“Loyalist Trails” 2013-18: May 5, 2013
In this issue:
– In the Shadow of the Gallows (Part One of Two), by Stephen Davidson
– William Odber Raymond (1853-1923) by George McNeillie
– “At the Head of Lake Ontario” – Tour of Historic Niagara
– Connecting with Norfolk VA 1753 Mace
– Presidential Peregrinations: St Lawrence Branch
– Loyalists and War of 1812: Adam Haines and his five sons
– From the Twittersphere and Beyond
– Additions to the Loyalist Directory
+ Lt. Donald McLeod, King’s Orange Rangers
While many loyal American colonists lived in constant fear of being tarred and feathered by their rebel neighbours, other loyalists faced an even greater threat to their lives. In some parts of the thirteen rebelling colonies, death by hanging was a common method of dealing with traitorous Tories. Among the biographies of loyalists collected by Lorenzo Sabine are the stories of 17 loyalists who had little hope that they would survive the revolution. Their futures were hidden in the shadows of the gallows.
What is now eastern Maine was once a frontier “no-man’s land” between patriot New England and the British colony of Nova Scotia. General Wadsworth was in charge of the rebel forces between the Piscataqua and St. Croix Rivers. Local loyalists maddened the Continental Army by transporting or hiding British spies right under their noses. Finally, Wadsworth issued a proclamation throughout the coastal communities, promising a quick trip to the gallows for anyone “convicted of aiding or secreting the enemy”.
Shortly after, patriots arrested Jeremiah Baum of Damariscotta. They charged him with guiding a group of British soldiers through the woods “for the purpose of pillaging”. His trial, conducted by a patriot court martial, took all of two days. Baum was convicted and sentenced to be hanged. People pleaded for Wadsworth to pardon the loyalist, but the general needed to make an example.
On August 25, 1780, soldiers erected a gallows on Limestone Hill. Baum was taken to his execution in a cart. He fainted as soon as he came in sight of the gallows. A neighbour put his handkerchief over Baum’s eyes. Within minutes, the loyalist was “swung off” much “to the astonishment of the spectators”. General Wadsworth, it is recorded, was “greatly moved” and was seen pacing his room most of the following day. Many rebels in town felt that the general had acted too severely “on such a victim”.
Before the year was out, Wadsworth’s men captured another loyalist. Nathaniel Gardiner had been using his money and his influence to help “distressed adherents to the crown”. He owned the Golden Pippin, an armed schooner; when it was captured, Gardiner was hauled off to Falmouth (now Portland, Maine). As he went past the local gallows, the rebels told him that “was his place”.
For the next four months, Gardiner was denied a bed or even a blanket. He was forced to sleep on wooden planks that had the head of spikes protruding an inch above the floor. He would have starved if his son had not brought him money to buy food and drink. His guards robbed him of his clothes and wallet. (At this point, hanging from a noose must have looked fairly attractive.) Fortunately, Gardiner managed to escape and made his way to New York. Following the revolution, this loyalist who should have been hanged became one of the founding settlers of Shelburne, Nova Scotia.
Loyalists fared no better in New York. Consider the case of Ensign Joseph Bettys of the second company of Roger’s King’s Rangers. At the beginning of the revolution, this native of Ballston, New York fought in Benedict Arnold’s army against Carleton’s army at Lake Champlain. However, he was taken prisoner and carried off to Canada where he changed his allegiance. Now an ensign, Bettys threw himself into the work of a courier and spy. Somewhere in northern New York, he was recognized by old friends and brought to trial as a traitor. Bettys was to be hanged.
However, his aged parents and influential patriots persuaded George Washington to grant him a pardon if he promised to reform. Once free, the loyalist rejoined the king’s army, spending the next few years creating a reputation that struck terror in the rebels of New York. Patriot records of the era describe how he burned homes, killed rebels, and attacked his enemies just as readily in the day as in the night.
Patriots captured Bettys as he was taking a message south to the commander of the British forces stationed in New York City. This time, there was no escape for the loyalist. His enemies rejoiced at his hanging, not just because it put an end to his “misdeeds”, but also for the fear that it would put in any loyalists who would be tempted to follow in Bettys’ example.
