“Loyalist Trails” 2016-49: December 4, 2016

In this issue:
The Fury of the Mob: Massachusetts, by Stephen Davidson
A Pilgrimage of Flowers: Finding John Saunders
JAR: Revolutionary War Privateers and the Slave Trade
UE Loyalist Certificates Issued in October
Book Review: Dr. Oronhyatekha: Security, Justice, and Equality
Above the Glebe
Where in the World?
Region and Branch Bits
From the Twittersphere and Beyond
Additions to the Loyalist Directory
Last Post: Reginald Brian Land, UE, 1927-2016


The Fury of the Mob: Massachusetts

© Stephen Davidson, UE

“The mob” was a term that loyalists used again and again in their writings and testimonies. They never elaborated on the phrase; it was simply understood by their audience as shorthand for neighbours and ne’er-do-wells who used the unsettled political climate to terrorize and rob their fellow Americans. Of any of the rebelling colonies, Massachusetts had the most deadly throngs of rebels, as the following accounts will all too readily demonstrate.

As early as 1770, six years before the Declaration of Independence, the mob seized John McMaster and carted him through the streets of Boston. It forced him to take an oath that he would not return to Boston — and all because his business imported British goods.

Daniel Leonard first tasted the fury of the mob in 1774 when an armed mob surrounded his home in Taunton, Massachusetts. The lawyer was not in his house at the time, so it was his wife and family who experienced the trauma of being fired upon. An account of the attack states “some members of an angry mob fired into the bedroom where his wife was confined in childbirth with the result that the child was born an idiot”. No wonder Leonard would be embittered for the remainder of the revolution.

Fearing for his life, Leonard never returned to Taunton. His wife and seven children eventually joined him in Boston. Rather than fighting violence with violence, Leonard wrote a loyalist pamphlet entitled Massachutensis, which “had a considerable effect in keeping the province quiet”. His opinion of the mob can be seen in a sentence where he describes the tree of sedition that had grown up in Massachusetts: “the vilest reptiles that crawl upon the earth, are concealed at the root; the foulest birds of the air rest on its branches.”

Following the battle at Lexington, Leonard took up arms “to defend the town”. He became so “obnoxious” to the rebels of Boston that he had to join the evacuation of British troops and loyalists in March of 1776.

Another loyalist who was among these Massachusetts refugees was Nathanial Hatch. He had been a justice of the peace who had the courage to protect employees of the East India Company in Boston, compelling an angry crowd to disperse. This brought the wrath of the mob upon him and his family, forcing him to seek sanctuary in Nova Scotia.

The Rev. William Clarke was an Anglican minister in Dedham, Massachusetts who nearly lost his speech because of the “great sufferings and persecution” he endured for his loyalty. Clarke had tried to help a fellow loyalist who had been “almost murdered and drove out of the town of Dedham by a mob”; he had also harboured another man whom “the mob had drove out of Boston” and thus became “subject to that merciless rabble” himself. Rebels put Clarke on trial and then had him sent to the West Indies for a year. The impact of the tropical climate and confinement in a small cell affected his lungs. In 1778, the Anglican minister returned to England.

Jesse Dunbar was relentlessly abused by the mob. When the patriots of Plymouth, Massachusetts discovered that this loyalist drover (herder) had bought an ox from the British, a mob stuffed him into the belly of the animal’s carcass and carted him over four miles. The mob took three cows and a horse from Dunbar and made him pay them a dollar. It then handed him over to a second mob that repeated the abuse of the first. When a third mob seized Dunbar, it threw dirt and ox guts at his face.

In the following February, the mob tied Dunbar to his horse’s tail, driving him through the mud and mire of his town. In November of 1774, the mob brought with it a sharp rail and prepared to parade the loyalist through town. Tying him to the rail by his arms and legs, the mob tossed him up and down “with violence, and greatly bruised” Dunbar so that “he did not recover for some time.” Despite so much abuse, Dunbar and his wife Naomi survived the war, finding refuge from the mob in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Edward Stow had been at sea for most of his 80-plus years. When he “declared himself a friend to the British Government”, he was “mobbed, insulted, and had libels stuck up at his door, his house tarred, surrounded, and mobbed, his life threatened.” Things became so violent that British soldiers stationed in Boston “were obliged to keep off the mob with their bayonets”.

