makes me most urgently wish success to this my request – Which, knowing your great attention to the Public Affaires and Interest of this Province & the lower Posts in particular; which I have had the pleasure to experience, hope will be granted.

I have the honor to be Sir, With the greatest esteem -Your Most obedient & Most humble Servant (signed} Nichl. Cox
Quebec 25th Septr 1785.

Originally, the area was referred to as ‘Carlisle, Chaleur Bay. No evidence shows why it was called ‘Carlisle’. Some guessed that Cox was born in Carlisle, England, but that is a myth. A descendant of Nicholas Cox, Mary Kathleen Hamilton and I have undertaken careful and detailed research of Nicholas Cox. Initially it was named Cox Township and later – Carlisle and around 1800 Cox Township became New Carlisle and Paspebiac.

The next few years were extremely difficult for the settlers. The British gave them certain goods and supplies for up to three years. They depended on hunting, fishing and farming the land for their existence. Tradesmen helped each other by bartering for their goods and services. However, some could barely exist and by 1800 several families gave up their struggle and moved to other parts, New Brunswick, Upper Canada and some even went back to the USA.

These men, their wives and children were refugees; however, they were spirited and entrepreneurial. Most were farmers, some fisherman, and others were craftsmen and tradesmen. Among them they possessed most of the skills required to flourish even in the hardest of times. They shared their burdens and their harvest.

New Carlisle with its great harbour became a ship building centre and until around 1850 carried passengers and cargo between Canada, Great Britain, Europe and the USA.

There is a misleading myth about three settlers arriving with the Loyalists. These men were discharged soldiers of the Hessian/Prussian army, who had requested discharge at Quebec in June 1783 rather than return to their home lands. The three soldiers were; 6 Pte. “Lewis” Ludewig (Immhoff/Imhaugh/Imhough) IMHOFF; Lt. Wilhelm Frederick “Louis” KEMPFFER and Lt. Wilhelm “William” VONDENVELDEN. These men were not Loyalists.

Whatever position in society these settlers held in the Colonies made little difference at that period, because of the long dreadful wars in Europe and the revolution in America, most of them did not have much in the way of personal possessions, so they made the best of a new life in a new land. Whether it was a feast or famine, they managed as best they could under the circumstances; they were farmers, fishermen, labourers and tradesmen. They bartered and shared whatever they could in order to survive.

In 1789, Lord Dorchester brought before the Executive Council, a proposal that Loyalists should be known and respected forever for their loyalty and service to the crown. It was decreed that those who had adhered to the Unity of the Empire in the late war would have a “Mark of Honour” – U.E., bestowed upon them and that their sons upon their coming of age, receive two hundred acres of Free land and that the daughters of Loyalists upon coming of age or at their marriage, be eligible for a grant of 200 acres each.

“Those Loyalists who have adhered to the Unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Separation in the year 1783, and all their Children and their Descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following capitals, affixed to their names: U.E. Alluding to their great principle The Unity of the Empire.” (9th November 1789)

The letters U.E., affixed to a surname, shows the person is a proven Loyalist. The letters O.C., after a descendant’s name stands for an Order-in-Council, signifying that the person submitted a petition to the Executive Council of Quebec, and the Council granted that person their entitlement to 200 acres of free land as a legal son or daughter of a Loyalist. The O.I.Cs are the most important petitions needed in order to prove your descendance from a Loyalist.

When a son of a Loyalist came of age, he could petition the Council for a Free Grant of Land. The daughter of a Loyalist could do the same. However, when she married she petitioned for her 200 acres, proving that she was a daughter of a Loyalist. For example, the Order-in-Council would show; Elizabeth CALDWELLL, wife of Wilhelm Frederick “Louis” KEMPFFER, Two Hundred Acres, as the daughter of Robert CALDWELL, a U.E. Loyalist, privileged as D.U.E. KEMPFFER was not a Loyalist but his wife, Elizabeth, D.U.E., (was the daughter of a Loyalist) therefore, all KEMPFFER descendants are Loyalists.