Despite his patriot leanings, the historian Sabine could only describe the hanging of the loyalist Edward Jones as “shocking”. The Continental Army under General Putnam had decided to spend the winter of 1778-79 in Ridgefield, Connecticut. During their stay, the soldiers captured the Welsh-born Jones and accused him of spying. Jones would only admit to being a butcher for the British army. His only crime had been trying to buy meat.
Nevertheless, Putnam needed to show his men that he was not soft in dealing with either spies or deserters. On February 6, he had a 20-foot gallows built. Following the hanging of Edward Jones, Putnam had scheduled a firing squad to execute a patriot deserter. But the designated hangman could not be found. Jones was made to climb up the ladder to the gallows, and after the rope had been put around the loyalist’s neck, Putnam ordered him to jump. Maintaining his innocence to the end, Jones would not comply.
Frustrated, the general called upon two 12 year-old boys to knock the ladder out from under Jones. Sabine wrote that the boys “cried and sobbed loudly, and earnestly entreated to be excused from doing anything on this distressing occasion. Putnam, drawing his sword, ordered them forward, and compelled them at the sword’s point to obey his orders.”
In at least one instance in Delaware in 1778, hanging could be the consequence of having a loyalist employer. Rebels attacked the home of William Johnson in the hope of carrying him off. They were beaten back by the men and servants of the household. However, they returned the next day with a larger group, compelling Johnson to flee for his life. Frustrated, the rebels burned the loyalist’s house and hanged a man named Samens – described as “one of his party”.
Twelve more stories that Lorenzo Sabine recorded that recount loyalists in danger of the gallows will be featured in next week’s Loyalist Trails.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
For a good many years the only recognition of much extra-parochial work came from my brethren of the St. John Deanery, who for a dozen years or more elected me their Rural Dean. I was also at one time President of the Church of England Institute and of the S.S. Teachers Association.
But on the eve of the assembling of the Pan –Anglican Congress in London, England, in 1908, Bishop Richardson did me the honour of appointing me Canon of Christ Church Cathedral and Archdeacon of St. John.
My wife and I attended the Pan-Anglican Congress as delegates and had quite a wonderful experience. Shortly after our return the congregation of St. Mary’s honoured the 25th anniversary of assuming charge of the church in 1884 by presenting this rector with a beautiful gold watch and a suitable address with gifts to my dear wife. A retrospect of forty-three years in the ministry shows that while it has had its many trials, it has also had its many blessings. I thank our Heavenly Father for his many mercies, and may He pardon my many failures.
As indicating the large amount of parochial and extra-parochial work it will suffice to state that at the time of leaving my old home in St. John in April, 1916, I was:
- Rector of St. Mary’s Church, Waterloo Street.
- Superintendent of St. Mary’s Sunday School.
- Archdeacon of St. John and Canon of Christ Church Cathedral.
- Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Diocesan Synod.
- Secretary of the Standing Committee of the Diocesan Synod.
- Delegate (for 5 times in succession) to Triennial Sessions of General Synod.
- Member of Board of Education Rothesay College.
- Governor of the Wiggins Orphan Asylum.
- Vice-President of Church of England Institute.
- Ditto. Church of England Sunday School Association.
- Ditto. of the St. John Evangelical Alliance.
- Chaplain of St. John Municipal Home (for about 29 years).*
- Chaplain, Marlborough Lodge, Sons of England.
- Chaplain of Thistle Curling Club (for about 28 years).
- President of St. Mary’s Band from organization, 1903 to 1916.
- Commissioner of St. John Free Public Library.
- Canadian Civil Service Examiner. *
- Member of Manuscript Commission of Dominion Archives.
- Fellow of Royal Society of Canada from 1906.
- Chaplain, 3rd Regiment of Canadian Artillery, 1900 — 1916.*
- Historian and Chaplain Loyalist Society of N.B.
- Secretary of the New Brunswick Historical Society.
- President of the Natural History Society of New Brunswick.
- President of the Eclectic Reading Club.
- Member of Patriotic Fund Committee.
Besides the above there was the membership in a considerable number of Synod Boards and Committees not enumerated, and positions of ephemeral kind connected with public affairs and Church matters.
