“Loyalist Trails” 2015-14: April 5, 2015
In this issue:
– Loyalists Come West 2015: Early-bird Registration Ends April 27
– Loyalists Come West: Wild and Wonderful BC Salmon
– The Legacy of a Loyalist Doctor (Part One), by Stephen Davidson
– Fear God, Honour The King: Bishop Charles Inglis, Loyalist (Part 4)
– UEL Monument Re-Dedication & Re-enactment Weekend, May 23-24
– Tides and Tonnage: A Different Take on the Boston Tea Party
– Digital Gazette: Help Save Costs by April 14
– Where in the World is Bill Young?
– From the Twittersphere and Beyond
– Last Post
+ Lela Elizabeth (Ward) Smith, UE
+ Robert Alexander Grant, UE, Major (Retired)
The Loyalist Come West 2015 Planning Committee wishes to remind all Members who are planning on attending the UELAC Conference in Victoria, BC, May 28-31, 2015, to check their calendars regarding registration deadlines.
Monday, April 27, 2015 marks the last day for the early-bird registration discount!
Visit the conference website for the registration link.
Read the details for Loyalists Come West – the 2015 UELAC Conference in Victoria BC May 28-30, 2015.
For those attending the Saturday Night Gala Banquet and have chosen the Pan Seared Wild Salmon & Prawns Entrée, you are definitely in for a delectable surprise.
BC has five main species of salmon: Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, and Sockeye. Chinook salmon is the largest salmon, Pink salmon the smallest salmon in British Columbia’s waters.
The salmon has long been at the heart of the culture and livelihood of coastal dwellers. Many people of the northern Pacific shore had a ceremony to honor the first return of the year. For many centuries, people caught salmon as they swam upriver to spawn. Read about the salmon.
…2015 Conference Planning Committee, Victoria BC
Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, is credited with saying “Give me the child until he is seven, and I will give you the man.” The maxim is based on the belief that the first years of life are so crucial that what happens in them will determine the character of a person for the rest of his or her life. Could a father have such an influence on his children? Even if he were a loyalist in New York during the American Revolution? Let’s consider the story of Richard Bayley, a loyalist doctor.
Born in Fairfield, Connecticut in 1745, Richard Bayley was a descendant of Huguenots, Protestants who had fled France to find sanctuary in the New World. The Bayleys initially settled in New Rochelle, New York, a town that — even during the revolution– was noted for its loyal citizens.
Few details of Bayley’s early life have survived. He received a good education, being raised on the classics, a variety of studies, and the French language. When he was 21 years old, Bayley had an apprenticeship with John Charleton, one of New York City’s best-known physicians. He then sailed to England in 1769 where he studied with William Hunter, a famous anatomist, for three years.
His training complete, Richard Bayley returned to New York in 1772 to establish himself professionally and to settle down. He entered into a medical practice with his old mentor and married the daughter of the Anglican rector of St. Andrew’s Church on Staten Island. His bride Charlotte was also the sister of his partner, John Charlton.
Although the storm clouds of revolution were gathering along the eastern seaboard, Richard Bayley’s thirst for knowledge could not be diminished by political strife. He once again sailed for England in 1775 for further studies in anatomy.
When Bayley returned to New York, he decided not to remain with the loyalists who were safe behind British lines but enlisted in the British army as a surgeon. For the next year, he served under General William Howe in Newport, Rhode Island. Amidst all of this confusion, Richard and Charlotte somehow had three daughters: Mary, Elizabeth, and Catherine. When news reached Bayley that Charlotte was ill, he submitted his resignation and returned home, but for all of his medical skill there was nothing he could do. Charlotte died in 1777. Soon after, his youngest daughter also died.
Bayley did not return to military service. A 33 year-old widower with two small daughters, the young doctor courted and married Charlotte Amelia Barclay. Just eighteen years old, the second Mrs Bayley was the eleventh child of the loyalist businessman Andrew Barclay.
