“Loyalist Trails” 2013-47: December 15, 2013
In this issue:
– The Loyalist at Washington’s Inauguration, by Stephen Davidson
– Visions of (Loyalist) Sugar Plums, by Stephen Davidson
– The Loyalists: Discoveries in a New Format
– Book Review: Col. William Marsh, Vermont Patriot & Loyalist
– Trails Article Triggers New Research: Hoffman / Hoferer Family
– Lest we Forget
– Where in the World?
– Loyalists and War of 1812
– From the Twittersphere and Beyond
– Additions to the Loyalist Directory
– Editor’s Note
– Last Post
+ Doris Marcellus (née Kitchen), UE
+ Blanche Isadora Adams, UE
+ John (“Johnny”) Edmund Buck, UE
+ Patricia Ann Ault, UE
George Washington had very firm views on loyalists. When he reflected on the loyal refugees fleeing Boston in March of 1776, he wrote his brother, “By all accounts there never existed a more miserable set of beings than these wretched creatures now are. One or two of them have done what a great number ought to have done long ago-committed suicide.” One can only wonder, then, if he was aware that one of those wretched creatures was among the dignitaries taking part in his inauguration as the first president of the United States of America. The date was April 30, 1789; the place was New York City – and the loyalist was the Rev. Benjamin Moore. This is his story.
Benjamin Moore was born in 1748 Newtown (now Elmhurst) in Queens County, New York. He took theological studies at King’s College, and just before the beginning of the American Revolution, he sailed to England to be ordained as an Anglican minister. Upon his return to New York City, he became the assistant rector at Trinity Church under its new rector, the Rev. Charles Inglis, an outspoken loyalist. After an angry patriot mob forced the president of King’s College to flee to England, Moore was made the institution’s temporary president – in spite of his loyalist principles.
In 1778, Moore married Charity Clarke, the daughter of a British sea captain. The couple had their only son, Clement, the following year. One of the infant Moore’s godfathers was a New York loyalist named Jonathan Odell. Moore later became the godfather of Odell’s son, William Franklin Odell. However, since the Odells became refugees at the end of the revolution – settling in Fredericton, New Brunswick – Moore’s contact with his godson was limited to correspondence alone.
Moore and his wife not only associated with loyalists, and faithfully prayed for the king’s health each Sunday, they also entertained loyalist and British soldiers in their home in Newtown. Queens County was generally loyal to the crown during the revolution, and it was there that many British soldiers were quartered in public inns, unoccupied buildings, and private homes. Benjamin’s son was born at Chelsea farm, the home of Moore’s mother-in-law, Mrs. Clarke, in 1779. Family history notes that she was “obliged to accept whatever military guard might be quartered upon her”, but fortunately her guest was a “gallant officer and a courteous gentleman”. Such British soldiers were guests in Newtown right up until the fall of 1783.
Captain Patrick Kennedy, the commanding officer of the Maryland Loyalists, later wrote of his fond memories of Rev. Moore’s hospitality. The loyal minister was among the “many agreeable families of that place” who provided social events to relieve the encamped soldiers’ tedium during the winter of 1782-83. “I owe many happy hours of festivity and innocent mirth” – he later wrote – to Moore’s family. He characterized Benjamin as being of “most amiable manners, humane, benevolent, affectionate; as as much revered in private life as he is admired and distinguished in the pulpit.”
In the midst of such socializing, Moore must have seen that more troubling days lay ahead. The revolution was at an end, and things had not gone well for the “friends of the king”. Many of Moore’s loyalist parishioners were preparing to leave New York on evacuation ships bound for Nova Scotia and England. Odell and Inglis, two fellow clergymen, had already joined the loyalist exodus. Moore decided to remain in New York.
This had its consequences. With Inglis’ resignation, Moore was made the rector of Trinity Church. But now that New York had returned to patriot control, the Whig members of Trinity Church were not about to have a loyalist as their pastor. They compelled Moore to step down and made the patriot Samuel Provoost their new rector. They did, however, permit Moore, to remain with the church as its assistant minister.