In previous years many other positions were filled including those that follow:-
- Secretary of the Rural Deanery of St. John, 1886 — 96.
- Secretary of the Sunday School Teachers’ Association, 1885 — 1900.
- Secretary of the Diocesan Church Society, 1890 — 97.*
- Rural Dean of St. John Deanery, 1899 — 1909.
- President of the Church of England Institute.
- President of the Sunday School Teachers Association.
- President of the Evangelical Alliance.
- Chaplain of the St. George’s Society.
- Chaplain of Gordon Division Sons of Temperance.
- Chaplain of St. John Industrial Home for Boys.*
- Instructor in Holy Scripture and Prayer Book, Rothesay College, 1898 — 1906.*
- President New Brunswick Historical Society.
- First Lieut. Commanding Woodstock Field Battery — 1875.
- Local Examiner McGill University, 1897 to 1907 *
- Member of Historic Sites Commission of Canada.
These lists are inserted for the purpose of showing the nature and variety of interests, of an extra-parochial kind, that absorbed a considerable amount of time and energy while I lived in St. John. It is no doubt a matter of opinion whether I should have given so much time to things outside of parochial work. It should be mentioned that those marked * brought with them some small remuneration. The stipend for the first 28 years — house rent deducted, was not a living wage. It was therefore a matter of necessity for one, by literary and other kinds of work to add to our income, and even then we could hardly have saved anything but for my little wife’s noble and splendid help [Editor’s note — Julia Raymond was an accomplished artist who had studied at the Cooper Institute in New York City. In addition to giving art lessons, she sold many of her watercolour paintings. As a parson’s wife, she was modest and did not sign her works — making them difficult to identify. Two of her paintings are in my possession.]
Such a multitude of interests meant a busy life for both of us – she with her brush and I with my pen. Other positions took up a considerable amount of time, and procured no financial return, but brought with them not a little enjoyment and the sense of added usefulness in the community. It is impossible to attempt any adequate account of the active life of my children, much less of that of their dear mother. Any attempt would be too inadequate, but I hope to add at a future day.
Excerpt from Book of Family History, by The Ven. William Odber Raymond, LL.D, FRSC. © 2009 George McNeillie – all rights reserved [published here with permission; see footnote].
Meet Us at the Head of Lake Ontario – UELAC Dominion Conference, May 30 – June 2.
We are offering a tour of historic Niagara. Take a look at these remarkable new robotic photographic scenes. We won’t take you over the edge of the falls as you see here but we will go through historic Niagara-on-the-Lake. Take note of the beautiful old buildings and in particular, the legislative building. This is where Lieutenant John Graves Simcoe held the first parliament for Upper Canada. We will drive along the beautiful Niagara Parkway, initiated by the the Honourable Thomas B. McQuesten, of Hamilton, Minister of Highways in Ontario. We’ll visit famous Fort George and travel through this rich wine country to Ravine Winery. We will enjoy lunch at the top of the ravine and actually go into the Loyalist home that was originally built for David Secord. We’ll also tour the home of the legendary heroine, Laura Secord. The trip is topped off with a visit to Queenston where the great British commander, Major General Sir Isaac Brock is memorialized and buried.
Take a look at these aerial photographs/video [editor’s note: the photography is outstanding and unique] for a completely novel taste of the Niagara area.
The conference is hosted by the Hamilton Branch and will take place in Burlington.
For conference information and registration, visit Meet us at the Head of Lake Ontario.
When I started researching my ancestry in the 1990s, I was surprised to learn that I had many Loyalist ancestors. The first one I discovered was Mordecai Starkey, and I have since proven that connection and received my UEL certificate in 2005. I’m working now on proving the others.
Several years ago, my niece and her husband bought a house in Norfolk, Virginia that’s on the national register of historic places, and they have spent many of those years refurbishing it.
A little over a year ago, a small article was published in the Loyalist Gazette (Fall 2011, page 26) about the history of the Norfolk Mace. The mace was presented to the city by Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie in 1753. During the Revolutionary War, it was buried in a garden to protect it from the British. During the American Civil War, Colonel William Lamb hid the mace under a fireplace in his house on Bute Street in Norfolk to protect it from the Union Army.
