“Loyalist Trails” 2013-32: August 11, 2013

In this issue:
Speaking out Against Loyalist Racism, by Stephen Davidson
UELAC Scholarship: Matthew A. Zembo
Loyalist Quarterly, by Paul Bunnell: Summer 2013 Issue
Where in the World?
Loyalists and War of 1812: William Caldwell
Did Your Loyalist Line Participate in The War of 1812?
First Place Advertising Award Goes to Windsor Star “1812, The War that Defined Us”
From the Twittersphere and Beyond
Last Post: Norman James Hawley, UE (addendum)
Last Post: Lorne Elkin Rozovsky


Speaking out Against Loyalist Racism, by Stephen Davidson

It is a sobering statistic that for every four loyalists who fled the rebellious thirteen colonies, there was one African slave accompanying those political refugees. The loyalists took at least 15,000 of their own slaves when they left the new United States for England, the West Indies and other parts of the British Empire. Thanks to the loyalists, no less than 1,300 enslaved African-Americans were brought to Nova Scotia. This legacy of bigotry and racism is a sad chapter in loyalist history. Horrifying as these numbers are, there was a very small handful of loyalists who recognized slavery and racial discrimination for the evils that they were. While they did not change the racist attitudes of their generation, they deserve to be recognized.

Charleston, South Carolina’s rebels exiled the Rev. Alexander Hewat as loyalist in 1777. The Presbyterian minister had done his best to be “an example of steadfast adherence to his King and Country”. He had been able to preserve “those under his influence {to remain} steady and loyal almost to a man”. Rebels ordered Hewat to stop praying for the king in 1776; he consequently prayed for “those in Lawful Authority over us”. But such word play only delayed the inevitable. When he was ordered to renounce his loyalty to the crown and openly support the rebels, Hewat refused. Within two months, he was on his way to England.

Hewat’s escape delayed his completion of a project that had absorbed him over the past few years – a history of South Carolina and Georgia. In 1779, the clergyman’s book was published anonymously in Great Britain. He hoped that it might help those in the mother country understand the colonies’ importance to the empire, as well as Britain’s importance to the colonies.

An Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of the Colonies of South Carolina and Georgia was scathing in its description of slavery in the south. South Carolina had twice as many slaves as whites in its population and was notorious for treating its slaves with greater cruelty than any other colony. Hewat was horrified at how helpless human beings were continually being turned into legal property. “Their natural rights as human creatures are entirely disregarded . . . they are exposed defenceless to the insolence, caprice, and passions of owners, obliged to labour all their life without any prospect of reward, or any hope of an end of their toil until the day of their death.”

Hewat’s message went unheeded, but he was not forgotten. Because he wrote the state’s first history, this loyalist clergyman is the namesake for Charleston, South Carolina’s Hewatt’s Square.

Benjamin Marston was a loyalist from Marblehead, Massachusetts. Once a slave owner himself, the seagoing merchant was sickened by what he witnessed in the West Indies in 1779.

“I saw here a cargo of these poor creatures landed out of a King’s ship . . . drove like so many cattle to a large yard, men and women, boys and girls all together, each as naked as God made them, saving a piece of coarse linen … Each slave with a wooded tally tied upon it . . . Great God! What must be the feelings of a sensible human being to be torn from all that is reckoned valuable and clear, and to be condemned to the most servile drudgery and infamous uses without the least hope of relief . . . I fancy there is some mistake in ye very trite maxim that all men are by nature equal — if so, why such an inequality in their conditions. ‘Tis a phenomenon which Ominiscience only can account for — to Him I leave it.”

But Marston’s thoughts were not published; he did not speak at abolition society meetings; he simply recorded his shock in his diary. Nevertheless, his reaction shows that within his society there were those who recoiled at the racism accepted by loyalist society.

One Massachusetts loyalist who did take a public stand against slavery was Ward Chipman. In 1800, he was the pro bono legal counsel for a black woman named Nancy in a case that tested the legality of slavery in New Brunswick. Chipman and his partner, Samuel Street, provided such a well-structured argument that they convinced half of the Supreme Court justices that slavery was, indeed, wrong. However, because it was a split decision, no judgement could be delivered, and Nancy was returned to her master. Slavery would not be made illegal in New Brunswick for two more decades.