It was Rev. Provoost who conducted the chapel service that was held in St. Paul’s Chapel following the inauguration of George Washington in 1789. Earlier in the afternoon, Washington was sworn in as the new president on the balcony of Federal Hall in lower Manhattan. Following the inaugural address that he gave in the senate chamber, the new president attended an Episcopal service (his denomination) at the church he would continue to attend during the first years of his term of office. The Rev. Benjamin Moore, one of those most wretched creatures Washington had belittled 13 years earlier, assisted at that service. One is left to wonder if the new president was aware that one of the ministers in attendance that day was more partial to praying for George III than George Washington.
The remainder of Moore’s life could hardly be called wretched. In 1784, the loyalist minister became the president of his old alma mater, Columbia (King’s) College. Six years later, following Provoost’s resignation, Moore became the rector of Trinity Church. In 1801, he was made the bishop of New York.
Three years later the loyalist minister found himself in a situation almost as surreal as his presence at Washington’s inauguration. As Alexander Hamilton lay dying from wounds sustained in a duel, he called for Moore to administer Holy Communion. Hamilton, whose face still appears on the American 20 dollar bill, was a founding father and the first secretary of the treasury. Who would ever have imagined that the man next to him at his death would be a loyalist?
Moore continued as the bishop of New York until his death at 67 years of age in 1816. His wife Charity died at 92 in 1838.
Moore’s friend Charles Inglis became the Anglican bishop of Nova Scotia, while Jonathan Odell became the provincial secretary of New Brunswick. Both positions were significant, but nothing compared to Moore’s. One can only speculate about what contributions that loyalist vicar of Trinity Church might have made had he joined the exodus of refugees to the Maritimes.
Settling in British North America would certainly have changed life for Moore’s son – as well as Clement’s place in history. Clement Clarke Moore became a professor of Oriental and Greek literature, but he is most famous for one poem that is credited to him. Perhaps you’ve heard of “The Night Before Christmas”?
The story of this poem and visions of (loyalist) sugarplums follows below.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
On December 24, 1783, the four year-old son of an Anglican minister was preparing to celebrate Christmas in his home in Newtown, New York. It was the first Christmas free of war that little Clement Moore had ever known. The American Revolution that had sent his godfather into exile was now over. After almost 40 such peaceful Christmases had been celebrated, Clement sat down and began to write a poem to amuse his own young children: “T’was the Night Before Christmas and all through the house, not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse.” It would become the most famous of Yuletide poems.
Born into a loyalist family in the middle of the American Revolution, the young Clement would have heard much about (and understood very little of) the changing forturnes of the British army. His parents entertained loyalist officers in their home; his father, the Rev. Benjamin Moore, had led Anglican worship services for both the king’s soldiers and New York loyalists in the city. But unlike the thousands of loyalist refugees who boarded evacuation ships to take them to sanctuary elsewhere in the British Empire, the Moore family decided to remain in New York at the end of the revolution.
Clement Clarke Moore became a Hebrew scholar and taught Oriental and Greek literature at Manhattan’s General Theological Seminary. Although he designed St. Peter’s Church, authored scholarly books, and founded New York’s Chelsea Square, it is Moore’s contributions to Christmas lore that have given him his place in history. Thanks to A Visit from St. Nicholas, we now assume that Santa Claus is a jolly round fellow who dresses in red, is carried through the air by a sleigh drawn, and has names for each of his eight reindeer.
Had Rev. Moore’s family followed his friend and fellow loyalist, Jonathan Odell, to New Brunswick, it is unlikely that his son’s life would have followed the path it took in New York; Clement’s Christmas poem would never have been written. However, the poem itself did eventually travel north. Clement enclosed A Visit from St. Nicholas in a letter to his refugee godfather. Today, Odell’s copy can be viewed in the archives of the University of New Brunswick in Fredericton.
Each year, Christmas cards, advertising, and school concerts borrow lines from Moore’s poem to celebrate the season. One of the most famous is the one with “the children nestled all snug in their beds, while visions of sugar-plums danced in their heads”. Only the families of the upper classes would have been able to enjoy sugarplums during Clement Moore’s younger days. Also known as comfits or dragees, these candies were a labour-intensive confectionary, taking days to create. A pan of sugarplums had to be kept in motion over a consistent heat source while a layer of sugar was poured over them. After this layer hardened, it received another layer of sugar. The process continued until the sugarplums reached the desired size.