Josiah Jones and his three brothers “having made themselves obnoxious by their loyalty” were continually harassed by rebel mobs, so much so that they had leave their home in Middlesex and find refuge in Boston in 1774. Following the revolution, Jones settled in the loyalist city of Saint John, New Brunswick.

Thomas Gilbert had the courage to speak up against the vandalism of the Boston Tea Party. “The people were much enraged against him for his conduct. Mobs were besieging his house. His life was attempted several times.” Nathaniel Dickinson “was severely treated by mobs. He was tied up to be hanged”, but survived to tell his story to the loyalist compensation board. Ebenezer Cutler, who later settled in Annapolis Royal, remembered, “the mob destroyed his property and ill-used him and exposed him publicly”. James Craig “was obliged to fly in the night on account of {the} mob, and his life being threatened, continued at Boston”. John Chandler recalled how in September of 1774 “a great mob assembled. He with other loyalists were taken up and carried about the streets.” Sir William Pepperell had to abandon his home in Jamaica Plains near Boston “for safety and to avoid the fury of the mob”.

As these selected stories from the transcripts of the loyalist compensation board demonstrate, violence at the hands of rebel mobs was a common experience of the loyalists of Massachusetts. Given that the records of the board account for only nine per cent of the total loyalist refugee population, it is staggering to think of the thousands of lost stories of mob attacks on loyal Americans that will never be told.

To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

A Pilgrimage of Flowers: Finding John Saunders

(By Steph Walters) As a Ph.D. candidate, I see myself as an apprentice of history. I take documents and scrape them for data. Then I realize I should have organized that data another way. So, I start over. Then I think I’ve found an argument. I proceed to read yet another book and realize that my argument is baseless. Then I grab more documents. Realize that document collection is not what I needed. Then I start over again. Wash, rinse, repeat. It’s a long process of writing, revising, and learning.

Last week, I had the pleasure of visiting the Loyalist Collections at the University of New Brunswick. I’ve planned my trip to Fredericton, New Brunswick for a long time because this collection held dozens of microfilm reels dedicated to my Virginia loyalists. While examining documents was my academic goal, I also had some personal business to attend to. Only a few blocks away from the university is The Old Burying Ground and the final resting place of the Honorable John Saunders.

John Saunders was born and raised in Princess Anne County, Virginia and is credited with raising the Queen’s Own Loyal Virginia Regiment. He was a larger than life individual who came from a very influential Virginia family. When it comes to loyalists in Virginia, Saunders is probably the Tory with the most name recognition after John Randolph. He fought throughout the war and became a Queen’s Ranger when the QOLVR merged into the unit. He had an incredibly close relationship with John Graves Simcoe, that he even named his son John Simcoe Saunders. While he was successful and well-known in Virginia, he gained even more love and fame in New Brunswick where he became an influential judge.

Read more.

Steph Walters currently holds a UELAC scholarship.

JAR: Revolutionary War Privateers and the Slave Trade

By Michael Thomin

The American Revolutionary War was fought largely by armies on the North American continent, however, like waves in a pond the conflict inevitably rippled out across the Atlantic world. The flow of people, supplies, and information was crucial to waging war across the Atlantic, and they were linked by who could control the sea. While studies of the use of naval power during the American Revolution abound, an in depth consideration and focus on the use of privateers during this time finally is receiving fresh scholarly attention in the twenty-first century. Yet, for all the studies examining privateering during the American Revolution thus far, one aspect remains to be explored more fully: their role in the slave trade.

Privateers were privately armed ships legally sanctioned by a government to attack the merchant vessels of a nation with which the sponsoring country was at war. Privateering commissions, the documents issued by governments that granted privately owned ships the right to be armed and outfitted for these types of cruises, often stipulated the vessel size, crew number, and basic rules they had to follow in order to have a legitimate claim on captured vessels. Captured vessels, or prizes, were to be determined legitimate or not by prize courts or vice admiralty courts. Similarly, letters of marque were also issued by governments to authorize merchant ships to seize enemy prizes they came across during a voyage. Unlike commissions, letters of marque primarily still functioned as merchant vessels hauling cargo while privateers were specifically outfitted as warships for capturing prizes. Either way, the value of the captured ship and cargo was shared by the privateer owners and crew. The practice of commerce raiding was a maritime activity throughout the eighteenth century. The outbreak of the American Revolutionary War was an opportunity for privately armed ships to obtain permission from states, the Continental Congress, and Great Britain to wage war on their enemy’s trade. Later as Spain, France, and the Netherlands entered the war, so too did they bring more privateer vessels into the “prize game.”