The following are profiles of some of the more influential Loyalists who came to Carlisle, Chaleur Bay. Today their countless descendants are scattered far and wide across the world:

Alexander BROTHERTON, U.E., (1749-1821) born Scotland. Cabinetmaker/joiner.
He came to America circa 1764; tenant on farmland near New Perth, Albany County, NYP (New York Province) until 1777. Forced to flee his farm with his family, he joined the British Forces and brought his family to Montreal, Quebec.

In 1781, Alexander BROTHERTON formed a partnership with another cabinet maker in Montreal and lower Quebec City. In 1784, he decided to bring his family to Carlisle, where he obtained a Free Grant of 300 acres. His property was between David Scott and Christopher Pearson. He amassed a huge acreage and fortune; he was a Justice of the Peace, a farmer and the craftsman of the finest cabinets still found on the Gaspé coast. His wife predeceased him at an early age, leaving five children. He died in 1821 and is buried in St. Peter’s Anglican Cemetery at Paspebiac, Quebec.

Robert CALDWELL, U.E., (1735-1825) born in County Antrim, Ireland. Came to America in 1761; farmed at White Creek, Charlotte County; then the Province of Vermont. He was imprisoned for 2 years by the Rebels for refusing to swear allegiance to the Rebel cause. He joined General Burgoyne’s army at Skeenborough, and found his way into the King’s Royal Rangers of New York. CALDWELLl’s unit was disbanded at Montreal in 1783, and he joined his wife and children at Camp Machiche. He came to Carlisle in 1784.

CALDWELL built a log house in 1784 – his first in Carlisle. In 1798, it became the first place of worship, holding services for Presbyterians, under the missionary the Rev. John Wadell. Here baptisms, marriages and funeral ceremonies were held until the first Knox Presbyterian Church was built. The house was also used as a courthouse and had the first known “whipping post” erected, where justice was served.

The original ‘CALDWELL House’ still stands today and may be viewed as part of the Hamilton House Museum’s display of artifacts and memorabilia to the long history which the Loyalists and their descendants brought to New Carlisle.

Robert CALDWELL was a highly esteemed New Carlisle businessman, farmer and Justice of the Peace. Free Grants of town and country lots. His wife was Sarah H. TODD; they were married in Ireland and had five children. Both died New Carlisle.

Josiah CASS, Sr., U.E., was born 1738 at Hebron, CT. He was a Schoolmaster. Wife: Mercy POMEROY (1740-1781) died at Camp Machiche leaving five children. He was forced to flee from Connecticut for refusing to swear allegiance to the Rebels. Obtained town and country lots. Cass sold his holdings to Christopher Pearson before leaving Cox Township in 1789. He died in 1804 at L’Orignal, Upper Canada.

Josiah CASS, Jr., Cpl., KRRNY, U.E., was born 1761, Hebron, CT. Served with the MANN brothers in Sir John Johnson’s King’s Royal Rangers. His family was at Camp Machiche in 1781. Married Margaret FERGUSON, they had 10 children. He died in 1847 at L’anse au Beaufils, Gaspé, Quebec.

John GILKER, U.E., was born c1745 in England; about 1764, he came to New York Province. He was a farmer, received 300 acres. Came with his wife and six children; his eldest son, 15 years old, reputed to have been a Bugler in a Provincial Corps.

Captain George LAWE, U.E., was born in Ireland, c1730. He joined the British Army prior to the Seven Years War, and served until 1764. He was discharged and remained in America; settled on a land grant near Lake George, NYP. He was an ardent supporter of the Crown, and when the revolution broke out he rejoined as Captain in the 84th Regiment of Foot – the Royal Highland Emigrants (1775-1784). He served until at least 1784, and due to financial difficulties apparently sold his commission in the 84th. The men of the 84th Provincial corps were Loyalists.

