“Loyalist Trails” 2019-10: March 10, 2019
In this issue:
– UELAC Conference: The Capital Calls – Hotel Rooms Going Fast!
– Scholarship Update: Like a Lion
– Photo Challenge: Get your Sleuthing Caps On
– Black Loyalists Bid Farewell to Savannah: Part Two, by Stephen Davidson
– The Case of The Missing Portrait of James Moody UEL
– Remembering the Lives and Sacrifices of General Richard and Janet Montgomery
– St. Lawrence Branch: Indigenous Neighbours
– JAR: Donald McCraw of the 42nd Regiment Wields his Broadsword
– The Junto: March Madness 2019 Begins!
– Ben Franklin’s World: The Boston Massacre
– Book: A Genealogical Sketch of Joseph Brownell of Moulinette, Upper Canada
– Nineteenth-Century Quilts: Publications Set In Cloth
– Purchasing Patriotism: Politicization of Shoes, 1760s-1770s
– National Trust for Canada: Membership Gives Access to…
– UE Loyalist Certificates Issued Recently
– Where in the World?
– Region and Branch Bits
+ Vancouver Branch Meeting: Tuesday, March 19
+ Sir Guy Carleton Branch Meeting: Saturday April 6
+ New York Chapter, Palatines to America, Spring 2019 Conference: April 27
– From the Twittersphere and Beyond
– Additions to the Loyalist Directory
+ Information About Loyalist John Craig
Join fellow Loyalists and friends at UELAC Conference 2019 “The Capital Calls,” May 30 – June 2, 2019, at DoubleTree by Hilton Gatineau-Ottawa, 1170 chemin Aylmer, Gatineau, Quebec, hosted by Sir Guy Carleton Branch.
Interest in UELAC’s 2019 Conference, The Capital Calls – to be held in Ottawa in late May and early June – has been growing steadily, which is welcome news for the co-ordinating committee but reservation space at the event’s designated hotel is going fast.
The Conference will take place on Thursday, May 30; Friday, May 31; Saturday, June 1 and Sunday, June 2 at the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel located in the National Capital Region of Gatineau, Quebec. Some rooms are still available but these are also being reserved quickly.
However, for those who want to arrive on the day before the conference, Wednesday, May 29, there are no rooms available because the hotel is fully booked. For that reason, the organizing committee is making available a list of some accommodations available near major transportation centres in the Ottawa and Gatineau area for those who would like to arrive at Conference 2019 on the day before or even earlier.
As of March 7, the conference hotel staff confirmed rooms are available during the actual conference dates of May 30 and 31 and June 1 and 2. For those planning to stay at the hotel, a block of rooms has been reserved with the special conference rate of $159 per night plus tax. The Conference 2019 committee recommends those planning to attend to contact the hotel as soon as possible to ensure they can reserve a room at the quoted rate. The direct number for the hotel is 1-819-778-0000 or toll-free 1-800-807-1088, or fax 1-819-777-2518, or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
When making reservations refer to The United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada or code CDTUAE to get the special group rate.
More information about the hotel and alternate hotels (PDF).
See more details, including a flyer, the schedule, speakers, venue, directions, and the registration form. Registration is now open!
March arrived like a lion bringing with it a record number of Loyalist Scholarship applications. Hooray! Our review committee is hard at work carefully considering the submissions.
With so many quality applications it is a difficult task to choose only one worthy candidate. This is why your support is so greatly appreciated. With each donation we increase our ability to support this unique UELAC program.
In the coming weeks we will announce the 2019 Scholarship recipient and share their research proposal. Please let us add your name to the list of generous donors supporting the brightest students in the field of Loyalist history.
In early February we announced a newly launched film project The Good Americans led by Dr. Taylor Stoermer of Størmerlige Films. Several UELAC members are already involved, providing valuable content and on the ground research.
This week we have a challenge for Loyalist Trails readers – we are looking for someone who can take a current day photograph at the site of this image, titled Encampment of the Loyalists at Johnstown, on the Banks of the River St. Lawrence in Canada, taken June 6th, 1784. It means locating the site and then getting a good shot of this view at reasonable resolution for filming.
If you know where this scene is located and have a camera at hand, please contact Bonnie Schepers, email@example.com. And thank you!
© Stephen Davidson, UE
David George, a Black preacher, succumbed to smallpox in the fall of 1779 and was convinced that he would soon be dead. However, George survived the winter and began to regain the ability to walk in the spring. During the months that her husband was an invalid, Phillis George washed clothes for General Clinton’s forces. Her earnings maintained the family until word came that the Continental Army was marching on Savannah. Unable to move with any speed, George told his wife to escape the city with their children while he stayed behind.