Having found a mother for his two daughters, Bayley returned to private practice, caring for British soldiers and New Yorkers alike. Some felt that the loyalist’s bedside manner could have been more genuine. A contemporary remarked “that he was more interested in the scientific investigation of their cases than in the treatment of their diseases.” During the revolution, there were rumours in the city that the loyalist doctor actually conducted “horrendous and inhumane” experiments on the wounded soldiers that he treated. Bayley continued to conduct research in both epidemiology and human anatomy.
In 1781, Bayley wrote to William Hunter in England about cases of croup (angina trachelis) with suggestions for how to cure the condition. This infection of the larynx produced a harsh bark-like cough and was often confused with diphtheria. Bayley was eventually able to prove that diphtheria was not the same condition as strep throat and created a new treatment for diphtheria. Following the revolution, his techniques quickly became the standard method for helping diphtheria patients.
While Bayley was enjoying success in his field, the armies of his king were not. When it became apparent that the rebellious colonies would be granted independence from the British Empire, the loyalists of New York City feared retribution at the victors’ hands. William Smith, a New York loyalist who would eventually become the chief justice of Quebec, wrote a letter to the New York governor on behalf of his friend Richard Bayley. He wanted to be sure that a “certain set of men” would not “indulge their malevolence” against the loyalist doctor. In the letter, he provided testimonies of Bayley’s character to demonstrate that he was “not violent towards America.”
Bayley and his family were allowed to remain in New York City; they did not join the tens of thousands of loyalist refugees who boarded ships for Nova Scotia, the Caribbean, Quebec, and England throughout 1783. It is interesting to note that Bayley’s loyalist convictions never wavered. Three years after the British commander in chief, Sir Guy Carleton, orchestrated one of the greatest refugee evacuations in history, the loyalist doctor and his second wife named their newborn son Guy Carleton Bayley.
Despite having produced four children together, Richard and Charlotte did not get along, and they eventually separated. The loyalist doctor put his efforts into re-establishing his practice and giving medical lectures at New York Hospital.
Although Bayley had escaped violence at the hands of patriot mobs at the end of the revolution, he nevertheless felt the fury of rioters in 1788. Bayley had been collecting an anatomical museum at the New York Hospital for a number of years. When boys saw an amputated arm hanging out a hospital window, they rushed to tell their parents. This was the final straw for those who knew about Dr. Bayley. The old rumours about his “experiments” on wounded soldiers combined with the sighting of the amputated limb to convince a growing mob that the doctor and his students must be robbing graves “in order to mangle the bodies of the dead.”
The angry crowd charged into the hospital’s dissecting room, destroying furniture and breaking instruments. They brought Bayley’s anatomical collection “out into the streets and served to make a bonfire”. The loyalist doctor was able to escape the mob without injury. No wonder the day was later referred to as the Doctor’s Riot.
Four years later, when King’s College became Columbia College, it formed a medical faculty and gave Bayley the chair of anatomy in 1792. Fortunately, his lecture duties did not stand in the way of researching new surgical technique; the loyalist doctor became the first physician to successfully amputate an arm at the shoulder joint.
Bayley’s interests were not all of an academic nature. He maintained a lifelong interest in public health, helping to found the New York Dispensary in Greenwich Village that ministered to the city’s poorest citizens. When yellow fever broke out in 1795, it was Bayley who discovered how the epidemic spread, and created new quarantine laws for the city. Ever the researcher, his paper “History of Yellow Fever in New York in 1795” was a major contribution to combatting the disease.
Bayley’s success in battling yellow fever led to his appointment as New York City’s Health Officer. In 1799, he was put in charge of Staten Island’s new quarantine station for those with contagious diseases. Among Bayley’s responsibilities was the inspection of immigrant passengers and crews entering the city’s ports. Bayley’s 25 year-old daughter, Elizabeth, was one of his assistants. Following an encounter with Irish immigrants who were dying of yellow fever, Bayley contracted the disease and died on August 17, 1801.
The loyalist Richard Bayley made a positive impact on his times and his city. His influence continued on through his children, and in particular his daughter Elizabeth.