Chipman later described himself as “a volunteer for the rights of human nature”. In a limited fashion that might be true. Chipman took the side of black refugees who found sanctuary in New Brunswick after the War of 1812. Due to his intercession, these blacks were given land grants. However, he recommended that the blacks only receive 50-acre lots instead of 200-acre lots. Whether intentionally or not, Chipman’s actions locked the black refugees into poverty, compelling them to become a cheap source of labour for the whites of Saint John.

The brightest light in this tragic heritage of exploitation and inequality is the loyalist settlement that was founded on abolitionist principles. In 1783, two hundred fifty-four loyal Quakers and Baptists left New York for the shores of the Bay of Fundy. Their purpose was to create the first and only intentional anti-slavery settlement in British North America. The Charlotte County settlement had posted the following sign: NO SLAVE MASTERS ADMITTED. Here were loyalists with a vision of a post-revolutionary society that included equality and freedom for all. Belle View at Beaver Harbour is the only known exception to the universal slavery of early loyalist New Brunswick.

Unfortunately, this vision of a new society never took root in the loyalist colony. Within four years of Belle View’s founding, the town was destroyed by fire; its citizens moved on to other settlements.

Although white loyalists were silent in the midst of so much human suffering, the Black Loyalists and enslaved Africans who settled in British North America were not. There were Africans who did not passively accept their bigoted society and its discriminatory laws. Next week’s Loyalist Trails will spotlight some of the blacks who resisted loyalist racism in New Brunswick.

To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

UELAC Scholarship: Matthew A. Zembo

Matthew A. Zembo was awarded the 2013 UELAC Graduate Scholarship. When asked his thoughts on the distinguished award he commented “I would like to thank the UELAC for the award and opportunity it has given me to continue my studies at King’s College London.” He will be pursuing his Ph.D. in War Studies concentrating on the War of American Independence.

Originally from Saratoga Springs, New York, Matthew Zembo’s interest in history grew from the historical traces that surrounded him while growing up. Many Loyalists who evacuated to Canada left homes located in upstate New York. Throughout the American Revolution, this area served as a theatre for battles between British soldiers, revolutionary soldiers, and Loyalists, fighting for their home and their country. It was growing up in such close proximity to so many important historical sites that sparked his interest in history. The Saratoga Battlefield played a crucial role in developing his passion for military history but, in a cruel twist of fate (as an American), it is also where his fascination with the Redcoats of the British Army directed his research towards British military history.

From his earliest years as a young student in elementary school, Matthew loved military history of all time periods, from the Classical Greeks to the Modern Era. This love guided him to pursue a degree in History at the University of Albany, in Albany, New York State. To understand the British viewpoint, he accepted an opportunity to study at Oxford University specializing in Medieval and Renaissance history and working on archeological digs as diverse as Fort William Henry by Lake George, New York to Kavousi, Crete, Greece.

After his graduation from the University of Albany, Matthew worked in Cultural Research Management in Upstate New York. In 1999 he accepted an invitation into the MA program in War Studies at Kings College, London, England. His MA dissertation, titled “British Army Training and Tactics during the American War for Independence: The Burgoyne Campaign of 1777” takes a deeper and more fully faceted look at Burgoyne’s Army and its training and combat performance to shed new light on this important campaign that impacted the national history of three nations.

