“Loyalist Trails” 2017-41: October 8, 2017
In this issue:
– Four Loyalist Blacksmiths of Nova Scotia, by Stephen Davidson
– Blacksmith Joseph Goodwillie
– Addendum to Review of North to Bondage: Loyalist Slavery in the Maritimes
– Atlantic Loyalist Connections: The Adventures of Lt. Samuel Richard Wilson
– JAR: Displaced: The Donation People of 1775
– Ben Franklin’s World: The Freedoms We Lost
– Where in the World?
– From the Twittersphere and Beyond
– Editor’s Note
+ Peter Lampman Sr.
© Stephen Davidson, UE
Loyalist blacksmiths from a variety of American colonies found sanctuary in the Maritime provinces following the revolution. One of the very first to arrive in Nova Scotia was an evacuee who fled Boston with the British troops in March of 1776.
Up until that point in time, Edward Foster had lived in Boston all of his life where he worked with iron “to a great extent”. When British troops first arrived in the capital of Massachusetts, Foster cheerfully tended to their blacksmithing needs. “Having undertaken to work for them he could not leave their protection had he been disposed so to do, but says he ever wished well to the British,” Foster later related, “by this circumstance, and his uniform attachment to Great Britain he became obnoxious to the rebels, and was often insulted.”
Foster also loyally plied his trade outside of his smithy shop. When the rebels destroyed Boston’s lighthouse, he volunteered to repair its damaged metal components, finishing the work within two days’ time. After arriving in Nova Scotia as a refugee in 1776, Edward Foster made Halifax his home.
Adam Walker was another Massachusetts blacksmith who sought refuge in Nova Scotia. Like Foster, he fled his home in March of 1776, but made the loyalist settlement of Digby his new home. Threatened by the mob violence of Worcester’s patriots, Walker sought sanctuary with the British in Boston. In doing so he had to abandon his “well furnished shop”, barn, and coal house as well as his home. While in Boston, Walker volunteered with the Patrolling Company, a group of civilians which guarded the streets of the city during the escalating violence in the days following the Battle of Lexington.
When Walker joined the loyalist evacuees in March of 1776, he brought his blacksmithing tools and three or four barrels of steel and iron aboard the brig Elizabeth. Perhaps he hoped to set up shop in Nova Scotia until the revolution was quashed by the British. Noticeably absent was the African slave that Walker had trained in the blacksmith trade. A witness at Walker’s compensation hearing remembered the enslaved black as “very valuable one.. worth £100.” (The latter sum is more than double the usual market value of a slave during the revolution.) Some felt that the African blacksmith had been “set at liberty by the State” while others claimed that “all the negroes belonging to Loyalists” had been set free”.
Edmund Butler was a loyalist blacksmith from Albany, New York who became a store owner in the town of Windsor on the road between the Annapolis Valley and Halifax. After refusing to join the patriot militia, Butler was put in jail for his “toryism”. While this was only temporary, it underscored all that the blacksmith could lose if he did not join the patriot cause. Butler had a reputation for being an “excellent workman” and was successful enough to always have an apprentice or journeyman working in his smithy. He owned his own home as well as an enslaved woman and child, and cattle.
Despite the risks to his business, when Butler heard of the approach of General Burgoyne’s army, the blacksmith made plans to join the British as they marched through Albany – an event which never occurred.
Saddened but not overcome by the patriot victory at the Battle of Saratoga, Butler continued to serve the crown by carrying dispatches from the British headquarters in New York to posts in Canada. When local patriots learned of the blacksmith’s activities, they pursued him as he fled to sanctuary in New York City. There he became a shopkeeper until the loyalist evacuation of 1783. The once prosperous blacksmith abandoned his furnace and anvil, making a fresh start in Nova Scotia.
The American Revolution uprooted Henry Green from his home in South Carolina to the loyalist settlement of Rawdon, just north of Halifax. An Irishman by birth, Green immigrated to the American south when he was 18 years old and settled near the community of Ninety-Six.