During the American Revolution, anyone who worked in the sugar refining business was known as a “sugar baker”. The factories or refineries were called sugarhouses. They were long buildings built of iron, stone and brick to prevent their destruction by fire, an ever-present danger given the combustible qualities of sugar. After its arrival in the American colonies, West Indies cane sugar had to be dissolved in clean water, boiled down to a concentrate, cooled, and then made into crystals. Because heat was used in the refining process, those who produced sugar became known as sugar bakers.
The largest building in the British colonies was a sugarhouse built in 1763 by a New York City loyalist named Henry Cuyler. It had six stories in addition to its basement. Following the revolution, it became the property of another loyalist named William Rhinelander. Local lore maintained that the British forces converted this sugarhouse into a prison for rebels. While this is not true, at least two other New York sugar refineries were used to incarcerate patriots. The five-story Liberty Street sugar house initially held 50 prisoners, but that number swelled to 500. The Van Cortlandt factory near Trinity Church also housed rebel prisoners. Their sturdy construction and size made sugar refineries – and some church buildings—ideal for quick conversion to prisoner of war camps.
But despite the seizure of some sugarhouses for use as prisons, sugar refining continued in the rebelling colonies throughout the revolution. At least two loyalists were employed in this trade, one in Philadelphia and the other in New York’s Tryon County.
John Cameron had emigrated from Scotland to New York in 1773; within four years’ time the growing unrest with rebel neighbours forced him to seek sanctuary in Canada. He had amassed a number of cattle and horses, and grew corn on the land that he leased in Cartwright Townships. Following his escape to the north, rebels seized and then sold all of Cameron’s livestock, farming implements and furniture. Among his stolen goods were “utensils for making sugar”. Whether Cameron was ever able to refine sugar after settling among the loyalist refugees of the Kingston Township is not known.
A loyalist with an unusual first name was an apprentice to a Philadelphia sugar baker after immigrating in 1775. Justice Walker may not have worked in a sugar house for very long as documents of the era note that he also “kept a shop” in which he sold beer and rum. Rebels tried to conscript the loyalist into their militia “a few weeks after he landed”. When Walker refused, they “turned out his place”. At some point in his stay in Philadelphia, rebels also tried Walker for hiding Hessian soldiers in his cellar. Finding him guilty, they sentenced him to be flogged. The loyalist, his wife and their three children quickly sought sanctuary in New York City. There he worked in a sugarhouse until the end of the war. By 1784, Walker and his family had returned to England where the British government compensated him with £65 for his losses in the revolution.
If these two loyalist refiners ever enjoyed “visions of sugar-plums” following the revolution, they would inevitably contain impurities – the bitter memories of rebel persecution.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
Having just finished Joseph Boyden’s “The Orenda“, I was attracted to a Tweet about Christopher Moore’s blog on November 6 entitled “Labelle on Thwaites’s Jesuit Relations Centenary.” Loyalist Trails readers may remember Mr. Moore’s “The Loyalists: Revolution, Exile and Settlement, published in 1984 to coincide with the two-hundredth anniversary of loyalist settlement in Canada, which mixes biographies of prominent and obscure individuals with a broad narrative of the loyalist experience. It received the Secretary of State’s Prize for Excellence in Canadian Studies in 1985.” (Wikipedia). It was reviewed by Earle Thomas, one of the UELAC Honorary Vice-Presidents, for the December issue of the Loyalist Gazette. While a subsequent visit to his website revealed that the book is still available in trade paperback, I also discovered that it was available for “Kindle” eReaders. In fact, The Loyalists: Revolution, Exile and Settlement was but one of 103 Loyalist titles available from Amazon in ebook format.
More than ten years ago, the UELAC Education/Outreach Committee distributed a recommended reading list for elementary schools entitled “Books for the Young at Heart” and later posted it to the Dominion website. Compared with the current ease of discovery with computer search engines, reading the pages of that early list appears archaic. Obviously, the UELAC Education Committee does not have find volunteers to draft titles that are also published in this electronic format when the research is available right there on the PC, laptop, iPad or cellphone. We have come a long way since those bicentennial celebration years.
Note: this is not a promotion of any one brand of ereader.
Col. William Marsh, Vermont Patriot & Loyalist, by Jennifer S.H. Brown & Wilson B. Brown (Denver: Tiger Rock Press, 2013). Softcover: 415 pages.