LAWE had five sons by his first wife, four served in the War and all were killed in battle. His wife died sometime before 1778, as he remarried while stationed at Montreal. His second wife was Rachel Franks, the daughter of John Franks, a merchant in Montreal.

Captain Lawe was sent to the Gaspé by Governor Haldimand as Superintendent of the Loyalist settlement at Chaleur Bay. He received a free land grant at Carlisle, but later he moved to Quebec City where he was given a new post and a grant of crown land.

In 1793 Lt.-Governor John Simcoe appointed Captain Lawe as Overseer of Works at Newark, then capital of Ontario. That same year Lawe was sent to England with important dispatches. He took his wife, two sons and a daughter. Lawe visited Ireland on family business, and it was at Belfast where his son Allen Lawe was born in 1794. George LAWE returned to Newark, (Niagara-on-the-Lake) where he died c.1800.

Colonel Isaac MANN, U.E., b c1723 New York City; he came from Stillwater, NY. He was a Judge of Quorums at Albany, NYP. His parents owned land which is now Broad Street in New York City. He was granted land and also purchased property at Stillwater, where he operated mills. He had more than two hundred tenants on his land before the revolution. He was arrested and incarcerated for refusing to swear allegiance to the Rebels. When released from gaol, he made his way to Camp Machiche where he joined his wife Annatje “Anne” JEFFRES and two teenage children.

In 1784/85 Col. Isaac MANN received several Free Grants of town lots. Before he died, he had been granted almost 3000 acres of land on the Restigouche River. In 1787, his claims to the Land Commissioners for property losses was 4672 pounds Halifax currency. He received meagre compensation of 291 pounds Halifax currency for all his land and mills in America from the British and a lifetime pension of 30 pounds annually. He died in 1803 and is buried in St. Andrew’s Cemetery, New Carlisle.

Lt. Isaac MANN, Jr., U.E., b 1748, New York City, son of Colonel Isaac MANN. He served in KRRNY and was discharged at Montreal in 1783. He received a Free Grant of 400 acres; was a Farmer and Justice of the Peace. He married Mary Eyre Robertson, they had one son. Appointed as a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, at Quebec City, he died at Quebec City the 28th July 1790.

Ensign John MANN, U.E., was born 1752, New York City, son of Colonel Isaac MANN. He served in KRRNY under Sir John Johnson and was discharged in 1785 as Quartermaster of Supplies at St. Johns (St. Jean) Quebec. He was a trained Advocate and practiced as a Lawyer in New York and at Carlisle. He was also a Justice of the Peace and Magistrate. His wife was Elizabeth PEMBERTON. They had six children; the eldest son was named John Johnson MANN in honour of the esteemed Sir John Johnson. MANN died at Quebec City on the 8th March 1805.

Ensign Thomas MANN, U.E., was born in 1760 at Stillwater, Albany Co., NYP, son of Colonel Isaac MANN. Gaoled by the rebels, he fled and joined the Loyal Rangers, aka Jessup’s Rangers. He was seconded to other militia units. He was discharged at Quebec in 1783. In 1784 was appointed Sheriff of Gaspé, under the direction of Captain George LAWE. He married Rebecca PERRY, daughter of Samuel PERRY, U.E. Thomas and Rebecca MANN had one daughter Deborah, who died young. Thomas MANN – Sheriff of Gaspé 1784-1829 died on the 17th August 1831 at New Carlisle.

Donald MUNRO, U.E., was born c1735, Ross-shire, Scotland. He came to America in 1756 with the British army as a Private in the 60th Regiment; he served in the French and Indian War, and was discharged from the British Army in 1764. He settled on farm land in White Creek, NYP. Goaled by the rebels – he paid 300 pounds bond and escaped from the rebels in 1777. He joined Burgoyne’s forces as conductor of wagons. He came to Canada after the battle at Saratoga and worked in Commissary Department employed as issuer of Provisions to the Loyalists at New Carlisle 1784-1787. He had a wife and several children. He received several hundred acre farm lots.