Living in what became a hotly contested region of South Carolina, Green fought with the British forces against rebels in both 1775 and 1781. For such devotion to the crown, patriots imprisoned Green in 1776. After successfully withstanding a patriot siege, Green and the other defenders of Fort 96 withdrew to Charleston. There, Green was given a paper by the quarter master general’s department to certify that he had been employed as a blacksmith in His Majesty’s service.
By the fall of 1782 the blacksmith and other loyalists were safely evacuated to Nova Scotia. Whether Henry Green continued to work as a blacksmith in Rawdon is not recorded.
Our series on loyalist blacksmiths concludes next week as we visit the first colony founded by the refugees of the American Revolution: New Brunswick.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
My 4th great grandfather was a Scot named Joseph Goodwillie. He had come from Kinglassie, Fifeshire, Scotland in 1753 and worked blacksmithing in the Mohawk Valley. He refused to join the rebels and they confiscated his tools and musket and two chests of clothes. He joined Jessup’s Rangers 17, June, 1777 and was captured at the defeat at Saratoga in October.
He worked as an armourer in Jessup’s Rangers. He too, went to Albany Prison. He escaped with two others and they made their way via the Lake Champlain route to Canada. He settled at Sorel refugee camp where he was put on King’s Duties for the remainder of the war.
In June, 1784 he boarded the Brig St. Peter and along with other Loyalists sailed to Gaspe and settled at what would become New Carlyle.
In 1792, he received word that his older brother had arrived in Vermont in 1788 at the request of the people of Barnet who wanted a minister for their church. Joseph made the long voyage to visit his brother Reverend David Goodwillie, who he had not seen for 20 years. On returning to his farm he gathered up his family and they emigrated to Barnet, Vermont to be with his brother. David subdivided his estate and gave Joseph a farm. There Joseph and his wife Mary Ann Teague raised 10 children. Joseph and Mary Ann are buried in Barnet Centre Cemetery.
…David B. Clark, UE
I was interested to read the review by Christopher C. Jones of Harvey Amani Whitfield’s book, “North to Bondage: Loyalist Slavery in the Maritimes” (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2016). I will have to read the book. Jones criticizes Whitfield for saying that masters and slaves worshipped together and cites an example where this was not true. I can cite one where it was true the Congregational Church at Sheffield, N.B. (located in Maugerville until 1788 when it was transported down the St John River on the ice by 100 yoke of oxen). The church had an upstairs where slaves worshipped with masters downstairs.
The Provincial Archives of New Brunswick has on its web-site under “Exhibits and Education Tools” a file called Fort Havoc (Wallace Hale), which is a compendium of some of the work done by Hale in his Fort Havoc series of documents related to New Brunswick and Loyalist history. Included in this site are three documents dealing with slavery in New Brunswick and Canada: The Loyalists and Slavery in New Brunswick by I. Allen Jack, Saint John, N.B. read 26 May 1898; The Slave in Canada, by T. Watson Smith, Halifax, N.S., read in part before the Nova Scotia Historical Society on 18 March 1898 which has a Preface and four chapters:
CHAPTER I. Slavery in Canada Previous to the Arrival of the Loyalists in 1783.
CHAPTER II. Slavery in Canada After the Arrival of the Loyalists in 1783.
CHAPTER III. Origin of the Slave. His Treatment in Canada. Causes of the Decline of Slavery in Canada.
CHAPTER IV. Influence of Canadians on Slavery Elsewhere.
And The Negro in New Brunswick, by Rev. W. O. Raymond, circa 1903, which acknowledges that “A most interesting and valuable paper by the late Rev. T. Watson Smith, D.D., published in the collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vol. X, has furnished much of the material of this article.”