Biographies of individual Loyalists are rather rare, and any new one is a welcome addition. This is especially true of this book, as it gives the most complete look at the life of William Marsh yet, including considerable background information regarding the complicated founding of Vermont and how the American Revolution basically changed everything.
Marsh was born in Connecticut in 1738, resided for a time in Dutchess Co NY and was firmly settled in the New Hampshire Grants (future Vermont) before the Rev War. Initially he served as a Rebel in the Green Mountain Boys wherein he earned the rank of colonel, but in 1777 he joined the British, severing initially as a Commissioner during the Burgoyne Campaign. He spent years in Quebec where he worked in a Secret Service capacity and was actively involved in negotiations that could have brought Vermont in as a British Colony rather than a State. Ultimately his work kept Vermont free from the warfare and raiding that frequented neighbouring New York.
Almost all pf Marsh’s children settled in Canada, after receiving grants as the children of a Loyalist. As for William and his wife Sarah (Marsh) after some time spent in the Bay of Quinte area they returned to Vermont. The attractive book cover photo of the Green Mountains was literally taken from their yard. As well the well preserved markers of William and Sarah are nearby and his is notable for its many Masonic symbols and for being the only Rev War veteran’s marker that features both Rebel and Loyalist plaques!
I can’t stress enough the breadth of background information in the book. It moves it far beyond a basic biography for descendants. If you, for example, had ancestors in Vermont this book is worth checking.
Professors Jennifer and Wilson Brown are to be congratulated. Having had frequent correspondence with them over the years, I have seen this book develop along the way. The wait has been worth it! Available on Amazon.
…Peter Johnson UE, Bay of Quinte Branch
Judy Saunders recently wrote an article about Jacob Huffman, UE: The Trek West, by Descendants. I contacted her; we are distance cousins. We are descendents to the Hoffmans mentioned in the the book by Eula Lapp “To Their Heirs Forever”. This is the first contact we have had with Jacob Hoffman’s descendents from western Canada.
This pushed me to expand my knowledge of the North American Hoffmans. Searching the internet I discovered the Hoferer Family Tree.
The original Hoferers came from Sweden to Estonia with King Gustavus when he conquered Estonia. Russia attacked Estonia in 1710 and drove the Hoferers out to Holland. There the family split and a part went to New York and the other went up the Rhine River to the Palatine area. Their name was changed to the German Hoffman. The rest is outlined in Eula Lapp’s book.
I wanted you to know and thank you and Loyalist Trails for helping me find a big piece of the Hoffman / Hoferer family history. Give me time and I will write an article on the Hoffman Loyalists. Thanks.
On November 2nd Catharine Lockhart, UE, an Air Cadet Flight Corporal with the 23rd Squadron, spoke to members of Colonel John Butler (Niagara) Branch about her experiences this summer at the 3 week cadet camp she attended, situated within CFB Borden. She told those assembled about the importance of “The Last Post”, which was played every evening, to show respect for those who have fallen in war.
Catharine reminded us, that when we wear a poppy for Remembrance Day, we should think about those who have given their lives as well as those still serving today and to recognize the sacrifices that have been made on our behalf. She finished her presentation by reading “In Flanders Fields”. Catharine’s proud family include, grandparents, Shirley & Jim Lockhart, parents Chris & Tamara and brother Iain Lockhart, all members of Col John Butler Branch.
…Rod and Bev Craig
Where is Hamilton Branch member Fred Hayward?
To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is. If you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well – send to Jennifer Childs.
More submissions for Loyalists and the War of 1812. will be welcomed and will be published as they become available – two or three are now in hand, look for one in the next issue.
If you have a family ancestry which qualifies (see the heading of the page with entries), please submit to email@example.com. Our rich history continues to emerge through these family histories.
- Book Review: “Battle for the Fourteenth Colony” by Mark R. Anderson – Recalling the American battle to ‘liberate’ Quebec from the British
- Tar and Feathers, a punishment for some of our Loyalist ancestors. But what do you know about the punishment; herewith some interesting details titled “5 Myths of Tarring and Feathering” at the Journal of the American Revolution
- Pre-launch of ‘Shadows in the Tree‘ a novel inspired by author Jennifer DeBruin UE Loyalist ancestors. An article “Author inspired by history” in the Seaway News
- Library and Archives Canada has acquired a two-part manuscript diary about the 1758 siege of Louisbourg in Cape Breton.