Hugh MUNRO, Lt., U.E., LJR, was born c1760, Ross-shire, Scotland. He was the Godson of Donald MUNRO, U.E. He was a trader in goods and estates in NYP. He joined Ebenezer Jessup’s Loyal Rangers c1781. He married Martha Harriet Sherar daughter of Thomas SHERAR, U.E. Hugh Munro was appointed a Judge at the Surrogate Court, New Brunswick, Lower Canada in 1800 and served until 1832. He died before 1850 at Bathurst, NB.

Christopher PEARSON, U.E., was born 1737, in Yorkshire, England. He served in the KRRNY, and was the Commissary of Supplies at Camp Machiche. He married Isabella WELLS in London in 1758. He came to America, settling at Philadelphia in 1771. Later, he moved to Tryon County where he settled with his first wife and two daughters. Isabella died in 1774. Pearson was a leather craftsman, britches, gloves, saddles, etc. He married his 2nd wife Mary Secord-Beebe at Quebec in 1781. He received Free Grants of Town and country lots. He died in 1832 at New Carlisle.

Mary SECORD-BEEBE-PEARSON, U.E., was born 21 February 1736/37 at Courtland Manor, NYP. She was the widow of the late Joshua BEEBE. Joshua BEEBE of Butler’s Rangers, died in 1778 on the Niagara Frontier. Mary fled overland to Niagara with her teenage children, but there were already too many refugees at Niagara, so she was sent to Camp Machiche. Mary’s brothers John, Peter and James SECORD all settled at Niagara.

Mary’s nephew was the James SECORD who married Laura INGERSOL, the famous Laura SECORD, who warned the British that the Americans were planning to attack Niagara.

Mary SECORD-BEEBE married Christopher PEARSON in 1781 at Quebec. She was known as one of the best midwives at the Camp Machiche and at Carlisle. She died at the age of 104. The majority of Joshua Beebe’s children settled at Carlisle with the exception of his eldest son, Sgt. Aden Beebe, BR who became Town Clerk of Louth, settled at Jordan, Louth Township, Niagara, Upper Canada. He had several children.

Captain Azariah PRITCHARD, KRRNY, U.E., was born c1740 in Connecticut, came to Quebec around 1778 and was employed as an intelligence agent for the British until the end of the war. He owned a ship and was responsible for having ferried some 160 Loyalists across Long Island Sound to join the British forces on Long Island. He settled at New Richmond but also had holdings along the coast at Gaspé. He built one of the first grist mills on the coast at New Richmond. Some years later he sullied his reputation and was accused of selling counterfeit certificates to American vessels. He was arrested, tried and acquitted by the Court of Common Pleas for the District of Gaspé.

David SCOTT, U.E., was born 1737, Scotland. He came to America in 1772. He settled on a rented farm at New Perth, Charlotte Co., NYP. He joined Burgoyne in 1778, serving in Jessup’s Corp. He was a skilled Weaver and Farmer. His wife was Margaret Armstrong, they had several children. He received Free Grants.

Thomas SHERAR, U.E., was born 1746, Gallowayshire, Scotland. He came to New York Province in 1774. Settled on West Branch of the Delaware River, Tryon County, NYP. Driven from his property, he joined Major Edward Jessup’s Corps as Private in 1780. His wife was Jeanette McILWAIN, they had several children. He was a skilled weaver and dyer, a Justice of the Peace, businessman and farmer at New Carlisle. He received a Free Grant of 300 acres.

The town of Carlisle now New Carlisle, Quebec was one of the finest layouts ever created and resembled many towns and villages in New England. Architecturally it was beautiful and remains so to this day. Unfortunately, a number of the stately old homes have disappeared before some concerned citizens formed “Heritage New Carlisle”. In 1984, the residents of New Carlisle celebrated the bicentennial of a Loyalist settlement.