Read more.

UE Loyalist Certificates Issued in October

A list of UE Certificates issued since late in 2012 – showing the Loyalist ancestor, name of descendant (when permission is granted), branch and date – has been updated with the certificates issued in October of this year. The same updates have been applied to the Loyalist Directory.

Book Review: Dr. Oronhyatekha: Security, Justice, and Equality

Dr. Oronhyatekha: Security, Justice, and Equality, by Keith Jamieson & Michelle A. Hamilton (Toronto: Dundurn, 2016). Softcover; 368 pages; see cover.

Reviewed by Peter W. Johnson UE

Dr Oronhyatekha is hardly a forgotten figure, but for those who think they have a grasp of his story, this book offers so much more. One is left wondering how he had the time and energy to be successfully involved in a medical practice, and numerous organizations, especially the Foresters. This barely touches on his achievements, but the book follows others up.

Peter Martin or Dr. Oronhyatekha as he preferred, was born in Brantford in 1841 and died during a visit to the United States in 1907. While he lived in a variety of locations over the course of his career, he considered Tyendinaga to be his home base, and indeed his wife Ellen Hill (1843-1901) came from there and was a direct descendant of both Joseph Brant and John Deseronto.

Dr. Oronhyatekha’s big break came in 1860 when he had the opportunity to represent the Haudenosaunee and meet the visiting Prince of Wales. He had the intelligence and drive to make the most of this opportunity. Not surprisingly he encountered racial bias over the course of his life, and very capably countered such slurs with intelligence and even humour.

Aside from his links to Tyendinaga, what interested me was his time spent in Frankford not far from my home. After graduating from Medical School in Toronto, his first practice was in Frankford. He was already a Mason, and the authors speculated that he could have belonged to the Masonic Lodge in Frankford. In fact he did, joining in 1867 and a member there until 1871 when he moved elsewhere. While he belonged to several fraternal organizations, he is best known for his twenty-nine years of leadership in the Independent Order of Foresters. “He turned the IOF from a struggling and fractured organization into an international company that merged Haudenosaunee and fraternal values with commercial insurance” (p 250).

Of particular interest to Bay of Quinte Branch members is the reference on page 272 to the induction in 2007 of Dr. Oronhyatekha into the Branch’s Hall of Honour. The authors then proceed to refer to the aims and objectives of the UELAC. It’s nice to be noticed.

I felt it appropriate to approach David Hill Morrison UE regarding this book and he didn’t disappoint when he provided the following remarks which nicely sum up the legacy of Dr. Oronhyatekha:

“At a time when contemporary generations of First Nations people are becoming more commonplace in the various professions of laws, the medical field and politics, this makes the accomplishments of Dr. Oronhyatekha even more poignant. A pioneer in his own right, his fame and respect set a standard which undoubtedly inspired and compelled future Natives to achieve goals far beyond the expectations of a dubious – and sometimes jaded – non-Native society.”

The book makes for entertaining reading and it is also well sourced with almost a hundred pages of notes plus an Index. Worth checking out.

Above the Glebe

Should you like to sample before you buy, or if you enjoy reading online, you can read portions of this book – Above the Glebe: A Farming Family’s Heartbreak during the American Revolution – free of charge online at Google Books.

Where in the World?

Where are Colin Morley and Don Henderson of Col. John Butler Branch? (Submitted by Ruth Nicholson, Hamilton Branch.)

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at loyalist.trails@uelac.org.

Region and Branch Bits

From the UELAC branches, news and events of interest to others.