I would suggest that this shows that, while some Loyalists, (including my ancestor Daniel Smith from New Milford, CT), brought slaves with them, there has been no systematic attempt to whitewash this unsavory aspect linked to some Loyalists from all walks of life. Also there were many Black Loyalists who came not as slaves, but freemen, thanks in part to General Guy Carleton’s refusal to return slaves to their owners who had escaped to New York, despite demands by General Washington to return them.
These three articles also demonstrate the relative speed with which slavery was abolished in New Brunswick and elsewhere in what is now Canada, long before it was abolished in the British Empire or the United States.
In researching my Loyalist ancestor Daniel Smith I was surprised to discover that slavery existed in New England not just the southern states and that many indigenous peoples were sent off to the Caribbean as slaves to be replaced by African slaves. Even Roger Williams, the founder of true religious liberty in what is now the United States in Rhode Island (and a founder of the Baptist Church in the U.S.) asked for slaves (Found this in a genealogy of the Kellogg Family by Timothy Williams “The Kelloggs in the Old World and the New” (1903) footnote to pages 82 and 83). Lydia Kellogg was the mother of Ruth Fitch, Daniel Smith’s wife. Smith family folklore is that Daniel Smith gave his two slaves their liberty but they remained with him until they died.
It is undoubtedly good to have more recent research on this issue than that done over 120 years ago and I will look forward to reading Whitfield’s book and comparing notes with the three papers mentioned above.
…John Noble, UE
Each loyalist who arrived as a refugee to the Canadian colonies had a unique story. Many of their narratives have remained obscured in history, but recovery of their stories is possible, expanding our understanding of diversity among loyalists. The life of Lieutenant Samuel Richard Wilson provides an excellent example of a distinct background and experience possessed by an individual loyalist. Although the documentary sources for Wilson’s early and later life are scarce, his time in North America is well documented, often by his own hand.
Most likely born in Ireland and a Catholic, Wilson came to America in 1777 as a British half-pay veteran officer. A career army officer, Wilson appeared at the rank of lieutenant or adjutant throughout his time in North America. He also acted as an attorney and petitioner for others while in New Brunswick. His status as a Catholic in the British Army is particularly interesting, as Irish Catholics could not hold firearms or serve in the British armed forces officially until 1793.
During the voyage across the Atlantic, Wilson’s ship was captured by an American privateer, but he managed to make his way to Philadelphia to join the Roman Catholic Volunteers.
By Katie Turner Getty; October 5, 2017
In late November 1775, just as the bone-chilling New England winter started to settle upon Massachusetts, British General Howe loaded three hundred poor, sick inhabitants of Boston onto transport ships with no provisions or firewood. They were landed on windswept Point Shirley peninsula, a narrow, beachy finger of land situated in between the gentle waves of Boston Harbor and the vast expanse of the Atlantic. Lacking in food, fuel and warmth, the Bostonians were destitute.
Among the hundreds of townspeople unceremoniously deposited on the point by General Howe were a wide cross-section of Boston’s poorest residents—married couples, widows (such as “aged widow” Martha Tompson), and men whose occupations included shoemaker, laborer, butcher, and brazier. Numerous children arrived on the point with their parents—Israel Cowing and his wife had seven children with them. Both Edward Edwards and his wife and Lewis Channel and his wife had four. The widowed Sarah Brown had four children. Henry Harris, a peddler, had three. Dozens of other adults were accompanied on the point by at least one child. Other children such as “Elizabeth Orr, orphan girl of fourteen” and “Jacob Tuckerman, Orphan Boy, 12 years old” arrived on the point alone.
These individuals are just a few of the thousands of inhabitants of Boston and Charlestown, largely forgotten by history, who were displaced by the Siege of Boston in 1775. Sometimes called “donation people” or “the Boston poor,” they numbered among the most vulnerable of Boston’s residents—many were widowed, orphaned, elderly, or suffering with smallpox. These donation people were removed from Boston during the siege and subsequently relocated to various towns in the Massachusetts countryside, enduring significant hardships and uncertainty along the way.