Some of the old houses in New Carlisle and Paspebiac became museums, shops or restaurants such as the stately residence of the Honourable Judge John Thompson which is now an elegant Bed and Breakfast.

Loyalist descendants are found in most communities along the Gaspé coast, from Grand River to Matapedia, as these villages and towns were mostly founded by their ancestors.


The following settlers 3 & 4 may or may not have been proven to be Loyalists. Most of them settled on the Gaspé coast and those who remained contributed so much to the building of the towns and villages of Chaleur Bay; their descendants are numerous.

James ASTLES; William BALSTER; James BARNES; John BECK; Secord BEEBE; William BENNETT; Benjamin BETTS; Richard BILLINGSLEY; William BLACK; Lewis BRADSHAW; Thomas BROOKS; Abraham BROWN; Alexander BROWN; James BRUNSON; William BUSTEED; Walter CALDWELLL; William CAMPBELL; James Robert CARR; Josiah CASS; Elias CASS; Richard CHAMBERLAIN; Hiram CHAPPLE; Samuel CHATTERTON; John CHISHOLM; Andrew COLTER; Patrick CONNOR; Michael CONNOR; George COULL; Thomas DARCY; Henry DALY; Abel DAVID; Charles DOBSON; Nicholas DRISKILLER; William DUNLAP; John DUNN; Henry ECHELLE; Thomas EDRINGTON; William FERRIS; William FITZGERALD; Anthony FLEETWOOD; Robert FLOWERS; Thomas FOSTER; Jeremiah FRANCIS; Donald FRASER; Jeremiah FRASER; William GARRETT; James GARRETT; Dennis GIBBONS; Edward GIBBS; John (Gilchrist)GILKER; George GILKER; Sam GLASS; Joseph GOODWILLY; James GRANT; John GRANT; William HARLOW; John HARRIS; Eli HAWLEY; Alexander HAYES; Patrick HAYES; Patrick HENDEY; Joseph HIGGINS; Samuel HINDEMAN; Benjamin HOBSON; Conrad HOFFMAN; Moses (a.k.a) Philander) HARLBERT; William HUNTINGTON; George JOHNSON, Sr.; Thomas PRICE-JONES; Martin KELLEY; John KENNEDY; Alexander KEYS/KEAYS; John KEYS/KEAYS; John LAWE; John LANE; Robert LEE; Thomas LESTER; Elijah LOVELESS; David LYND; Ham MAXWELL; Samuel MAY; William McADAM(S); James McCARTHY; John McCARTHY; Allan MacDONALD/McDONALD; Lawrence McKENZIE; John Flanagan McMAHAN; Duncan MCLELLAN; William McMAHON; James MINIVAN; Isaac MONTROSS; Andrew NORTON; Bastian NAVIRRE; Christopher NICHOLAS; Thomas ORR; John PARFREY; William PATTERSON; Samuel PERRY, Jr.; Cass POMEROY; Zairian PRITCHARD, Jr.; Edvard/Edward PURCHELL; Thomas RAFTER; John RESTLE/RESTELL; Thomas RICHARDSON; John RITCHIE; Duncan ROBINSON; John ROSS; Elisha (Elijah) RUSSELL; Aaron SAMPSON; James SHAW; Simeon SHERMAN; John SHULLY; Edward SPENCER; Michael SPRINGFIELD; Michael STAFFORD; Nathaniel STERNS/STEARNS/STARNES; Francis STEWART; James STONE; Roger SULLIVAN; Andrew TEAGUE; Jacob TEAGUE; Thomas RICHARD, William THOMPSON; John THOMPSON; John TOBIN; Patrick TODD; Patrick F. TRAYNOR; William TYLER; Edward WALL; Nicholas WALL; Thomas WARDER; James David WARRING; Theodore WARRING; Able WATERS; Hugh M.WATERS; William WHITMORE; Robert WILLIAMS; Samuel WINTERBOTTOM (a.k.a)WINTERS); Henry WOOD; George YOUNG.