- The Seven Years War or The French and Indian War: This site has some good resources and links. It notes 2008 as the 250th anniversary; 2013 is the 250th anniversary of the end of the war
- U of T acquires General Wolfe’s letters for almost $1.5-million – The Globe and Mail
- On Nov 10, 1808, Sir Guy Carleton, first Baron Dorchester, Governor-in-Chief of British North America died suddenly.
- The Battle of Crysler’s Farm, fought on muddy ploughed fields beside the St. Lawrence River on November 11, 1813, was a crucial moment in the history of Upper Canada and marked the end of the most serious attempt to that time to invade Canada.
- Remembering the burning of the Town of Niagara on the Lake and the unveiling of a new Coat of Arms and Flag.
- Old Fort Niagara and Village of Youngstown Will Mark Bicentennial of British Attack on Thursday Dec 19 – an early start
- The First Christmas Tree: Alison Barnes sets the record straight on who was really responsible for introducing this popular custom to Britain. History Today
- 13th Annual “a light at night” at Upper Canada Village runs on select nights until Jan 4. Stroll amongst over a million holiday lights!
- One of Benjamin Franklin’s most ingenious inventions was an unusual musical instrument he called the glass armonica, from the Italian word armonia, or harmony: by Two Nerdy History Girls.
- 6 Best Ways to Not Find Your Ancestors: The Ancestor Hunt
- Top Ten Royal History Books of 2013 list, by Carolyn Harris: Royal Historian
- The Most Beautiful Places On Earth – 20 photos and short descriptions
As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:
– Webster, Abraham – from John C. McArthur (volunteer Sandy McNamara)
Please help us build the directory by contributing more information for it. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org for instructions and guidance.
We ended our vacation after Cambodia with ten days in Myanmar where things are bustling and there is a sense of hope and progress, from being one of the poorest countries. Although each country was different, each seemed to us to have that same sense. The trip was eye-opening for us.
We have been home almost a week. Last Sunday was 36 hours long (date line and time zones) so we have been trying to adjust and catch up at the same time. I did manage to recover all my emails and get my old [familiar] computer back again, which is a real boon. That said, I have a lot of emails from people in my loyalist mail box which I have yet to address. I will whittle away at them and hope to get caught up by the new year.
Hope everyone is into the Christmas spirit – more than just the commercial part of it.
Doris Marie Marcellus, peacefully in her home surrounded by her loving family on Monday, December 2nd, 2013 in her 90th year. Doris is predeceased by her husband William (Bill) Alfred Marcellus and her parents Joseph William and Mary (Kadey) Kitchen of Port Dover. She is survived by daughters Ellen Fox (Brian Fox), Marilyn Marcellus and Susan Marcellus (Don Detweiler) and grandchildren.
Doris grew up on the Kitchen Farm on Lakeshore Road east of Port Dover. She attended Woodhouse #7 Lakeshore School and graduated from Port Dover High School followed by the commercial program at Simcoe High. At one point she taught typing and shorthand to the RCAF Servicemen based in Jarvis.
Doris married Bill upon his return from overseas with the RCAF. While employed in Brantford, they started a family and raising 3 daughters in the 1950’s. Doris was always very involved in her community and enjoyed volunteering. With her girls in school, Doris was hired full time at the Ontario School for the Blind (later named The W Ross Macdonald School) until her retirement in 1989. Doris took up china painting and became “addicted” to pottery.
Doris was able to trace her ancestors back to the late 1600s in England, Ireland and Scotland, their emigration to the US and movement north into Canada. Doris joined the United Empire Loyalist Association and proved her eligibility to have “UE” after her name. Doris was a member and past president of the Grand River Branch of the UEL Association of Canada and a member of the Brant and Norfolk Historical Society. As matriarch, Doris researched and penned two books of her family’s ancestry, history and stories passed down through the years, leaving a lasting legacy for current and future generations to enjoy.