Next week’s Loyalist Trails will shed light on the legacy of service that the loyalist doctor bequeathed to Elizabeth Bayley.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
By Brian McConnell, UE
[NOTE: With consultation from Chris Minty who is pleased to see interest in Charles Inglis, a couple of points have been revised. First Installment of article should have read, “Charles Inglis was an assistant Rector at Trinity Church, New York in 1773 and he did not become Rector until 1777.” This revised four-part article is available with images.]
In January 1782 his son Charles, only eight years old, died and later the same year, in September, his wife Margaret, aged 35, passed away. As the British evacuated New York in 1783, he preached his farewell sermon on October 26, 1783. He resigned from Trinity Church in November and with his daughter Margaret and son John sailed from the city. Daughter Anne, aged seven, was left in the care of a great – uncle. His furniture and library were sent to Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia with David Seabury, son of Samuel Seabury, a Rector in the Church of England and leading Loyalist in New York City during the war years.
To seek compensation for losses from his support of the British Crown during the war Charles Inglis traveled to England and obtained the patronage of Lord Dorchester (Sir Guy Carleton). (5) His claim of compensation for losses to the Royal Commission amounted to 7909 pounds, which included loss of confiscated property, bonds, and rents. In support of his claim he presented testimonials from prominent leaders including: Lord Dorchester, commander-in-chief of British forces in North America; William Tryon, former New York Governor; Joseph Galloway, former speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly, Sir Henry Clinton; former commander of British forces at New York; and Reverend Thomas Chandler, formerly Rector in Pennsylvania. At the hearing he William Smith, former chief justice of New York, spoke as a witness. In describing Inglis’ character, Smith stated: “Loyalty was unquestionable and his Zeal made him as active as prudence would admit.” In the result the Commission granted Inglis seventy percent of his claim.
In 1787 the Archbishop of Canterbury consecrated Charles Inglis the first colonial Bishop responsible for Nova Scotia and its dependencies, which at that time included all of the British possessions in North America from Newfoundland to Lake Superior and even Bermuda. In 1793 this large sphere of jurisdiction was narrowed with the appointment of Jacob Mountain as Bishop of Quebec.
Upon the arrival of Bishop Inglis in Halifax with children Margaret and John and all the family effects they rented a house at the corner of Water and Wallace, now Bishop, Streets. Over the years as Bishop he toured the Annapolis Valley, as well as Amherst, Sackville, Shelburne and Lunenburg, as well as Cape Breton, and New Brunswick. He consecrated churches at Shelburne, Aylesford, St. Mary’s, Granville, Annapolis Royal, and Digby, as well as others in New Brunswick which made the total more than forty. (6) Moreover, in addition to the churches that were opened, in 1788 he founded King’s Academy at Windsor. It was started as a school run by Paine Inglis, his nephew. The first head of the college was William Cochran, a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin from Omagh, Ireland who had previously been a Professor at King’s College, New York.
In 1789 Bishop Inglis purchased a large tract of land of about 9000 acres in the Annapolis Valley, about a mile west of Auburn and built his home which he called “Clermont”. He claimed that the sea air adversely affected his health and the valley was a more central location for his diocesan residence. There he also pursued an enthusiasm for agriculture and in particular apples. He propagated several varieties, one of which bears his name “Bishop’s Pippin”, known also as “Bellefleur” or “Yellow Bellefleur”. (7) From 1796 to 1808 it was his full time residence. After 1801 he only spent summers there and winters in Halifax. On February 24, 1816 Bishop Inglis died at Aylesford and he was buried under the church of St. Paul’s in Halifax.
(4) Oil Portrait by Robert Field from National Portrait Gallery, UK.
(5) See The First Bishop: A Biography of Charles Inglis, by Brian Cuthbertson, Waegwoltic Press, Halifax, NS. Pp 62-65.
(6) For a listing of churches consecrated by Bishop Inglis see “The First Bishop – A Biography of Charles Inglis’, ibid., pp 271-273.
(7) See Historical Biographies, Nova Scotia: Charles Inglis (1734-1816).