  • Today in Cobourg: Peter Newman will be speaking about his new book Hostages to Fortune at Cobourg Public Library this Sunday at 2 p.m.
  • Kingston and District Branch UELAC and the Frontenac Heritage Foundation are pleased to co-sponsor a book launch and signing on Monday, December 5, 7:30 p.m. at the Renaissance Event Venue, 285 Queen Street, Kingston for Peter C. Newman and his new book Hostages to Fortune: The United Empire Loyalists and the Making of Canada. Read the flyer. All are most welcome to attend. Books will be available to purchase and Peter C. Newman will be happy to sign them. A great way to purchase special gifts for your Loyalist relatives!
  • Canada’s constitutional monarchy costs Canadians less than a small coffee, but more than the Library of Parliament. Article at Maclean’s magazine

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • From The History of Freemasonry in Canada, some tidbits: Mention of the United Empire Loyalists; Notes about the family of Ziba Marcus Philips UEL; A “bit of settlement history, mentioning Johnson, Meyers, Rogers etc.; Daniel Dunham UEL from the Brockville area
  • The Crumpet Controversy. Sometimes while doing research for 18th Century Cooking we run into a recipe that is a little confusing and sometimes controversial. Kevin joins Jon in the kitchen today to make a Crumpet recipe from 1769. This recipe could easily be mistaken for other “biscuit” dishes, but we assure you, this is a Crumpet. A very delicious Crumpet! Watch video.

Additions to the Loyalist Directory

As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:

  • Emmons, John – from William Morrison
  • Frederick, Conrad – from Peter Bolton
  • Rush, Martin Sr. – from Peter Bolton

Last Post: Reginald Brian Land, UE, 1927-2016

Professor emeritus and former dean, Faculty of Information, University of Toronto; former executive director of the Legislative Library, Queen’s Park. Following a long struggle after breaking his hip in January, Brian died at age 89 on November 26.

He is lovingly remembered by his grandson Geoffrey Crowther and his daughter Mary (Hugh Crowther) of Georgetown as well as his son John (Barbara) of Kitchener. Brian is survived by his brother-in-law the Rev. Charles (Nancy) Eddis of Montreal, sister-in-law Joan Eddis of Ottawa, and sister-in-law Susan Eddis Crease Morales (Martín) of Toronto. Predeceased by his wife Edith Eddis (1928-2013), his sisters Louise, Joyce (Calder), and Joan, and his brother Donald. Brian was born to Beatrice Beryl Boyle and Allan Reginald Land in Niagara Falls.

Brian had a keen intellect and an accomplished life. What made him so endearing, though, was his humour and healthy sense of the ridiculous, his stories, his knack for making friends, his warmth and fairness, and his interest in others and the world around him.

Brian earned four degrees from the University of Toronto including graduate degrees in political science and library science. While there, he met his future wife, Edith; they were married nearly 60 years.

Brian held positions with the Toronto Public Library, the Windsor Public Library, the University of Toronto, and the Ontario Legislative Library. While on leave from the University of Toronto in 1963-1964, Brian served as executive assistant to the honourable Walter Gordon, then Lester Pearson’s Minister of Finance. From 1964-1972, Brian was appointed director and later dean of the University of Toronto’s Library School (now the Faculty of Information) and implemented a new master’s program and the first doctoral program in library science in Canada. In 1978, Brian was appointed executive director of the Ontario Legislative Library at Queen’s Park. He continued to teach part-time at the University of Toronto, retiring from both jobs in 1993.

Brian was active in various associations and served several as president, including the American- based Association for Library and Information Science Education (1973-1974), the Canadian Library Association (1975-1976), and the Association of Parliamentary Libraries in Canada (1982-1984). He was blessed to see Canada’s high arctic, Prairies, and coasts as a part- time commissioner on the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), 1972-1978.

He wrote Eglinton: The Election Study of a Federal Constituency (1965), four editions of Sources of Information for Canadian Business, and was founder and general editor of The Directory of Associations in Canada (1974-1997).

During his retirement, Brian continued his lifelong interest in genealogy and the history of Canada.

He was a member of Toronto Branch UELAC where he received a Loyalist Certificate to Robert Land UEL in 1982.

Visitation at the Gilbert MacIntyre and Son Funeral Home, Hart Chapel, 1099 Gordon St., Guelph, on December 1. A Funeral Mass will be held St. Alban the Martyr Anglican Church, Glen Williams, on December 2. Donations to the University of Toronto-Faculty of Information Fund or to a charity of your choice. Donations may be made at the funeral home, or donations and condolences may be sent online at www.gilbertmacintyreandson.com.

Enitor ne opera consilio labore desim.