Barbara Clark Smith, a curator in the division of political history at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History and the author of The Freedoms We Lost: Consent and Resistance in Revolutionary America, leads us on an exploration of how Americans interacted with their government before the American Revolution and how the Revolution changed their interaction and ideas about government.
During our exploration, Barbara reveals details about what the British and colonial North American governments were like before the Revolution; How ordinary Americans participated in and interacted with their colonial governments; And, how the Revolution changed American government and ordinary Americans’ relationships with it.
Surrounded by fellow Hamilton Branch members, where is Marilyn Hardsand, UE?
To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- A time for giving thanks. Thanksgiving is one of my favorite times of the year. It offers opportunities for family members to spend time together, and it’s not yet surrounded by the commercial hype of other holidays. For several years I’ve explored the background of the day and have often been surprised by what I discovered. Why do we celebrate Thanksgiving on a different day than our American neighbours (who celebrate on the fourth Thursday of November), from whom the day originated? Read more…
- I’ve been told the United Empire Loyalists brought the tradition of Thanksgiving north with them when they chose Canada. This Thanksgiving weekend it is only fitting to take time out from our family gatherings to consider just how fortunate that we really are, just how lucky that our predecessors chose Canada, and that all that “peace, order and good government” really did stand the test of time.George Clark. Read more…
- Honoured to witness the unveiling of the First Nations Peace Monument by Douglas Cardinal on the anniv of the royal proclamation of 1763 – Elizabeth Dowdeswell
- Today in History: Lars D.H. Hedbor @LarsDHHedbor (see his page for associated photos):
- 7 Oct 1780 Patriots crush Loyalist militia at Battle of Kings Mountain, North-Carolina.
- 6 Oct 1781 Americans & French begin siege of Cornwallis at Yorktown; final major battle of the war.
- 5 Oct 1776 Georgia Constitutional Convention meets to draft plan of gov’t for post-colonial state.
- 4 Oct 1777 Americans defeated at Battle of Germantown; nonetheless, Washington’s audacious attack impresses French.
- 3 Oct 1781 French cavalry & British forces skirmish at Gloucester, Virginia; French block supplies to Cornwallis.
- 2 Oct 1776 Thomas Jefferson resigns from Continental Congress to serve in Virginia House of Delegates.
- 1 Oct 1776 Benjamin Franklin learns that the French plan to supply arms to Americans through West Indies.
- On eBay: Rare VTG 1932 Wedgwood United Empire Loyalist Association of Canada UEL Plate. Bidding has ended, but scroll down the page for description and history of the plate. Looks surprisingly like the description in our Resources/Monuments and Commemoratives/Plates section which we have thanks to Fred Hayward and others.
- Step into their shoes – not simply going for a walk. This summer, I have been desperate to get on with some living history. Pierre and I day tripped over to Prescott Ontario for the event there, and met some great folks, but it wasn’t enough. I’ve had too much thinking going on in my head and needed to make some sense of it. Back in August, I thought about making a trek, from Saint Jean to Fort Chambly. I mentioned it to Pierre and then started planning. Let’s do it in Loyalist attire, carrying what they may have carried. Kelly Arlene Grant. Read more, bringing history to life...
- The flag of Niagara contains a Royal crown which symbolizes the first Parliament [of Upper Canada] in Newark and strong Loyalist roots.
- Townsends: In this episode we make a simple and delicious, 18th century Ginger Beer.