I was surprised again when I read the article and realized that’s the same house my niece now owns. I sent my copy of the Loyalist Gazette to her. She was excited to have it and keeps it in a notebook along with other information she has accumulated on the house.
…Gayle Pittman, Georgetown, Texas
The April 27 meeting of the St. Lawrence Branch was held at the MacIntosh Inn .where several members of the nearby Col. Edward Jessup Branch joined in. Grietje and I presented our skit about the adventures of Adam Young UE and his wife, Catherine Elizabeth Schremling. Lorraine Reoch UE gave a short history of Old Morrisburg. This year the St. Lawrence Branch is greatly involved with several War of 1812 events as battles raged at Chrysler’s farm and Hoople’s Creek. Read more details with photos (PDF).
Thanks to those who have contributed to the slowly growing index of Loyalists and the War of 1812.
We have added a new entry for Adam Haines and his five sons thanks to John Haynes.
If you have a family ancestry which qualifies (see the heading of the page with entries), please submit to firstname.lastname@example.org. Our rich history continues to emerge through these family histories.
- The Spring 2013 issue of the Loyalist Gazette was mailed this past week – Enjoy.
- Old Holy Trinity Church in Middleton, NS. (Consecrated 1791) twitpic.com/cmo91u
- Some (ten) facts about British soldiers at the time of the American Revolution
- The 2013 Tall Ships Tour commemorating War of 1812 sails into Brockville for weekend of June 14 – 16. See the events planned for this big weekend – don’t miss them.
- Siege mentality: Ohio’s Fort Meigs (near Toledo) marks battle’s bicentennial. The Americans survived a siege from April 28 to May 5, 1813.
- The Tecumseh Parkway is now officially open in Chatham-Kent. It showcases 11 historically significant sites across the municipality over 70km. (with short video)
- Photos from the Havre de Grace War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration this weekend, commemorating the British Attack on May 3 1813.
- ‘Through the Perilous Fight’: An excerpt from the book on a pivotal time in the War of 1812 (attack on Baltimore and the Star Spangled banner)
- Bringing archival work [and archivists, and history’s neat tidbits] out of the backroom (NY Times)
- Lewiston NY: Lee Simonson, volunteer director for the War of 1812 bicentennial has been awarded the “Spirit of 1812” medal by the United States Daughters of 1812.
- The Brock Memorial Foundation is a Guernsey Registered Charity. It has been established to support projects that commemorate the life and legacy of Major General Sir Isaac Brock. RBC Wealth Management, part of the Royal Bank of Canada, has announced that it is to be the sole corporate sponsor of a planned statue in St. Peter Port of Brock. Gold and Silver coin medallions to Brock are now available.
As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:
– Gilbert, Isaac – from Sandra McNamara
– Woolley, Daniel – from Sandra McNamara
– Wyckoff, Peter – from Sandra McNamara
Please help us build the directory by contributing more information for it. Contact email@example.com for instructions and guidance.
Margaret Krize of New York State is seeking to supplement her knowledge of Lt. Donald McLeod, the 5th great grandfather of her husband. Initially, she posted her query on the UELAC Facebook Timeline last week. To date she has gathered the following information mainly from Simeon Perkin’s diary.
Lt. Donald McLeod (1760-1787) Born in 1760 on the Isle of Harris, Inverness-shire, Scotland Mentioned in the Simeon Perkins diary that his parents were Angus and Margaret McLeod. Arrived in Transport “Hannah” under command of Cpt. John Howard, King’s Orange Rangers. He seemingly had been in Captain James Brace’s Company earlier in 1778. Occupation: Lieutenant, King’s Orange Rangers. 1st November, 1781 – Marriage to Elizabeth Waterman, Liverpool, Nova Scotia- Died – 3rd Sept 1787, Liverpool, Nova Scotia, Canada. He was assisting Lemuel Drew. Buried Tuesday 4th Sept 1787. Mr. Jessop preached at the Meeting House on the occasion. Died, Tuesday 4th September 1787. Buried in the Common Burying Ground, Liverpool, Nova Scotia, Canada.
If you have additional information, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org.