Upon completing his Master’s degree, with honours, in 2001, he was offered a position at Hudson Valley Community College in Troy, New York. Professor Zembo teaches US History, Western Civilization and military history. He has lead international study tours to England and Ireland for faculty, students, and interested community members. Zembo also supports the community through independent projects. His work led to a ground breaking exhibit on the American Locomotive Company, owner of the Montreal Locomotive Works, and the creation of the Alco Historical and Technical Society to support further research into and protection of the archives and artifacts related to the company’s 100 year history. Through a collaborative effort between the state, a commercial company, community members, and archaeologists, he assisted the State of New York to locate and preserve the battlefield at Fort Ann, New York. He continues to volunteer at local cultural and historical not-for-profit organizations and museums including offering free living history programs, lectures, and educational opportunities for adult learners and school groups. Outside of the academic sphere, his interest in military history and enhanced education opportunities led him to re-enact the life of British soldiers in the American Revolution as a Sergeant of the 34th Regiment of Foot’s Light Company. The 34th Lights participated in Burgoyne’s Saratoga Campaign and garrisoned Canada until after the Revolution. He also represents a British “Tommy” of the 1st Battalion, South Wales Borderers in the Great War.

His academic studies concentrate on strategy and tactics, specifically the tactical and operational adaptation of regular armies to irregular warfare. That theme will continue with his Ph.D. studies. His working dissertation title is War From the Side of Canada: British military Operations on the Northern Frontier1775-1783. The dissertation will discuss the role of Crown Forces based in Canada and their impact on the American War of Independence. It will also focus on the forging of British Regulars, Loyalists and Native Americans in an effective and dominating military force on the Northern Frontier. The question of whether Loyalists and Native American forces were better employed on the Northern Frontier than in other theatres will be explored. Finally, and most controversially, did the British Regulars, Loyalists and Native Americans actually win the war on the Northern Frontier only to be abandoned by a war-weary British Parliament?

…Matt Zembo

Loyalist Quarterly, by Paul Bunnell: Summer 2013 Issue

The latest issue of the only U.S. journal devoted to Loyalist studies contains, among others, these topics:

– Editors Comments

– Future UELAC Conferences

– UELA Vancouver BC Brach Celebrates Loyalist Day

– Looking Back With Asa Kimball and Oliver Perley – Near Rebellion

– The Book of Negros, Vol. 3

– Associated Loyalists

– Revolutionary War Timeline

– Support Our Cousins to the North

– Loyalist Fredericton New Brunswick

More information including subscription details at Paul J. Bunnell’s website.

Paul J. Bunnell, UE, Editor/Author

Where in the World?

Where are Bob and Grietje McBride?

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is. If you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well – send to Jennifer Childs.

Loyalists and the War of 1812

Thanks to those who have contributed to the slowly growing index of Loyalists and the War of 1812.

We have added a new entry for William Caldwell thanks to Marvin Recker.

If you have a family ancestry which qualifies (see the heading of the page with entries), please submit to loyalist.trails@uelac.org. Our rich history continues to emerge through these family histories.

Did Your Loyalist Line Participate in The War of 1812?

I have learned a lot, both about Loyalists and about them and/or their children who participated in the War of 1812. It has been fascinating to read notes about different theatres of the later war.

At the moment we have only two more of these submissions “on the shelf”; there are probably many more. Thanks to those who have contributed to “Loyalists and the War of 1812”. If you have a family ancestry which qualifies (see the heading of the page with entries), please submit to loyalist.trails@uelac.org. Our rich history continues to emerge through these family stories.


First Place Advertising Award Goes to Windsor Star “1812, The War that Defined Us”

Those who were fortunate enough to attend the UELAC Annual Conference and AGM in Winnipeg last year, came home with a 56-page glossy brochure highlighting War of 1812 bicentennial events offered in Essex County, Ontario and the surrounding region – see the cover page. Bicentennial Branch in partnership with UELAC was represented in a promotional ad on page 39.

On August 10, 2013 the Windsor Star received a first place award for this special section publication in the business development category for newspapers with a circulation between 50,000 and 100,000. There were 130 entries in the category won by the Star. The award was presented in Chicago by the Inland Press Association.

With contributions from historians, African-Canadians, French-Canadians and indigenous people the magazine was “not only a promotional vehicle to highlight the bicentennial events but it also became a historical snapshot of the region.” ~ Ken Stewart, Director of advertising.

Read the announcement.

Congratulations to the Windsor Star. We are proud to be a part of it!