These Loyalists and discharged soldiers arrived in July 1784, however when the census was taken in 1825 there was a drastic change in surnames. Many Loyalists and discharged soldiers had moved to New Brunswick and/or Upper Canada, now Ontario.


During the period of conflict in the American colonies, a garrison was built at Douglas Town. It started as a watch post around 1775 but later Haldimand decided it should be a settlement for Loyalists as well. It was named after an English surveyor, John Douglas, who planned the village for the Loyalists.

Both Captain Sherwood and Lt. Governor Cox found the harbour and long beach quite appropriate for a town similar to that which the Loyalist left in the Colonies. It was also much closer to Cox’s government headquarters at Gaspé and the entrance to the St. Lawrence River. The beach had been used for some years by Basque and Jersey fisherman to dry their catch of cod fish, which were exported to England and Europe.

There is no record of a census for Douglastown in 1784/85. The following names have been copied from the 1 British Muster Roll No. 20 for 1785. This list shows those persons receiving provisions at that time. I believe it to be a true list of the names of Loyalists, sailors and soldiers of the garrison.

Richard ABBOT; William ALLEN; William ANDERSON; Jesse ARMSTRONG;
Joseph ELEMENT; James FITZGERALD; Robert GOODWILL; Joseph GROOMS; Hugh HACKET; James HOWOOD or HAYWOOD; Edward GREENWOOD; William KENNEDY; James KELLY; William MALLONY; Joseph MERRET; Thomas MORRIS; Charles McBEAN; John McCRAW or McCRAE; Captain RANALD McDONNELL; Daniel McPHERSON; Hugh McQUARTERS (McWHITER); James PAXTON; John PRENTICE; Samuel PRENTICE; John ROBERTSON; Robert SAMPSON; Robert SAWYERS; John SMITH; Captain Richard SMITH (later settled at New Carlisle); Patrick SULLIVAN; Magnus SUNHOLM; George THOMSON;
Robert TRIPPE; William WILLS; John WRIGHT.

Have you ever found a family document, especially a deed or patent with your ancestors name and the initials L.S.? If you search for deeds to property granted to a Loyalist, these initials would indicate that he was a “Loyalist Settler”. This designation came into use before 1783 in most documents and even letters or common bills of sale.

In your search to prove your descendancy from a Loyalist, you must find the original petitions and/or grants of Free Land which your Loyalist ancestor received. Marriage and birth certificates are of the utmost importance in proving the lines of descendancy through the generations to your original Loyalist.

There are numerous volumes written about the American Revolution and the Loyalists which you may wish to read and/or study. These men and women were the founders and builders of this great nation.

Loyalists are proud of their heritage and our contribution to this great country. We trust that this short history of the Loyalists and settlers to the Gaspé coast was of interest to you and will further enhance your knowledge of these men and women who may have been your ancestors.

I have often referred to the Loyalists of the Gaspé as the ‘forgotten Loyalists”. Most Canadians know little about us and some do not know we exist. If you are a descendant of a Loyalist, please contact the United Empire Loyalist Association at the internet website provided. Your concerns and questions are of importance to us and to maintaining our Loyalist history.

By Donald J. Flowers U.E.

References & Sources:

1. Haldimand Papers; this collection of letters and orders may be found in the National Archives of Canada, Microfilm #XX105M21. Addition Manuscript #21862. Quartermasters Office (cf. British Museum\ Additional Manuscript #21828. MG21 – Great Britain – Add. Mss. 21661 to 21892.
Also the Frederick Haldimand Papers – NAC Microfilm – Reel A752, and B168.