- Who Were Canada’s First Whisky Distillers? Author Davin de Kergommeaux shares some of the distilling knowledge in the new and updated edition of his book, “Canadian Whisky: The New Portable Expert.” Loyalists contributed, but weren’t first. Read more…
- Canada’s asylum conundrum. Throughout our short history of continental relationships with the United States, Canada has been a place where thousands of people caught up in American political turmoil have sought refuge example: United Empire Loyalists seeking refuge from the American Revolution. In August 2017, hundreds of Haitians began crossing the Canadian border seeking asylum. These folks were reacting to the projected end of the Temporary Protected Status granted to them by the previous American administration. That temporary time is over both in Canada and the U.S. Read more…
- Cinnamon brocaded silk satin robe à la française, c1770
- Silk Robe à la Française, 1750-75 (scroll down for description)
Home; we have returned just in time to give thanks for all that we have. Highlights this past week were brief visits to two festivals and a long climb to the Taktshang (or Taktsang Palphug Monastery, or the Tiger’s Nest) all in Bhutan. The last couple of days have been very long – I have a feeling that my recovery will take a while! The downside of any vacation I suppose is the number of things which have accumulated and want attention; bear with me.
I am reading the Chilliwack Branch newsletter and see that someone is researching Peter Lampman Sr. We have a Peter Lampman Sr. listed and some writeups in the book, Loyalist Ancestors, Some Families of the Hamilton Area. Some of the members of the Hamilton Branch compiled the book and it was Copyrighted in 1986.
This Peter Sr. may be who you are looking for or not. I will type an excerpt from the book submitted by a Harold Charles Lampman
“The first family member to come to America was Peter Lampman, son of Balthasar Lampman, a blacksmith. Their home was in Stockheim, Hessen Germany, at that time part of the Palatinate. Peter married Catharine Deckman, a widow, on July 20, 1698 in Stockheim and they had three children – Peter, born in 1700, Anna Elizabeth, born in 1703 and Johann Caspar, born in 1705.
In 1709 Peter Lampman petitioned to emigrate to the New World and was granted permission. The family arrived in New York by way of Amsterdam and London. Their names appear on the Simmendinger lists. The Reverend Simmendinger was a Lutheran pastor who came with his flock of Palatines, tending to their spiritual needs…”
… In New York subsistence lists of 1710-1712, the family of Peter Lampman is first recorded as consisting of two adults and three children, and then, as three adults and two children… Peter (son) and Catharina lived in Hoosick, New York
Their son, Frederick born in Kistetemesey, New York married a Katharine Schramm 1748.
“One of the fine old Loyalist homes in the Niagara Peninsula was that of Peter Lampman (1749-1834) and of his son Peter (1787-1870). It was situated on the shoulder of the Niagara Escarpment, not far from Thorold; the area is visible today from the Queen Elizabeth Highway.” (That would have been 1986.)
If this is the correct family please let me know. My two families came the same route (Zufeld and Thevou (Defoe) and the Defoe/Devoe were also in Hoosick on the Pownall-Hoosick Road.
…Pat Blackburn, UE, Hamilton Branch
Yes, I believe this is the correct family. Here is a brief outline of what we have:
- Frederick Lampman m. Katherine Schramm
- Son Matthis Lampman m. Eva Bowman
- Son John Lampman m. Elizabeth Horning
- Son Peter Lampman m. Mary Anne Smith
- Son Jesse Simpson Lampman m. Florence E. Bates
- Daughter Mary Elizabeth Lampman m. George Bell Hare, And so on.
If this fits, we are stuck on son Matthis Lampman who married Eva Bowman. Thank you so much.
…Marlene Dance, UE, Chilliwack Branch
It is the same family. Some of the names you have below do not appear on the family chart in this book. Harold Charles Lampman, a now-deceased member, provided the information.
The name Eva Bowman is “Eve” in this book. Bowman, Horning, Smith even Florence Bates are Ancaster names.
Daughter, Lena (Magdalena) married Peter Bowman brother of Eve and settled in Ancaster.
The book does mention Frederick’s Will (Harold Lampman had a copy) The estate was divided into three portions to the sons: Frederick, Matthias and Abraham. They could buy one another out. Matthias and Abraham decided to apply for their own lands. Matthias and his wife, Eve, joined Peter Bowman and his wife, Magdalena, in Ancaster.
There are some pictures and a family chart.
…Pat Blackburn, UE, Hamilton Branch