The Grounds at Bay of Quinte Branch’s UEL Park and Centre at Adolphustown ON open at 10:00 AM on Saturday May 23rd. The morning features displays by various venders, and historical or heritage societies, and a demonstration by the Loyalist Fifes & Drums. At 1:00 PM there will be a tactical demonstration by the various 1812 troops and especially the Glengarry Light Infantry who stationed in the area towards the close of the War. It will be followed at 3:00 by a re-enactment of the wedding of Capt. James FitzGibbon (of Laura Secord fame), who was married at Adolphustown in 1814. The grounds close at 4:00 PM.
The grounds open once again at 10:00 AM on Sunday May 24th. with an Interdenominational Service at 11:00 am. The re-dedication of the UEL Monument is set for 2:00 PM. It is the oldest monument to the Loyalists in Canada and it underwent extensive restoration last year. The re-dedication will be followed by refreshments. The grounds close at 4:00 pm.
The original dedication of the UEL Monument in 1884 was a huge event. Let’s make the re-dedication of 2015 equally memorable. You’re invited!
In 1956, the restored UEL cemetery at Adolphustown was rededicated. Adelaide Louise McLaughin was a benefactor of the UELAC and its activities. See photo of Adelaide with then Premier Leslie Frost at the ceremony.
…Peter W. Johnson, UE, President, Bay of Quinte Branch
The story of the Boston Tea Party has been told and retold endlessly. It has become a part of American mythos. On the evening of December 16, 1773 in Boston a group of 100 to 150 citizens, dressed like Indians, descended on three ships loaded with tea from England. Politely, but firmly, they demanded the captains open the holds of their ships. The citizens brought chests of tea on deck where the chests were broken open and the tea dumped over the side into Boston Harbor. Afterwards the men wandered off into the night having made their very public statement about the Tea Act. Yet, there is more to the tale, and some of it is unexpectedly comical. Read the article.
…Hugh T. Harrington, Journal of the American Revolution
Each person who receives only the digital version of the Spring Gazette receives the benefits of the electronic copy (full colour, less storage space, etc.) and helps reduce expenses as well. BUT, in order to reduce expenses, we need to know if you will accept ONLY the digital copy before the April 12 printing.
We hope you will enjoy this year’s issues of the Loyalist Gazette.
Where is Col. John Butler Branch member Bill Young?
To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is. If you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well – send to Jennifer Childs.
From the UELAC branches, news and events of interest to others.
- Spring Meeting of the Nova Scotia Branch on Saturday, April 18, 2015 at Faith Baptist Church, 299 Stokil Drive, Lower Sackville, N.S. at Noon and Open to Public at 1 p.m. with Light Lunch will feature guest Stephen Davidson speaking on: “Sir Guy Carleton’s Book of Negroes: A Ledger’s Legacy”. A short presentation by a Member of the 84th Regiment (Royal Highland Emigrants) will follow. Please confirm attendance with Carol Harding: firstname.lastname@example.org or 902-245-1205.
- Niagara’s rich military history will be the focus of a new museum project to be constructed at Fort George, Niagara-on-the-Lake
- Explore an interactive map of the Revolutionary War to visually explore hundreds of points, by events, years, parks, museums, & more!
- In lasting memory of the United Empire Loyalists: a plaque at Dundurn Castle in Hamilton ON
- Silk Brocade Shoes Worn by a Bride Who Was Lame, 1764. Rather than hide her “infirmity” by wearing less attractive, but practical, heavy leather shoes built up on the inside or outside, Mary appears to have made the decision to celebrate her wedding in the elegant style of the times.
- Queen to attend launch of King George III’s private archive online at Windsor Castle. A fantastic new project is being launched at Windsor Castle. With the enormous popularity of Queen Victoria’s Journals available online, the extensive collection of King George III’s papers will soon be available for the world to view on the web as well.
- The most extensive private Canadiana collection is up for auction. Peter Stephen Winkworth was a secretive man, not given to interviews, public pronouncements or autobiographical outpourings. For it was in the 50 years following a boating mishap that Winkworth did his greatest work — you could even call it the work of history — namely the accumulation of the most extensive private collection of Canadiana ever: thousands of vintage prints, maps, drawings, tomes, ceramics, glassware, charts and ephemera relating to first European contact and colonial history in the 18th and 19th centuries.