Arrangements by BECKETT-GLAVES FAMILY FUNERAL CENTRE – Celebration of Life was December 10. Online condolences, donations and service details at www.beckettglaves.com. (Brantford Expositor)
Doris was President from 1981-1983 of the Grand River Branch UELAC. She was the representative for Chiefswood – the home of Pauline Johnson. Several years ago Grand River Branch gave donations to Chiefswood when they did extensive restoration to the house and Doris was the liaison. She designed the cover for the Branch newsletter “Branches”. Doris attended meeting until about two years ago on a regular basis, but sporadically since.
Born 2 July 1913; died peacefully at the Woodland Villa in Long Sault on Friday, November 29, 2013 age 100 years. Blanche Adams nee-Loucks formerly of Ingleside. Beloved wife of the late Donald Adams. Loved mother of Ann Grant (John) and William Adams all of Long Sault. Sadly missed by 5 grandchildren and 6 great grandchildren. Predeceased by her parents Horatio and Ethel (Stubbs) Loucks; 3 brothers Hugh, Merrill, Dean and 4 sisters Dora Vance, Norma Crawford, Nona Shaefer and Alta Coulthart.
A service in Celebration of Blanche Adams’ Life was celebrated in Trinity United Church Ingleside on Monday, December 2, 2013. Reverend Daniel Hayward officiating. Spring interment St. Lawrence Valley Cemetery. As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations to the Canadian Cancer Society would be appreciated by the family. Online condolences may be made at www.brownleefuneralhomes.com. (Cornwall Standard-Freeholder)
Blanche joined the St. Lawrence Branch on the same day as her husband, 9 Sept 1980. Her ancestor is William Loucks.
John passed peacefully in his sleep on November 29, 2013 in his 86th year at Woodland Villa in Long Sault, where he had moved to be closer to his family. He is survived by his sister Edith Neilson of Kingston, and his daughter Rebecca Doyle (Lawrence), granddaughter Kathleen Bergeron (Kyle), grandson Daniel Doyle, and great-granddaughter Evelyn Bergeron all of Cornwall.
John was predeceased by his wife Helen Doreen Buck (nee Card), his son Peter Myles Buck, daughter-in-law Helen “Marie” (nee Molloy), and his sisters and brothers-in-law Jean Young (Perry), Vera McDonald (Manford), Edna Wilson (Gerald) and Lorne Neilson.
John was born in Ernestown Township on January 11, 1928 to the late John Harrison and Martha Buck. He lived in Bath, later farmed in Camden East and worked for the Federal Penitentiary Services as a first-class stationary engineer. He was a member of the Kingston branch of the Ontario Genealogical Society and a charter member of the Kingston & District branch of the United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada. John was also a founding member of the Kingston & District Old Tyme Fiddlers Association. He will be missed by all for his generosity, sense of humor and musical talent.
A memorial service was held on December 9 at the Centreville United Church, with interment to follow. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Calvary United Church in Kingston. (Kingston Whig-Standard)
Born 12 April 1940, Patsy Ault of Brinston, age 73 died at the Winchester District Memorial Hospital on Thursday, December 5, 2013. Loving mother of Lee Thompson of Hanesville and Cathy Dickson (Rob Hutt) of Cardinal. Loving Grandma of Tara Dickson (Kyle Dingwall), Callie Laurin (Matt), Derrick Thompson, Krista Thompson, Jenalee Thompson and Great-Grandma of Oliver, Tessa and Reid. Dear sister of Betty Graham (Gordon) of Nepean, Frank Ault (Pat), Wendell Ault (Isobel), Mike Ault (Bev), all of Brinston, Marguerite Ault (Allan Beckstead) of Spencerville and Walter Ault (Tawnya) of Mississauga. Also survived by nieces and nephews.
Funeral service was held at Brinston United Church on Monday, December 9th at 11 a.m. Donations to Brinston United Church would be gratefully acknowledged by the family. Online condolences may be made at McLaughlin Funeral Home, Williamsburg marsdenmclaughlin.com. Interment Spruce Haven Cemetery, Brinston.
Patsy joined St. Lawrence Branch, U.E.L., Sept 1985 and got a certificate under Alexander Rose. In April 2003 she got a certificate under Johannes Ault. A retired teacher, Patsy enjoyed the meetings and became secretary for The Branch. She was also a member of The Dundas Cousins.