2. Copy of Letter from Cox to Governor Henry Hamilton 1785. NAC Colonial Office #42/48

3. Haldimand Papers: Loyalists to Chaleur Bay – Passenger Lists: NAC #42 Vol. 67 MG11 Reel B 47.

4. The 1784 Census report of the Loyalist at Carlisle, Chaleur Bay was sent by Lt. Governor Cox to Sir Frederick Haldimand. The Census was completed by Major John Barnes, September-October 1784. Ontario Archives – RG 1-A1V vol.80.

5. The Nicholas Cox Family History, unpublished. Researched and compiled by Mary Kathleen Hamilton and Donald J. Flowers, U.E., APG

6. German Military Men in Canada 1776-1783. Compiled by Johannes Helmut Merz

7. Reference to proven Loyalists may be found in:

  • The Loyalists of Quebec – A Forgotten History, 1774-1825, Heritage Branch – Montreal, UELAC 1984.
  • Loyalist Lineages of Canada, Volume 1. Toronto Branch – UELAC 1985.
  • Loyalist Lineages of Canada, Volume 11, part 1 and 2. Toronto Branch – UELAC 1994.

8. Reference: Canadian Archives, Series B, Vol. 168, Sessional Papers, Volume 5; Second Session of the Seventh Parliament, 55 Victoria, No.7a, A1892, page 19, Dominion of Canada, 1892

© Donald J. Flowers, U.E. Toronto, Ontario. 25 August 2003.

This edition is submitted for publication in United Empire Loyalists of Quebec.

No part of the above text may be altered, edited and/or reproduced for any commercial purpose, without the express consent of the writer. Teachers and students are free to use this text, without alteration, in classroom assignments.





From time to time, additional resources become available, resources which can enhance or alter the interpretations made in historical essays. Received after the initial publication, the following will enrich your understanding of this period in Canadian history:

Abbreviated Fact Sheet for Colonel Isaac Man

Isaac Man Sr., the son of John Man and Lysbeth (Elizabeth) Van Deursen, was baptized in the Dutch Reformed Church in New York on October 16, 1723. In 1762 Isaac purchased land at Stillwater, New York and in the surrounding area. He erected grist and sawmills on his holdings and brought in nearly two hundred families from Ireland as well as many other families from New England as settlers.

Isaac was one of the more prominent pioneer settlers in Stillwater. He was a Justice of the Quorum and was once the Colonel of the 2nd Regiment of the Albany Militia. He was also an outspoken critic of the rebellion and this led to his first arrest in March 1776. Isaac later wrote “this was the first instance in the County of Albany of a person being compelled, by a kind of Inquisition unknown among Protestants, to avow his political sentiments.” After mounting a strong defense Isaac was released. However, he was arrested later that fall along with his sons John and Thomas, on a suspicion that they had been connected with and privy to the departure of a number of Loyalists who had departed for Canada with Ebenezer Jessup Esq.

After spending fifteen months in prison he was released in January 1778 (due to the persistent intercessions of his wife) and ordered to return to Albany for trial. On August 4, 1778, Isaac appeared before the Commission for Defeating Conspiracies and following his refusal to take the prescribed oath was banished to Canada. In mid August he left for Canada accompanied by his wife, a daughter and two youngest sons and arrived in Canada on September 1, 1778.

Colonel Isaac submitted a claim for his losses to the British Government in the amount of £4,672 but was awarded two hundred and eighty odd pounds, an amount that he described in 1803 as a trifling sum.

In August 1787 a land grant of 2,000 acres was made to Isaac Man to satisfy him, his sons and his whole family. This was later expanded to 2,520 acres located on the north side of the Restigouche River in what is now Cross Pointe, Quebec. However, due to problems with the survey, it was not until 1823 that the Man family acquired title.

In 1798 Colonel Isaac was successful in having his Act of Banishment revoked and returned to New York where he learned that the proscription laws precluded him from recovering his former property. Colonel Isaac died in New Carlisle, Quebec on Christmas Day 1803.

C.W. Dobson UE
December 21, 2005



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