- America is a 1924 silent historical war romance film. It describes the heroic story of the events during the Revolutionary war, in which filmmaker D. W. Griffith created a film adaptation of Robert W. Chambers’ novel The Reckoning. The plot mainly centers itself on the battles of the New York State, with romance sliced into the individual movie scenes. Read more about it.
- Looking for Loyalist Arms, or Repairs. Historical reproductions of all types. Have gun will reenact history. (Featuring now a 1690’s French marine Musket.)
Longtime Bicentennial Branch member, Lela Elizabeth (Ward) Smith, died on March 27, 2015. She was predeceased by her husband of 60 years and a son. She is survived by 1 son and 4 daughters plus 21 grandchildren and 19 great grandchildren.
She received her certificate for ancestor Frederick Keller in 1999.
Lela’s great passion for life led her to focus on a wide variety of artistic pursuits. According to her family, “she was a fabulously diverse woman of extraordinary talents, who somehow managed to stay grounded, humble and elegantly beautiful. Her gentle smile and warm heart will always be remembered fondly by the many lives she touched through her vast knowledge of painting, sewing, dancing, genealogy and involvement within the community.” Truly, this is a fitting tribute to a fine woman.
…Margie Luffman, UE, Bicentennial Branch
Born in Fredericton New Brunswick, November 23rd, 1933, Robert was the fourth of seven children of Woodford and Annie Grant. He grew up in the shadow of the Grant Family loyalist roots along the banks of the St. John River. A child of the thirties and forties, his parents taught him the value of family, values routed in the Grant’s family Moto ‘STAND FAST’.
Amongst his siblings, he was fondly known as Angel Bob, a nick name his Mother gave him, which he would later sign his paintings with. In his youth he learned to love a good joke and if one was not available, a bad one would do. While enjoying the occasional prank, Robert was serious about his love of country. In April 1952 at the age of 18, Robert enrolled in the Royal Canadian Air Force and embarked on a 33 year career. In 1965 he was commissioned from the ranks as he had distinguished himself in his work. Known for his easy going character, cowboy sensibilities and shy pleasant smile, he travelled the world diligently performing his duties, playing his part in keeping the Canadian Air Force flying.
In 1958 at the age of 25 he met the love of his life Edda. Married for 56 years, they never shied away from adventure, duty and their love of their family. They travelled the world; living in France, Germany, the US and all across Canada, while raising their three children, Kurt, Susan and Joel. Robert retired as a Major in 1985, moved to the Comox Valley on Vancouver Island in 1988. Always one to stop and smell the roses, he believed that if there were no roses, plant some. On the banks of Baynes Sound, he built a house and set about transforming an acreage into a retirement garden. Here he spent his years with Edda, enjoyed his beloved dash-hounds and was presented with four grandchildren, Steven, Adam, Jacob and Kyle and great grandchild Ava.
Robert didn’t slow down in his retirement; he worked steadily with his involvement with the Conservative Party, Fanny Bay Salmon Enhancement Society, local community committees and the NATO Veterans Organization of Canada. He loved walking the streams and working with his fellow stream keepers, improving local parks, and being involved in the community activities and helping out fellow Veterans. Robert also enjoyed doing the simple thinks in his retirement, like poking around the flea markets, and having a pancake breakfast. He loved entertaining friends and family greeting each morning with a tap on the barometer and a smile, “What are we going to do today?”
In the early morning hours of the 26th of February, 2014, after a battle with cancer, Robert passed away while holding Edda’s hand. A man dedicated to service of country, community, and family; he stood by those who called him friend, helped those who were in need, and loved those who were his family but most of all he was a man of honour and integrity, with a desire to leave things better than he found them. He will be dearly missed by all.
Bob, Author of The Legacy of Samuel G. Grant, dedicated ten years proving his, and our, descent from our loyalist ancestor Samuel Grant. See The Saga of Samuel Grant, published in 2011 in Loyalist Trails.
The clock of life is wound but once, and no man has the power to tell just when the hands will stop.
At a late or early hour, now is the only time you own.
Live, Love, Toil with a will; place no faith in time, for the clock may soon be still.
May God Bless you all,
– Bob Grant