…Bonnie Schepers, Bicentennial Branch

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

Last Post: Norman James Hawley, UE (addendum)

James died suddenly on Friday July 12th, 2013, branch Vice-President and Financial Officer for the UELHCP. He was born on May 30, 1938 in the Napanee area to William James Hawley (see prior posting).

Norman began to research his Loyalist Hawley ancestors about 10 years ago, and finally received his first UEL certificate as a descendant of Ichabod HawleyUE at our Annual General Meeting in May 2008. Norm was then totally hooked on his family tree and the Loyalists. At that time he was also elected to its board as Director for Northumberland. Because of his background in finances, he was asked to join the Management Board for the United Empire Loyalist Heritage Centre and Park in Adolphustown in the fall of 2008. Norman was involved in the assisting with the planning, promotion and running of the Loyalist Settlement Experience, which celebrated the 225th Anniversary of the Loyalist Landing and Dominion Conference in June, 2009. He was also elected to the office of Vice-President for the Branch that year.

Norman also became a member of the Hawley Family Association, and was the first Canadian to attend their annual reunion, when he participated in the 80th Hawley Family Reunion in Rochester, NY. He was fortunate to obtain an original copy of the rare book “Hawley Record”, published in 1890. He spoke to the Loyalists about the family history at their Annual Meeting in 2010. Norman represented both the Bay of Quinte Branch and UEL Heritage Centre and Park at various other historic events, meetings and presentations throughout the region over the next few years. He took a more active role in the management of the operations of the park, particularly with the financial management and the camping. He thoroughly enjoyed the countless hours he spent as a volunteer there, making many new contacts, and renewing friendships with older acquaintances from the Napanee area. More recently he was presented with an Ontario Volunteers Award for his work for the past 5 years with the organizations.

…Brian Tackaberry UE, Bay of Quinte Branch

Last Post: Lorne Elkin Rozovsky

Lawyer, author, educator, and human rights advocate, died August 5, 2013 at his home in Bloomfield, Conn., after a 15-month battle with pancreatic cancer. He was 70.

A native of Timmins, Ontario Mr. Rozovsky spent his latter years in the United States after a distinguished career in Canada, where he was made Queen’s Counsel in Nova Scotia. He authored 18 books and more than 600 articles on health law. He also wrote on Jewish customs and laws, published online by Chabad.org.

A past member of the faculties of Law, Medicine and Dentistry at Dalhousie University in Halifax, he was instrumental in establishing the Health Law Institute. A student writing award at the Institute was recently established to honor Mr. Rozovsky and his wife. Among his books were The Canadian Patient’s Book of Rights, AIDS and Canadian Law, and Canadian Hospital Law, the first book on the subject published in Canada.

Mr. Rozovsky believed in serving every community in which he lived. In Canada, he gave “Concerts in Historic Settings,” worked with special needs children in the Halifax Junior Bengal Lancers, and served as the Atlantic representative to the National Ballet of Canada. In the United States, Mr. Rozovsky served on town committees in Bloomfield and was a past President of Temple Beth-El in Richmond, Virginia.

Mr. Rozovsky was facile at creating ecumenical bonds; among his close friends were faculty members at Providence College in Rhode Island, a Catholic, Dominican school and the alma mater of his wife and sons.

A son of the late Hyman and Gladys (Freiman) Rozovsky, Mr. Rozovsky was a graduate of the University of New Brunswick and the University of Toronto.

He is survived by his wife, Fay (nee Frank) Rozovsky, and their two sons, Joshua and Aaron, and his beloved beagles, Tevye and Motl.

A graveside service will be held at 11 a.m. Friday, August 9, 2013, at Shaarei Zedek Cemetery in Saint John, New Brunswick. Shiva will be private.

In lieu of flowers, the family requests that donations be made in Mr. Rozovsky’s honor to the Saint John Jewish Museum, Beagles of New England States (B.O.N.E.S), the Rozovsky Memorial Lecture Series at the Farmington Valley Jewish Congregation-Emek Shalom, The Theological Exchange Between Catholics and Jews at Providence College, or a charity of your choice.