Living on boiled corn and a little rice, George waited for the Patriot assault. “I grew better, and as the troops did not come so near as was expected, I went into Savannah, where I met my family and tarried there about two years in a hut … where I kept a butcher’s stall.”
With the earnings from meat sales, George was able to get his family to Charleston on the coast. In December of 1782 he left for Halifax, Nova Scotia in the company of at least 200 white loyalists and a few other Blacks. Always one to appreciate a good deal, George found it remarkable that his family had been taken so far at no cost whatsoever.
The Book of Negroes, a ledger compiled by order of Sir Guy Carleton, provides the names and circumstances of some of Savannah’s emancipated men and women who crossed over British lines to become Black Loyalists. And – tragically – it also reveals the names of those who left the United States as slaves of Loyalists.
Black Loyalists who had once been enslaved in Savannah boarded 15 ships that left New York City in late April 1783. These men and women had begun their journey to freedom by sailing out of Savannah or Charleston in 1782. After spending six months in New York City to await the final curtain call on the revolution, these passengers were now bound for Nova Scotia, and modern day New Brunswick.
While few of the life stories of Savannah’s Black Loyalists are evident in the columns of the Book of Negroes, there are some interesting statistics. The length of service to Britain given by the emancipated passengers ranged from seven years to less than 12 months.
Some Black Loyalist couples carried babies aboard the evacuation vessels; the oldest passenger was 50 year-old Francis who had been granted his freedom by his master in 1772 before the outbreak of the revolution. Francis, who travelled with a wife and son, obviously felt that he had a chance of a better life with the banished Loyalists than with triumphant Patriots of Savannah. Twenty-five of the Black Loyalists who set sail that April and who had been enslaved in Georgia would be among the first to settle in Port Roseway (Shelburne), Nova Scotia.
Dick, a 38 year-old man who had escaped from his master in 1778, decided to secure meals and accommodation for himself for the next seven years by becoming the indented servant of Robert Peacocke, the captain of the Hope – the Black Loyalist’s evacuation ship. Two of April’s Black Loyalist evacuees bore evidence of beatings. Dublin Fowler, 14 years old, had a scar over his nose and Fortune, a man of 30, was noted as having a scar on his lip. Dublin was just nine years old when he escaped from his master.
A ship bound for the mouth of the St. John River in June of 1783 had a Black Loyalist from Savannah aboard. Twenty-five year old James was the cook on the Two Sisters, so it would seem that he did not disembark with the other refugees. How this young man acquired the skills necessary to keep a ship full of mariners well fed on long sea voyages can only be left to the imagination. Another man named James, a passenger aboard the Sally, also decided to join the crew of his evacuation ship as a sailor.
The second fleet of ships carrying Savannah’s Black Loyalists left New York City in July, taking their refugees to Port Roseway, Annapolis Royal, and the mouth of the St. John River. Twenty-three year old Sally is noteworthy as she had been the property of a Captain Phillips who brought her from Africa to Savannah. There Phillips eventually set Sally free. She would become one of New Brunswick’s first Black Loyalist settlers. Mary Biverout, who claimed to be born free in Savannah, also made the colony of refugees her new home.
Leaving New York City in August a third evacuation fleet took Black Loyalists formerly enslaved in Savannah to Britain, the West Indies and Germany. Two young men in their twenties who were both named George had been drummers with a Hessian regiment after escaping from their master in Georgia.
In September, three ships carried Savannah’s Black Loyalists to the Maritime colonies. Sunbury had left his master and joined the British troops before the Siege of Savannah in 1779. The fact that this 26 year-old was in the company of Captain Thatcher of the 2nd Battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers suggests that the Black Loyalist may have served with this regiment in some capacity.
Three women who had been enslaved by Savannah’s Dr. Middleton sailed on the Lord Townsend bound for Annapolis Royal. While they could have been field labourers, it is more likely that 14 year-old Susannah, 12 year-old Sarah and 35 year-old Flora had been maids and cooks in the doctor’s home.
The last of Savannah’s Black Loyalists left New York City in November of 1783. Many of these men and women had served the British as drivers in the important wagon department, as members of the Black Pioneers, as staff in the hospital department or as soldiers in the Black Brigade.
Nineteen year-old Rachel, a passenger aboard the Danger, is especially noteworthy as she was once the property of John Graham, the former royal lieutenant governor of Georgia. Hardly any Black Loyalists escaped enslavement to loyalists or British officials. How she came to be a member of the Wagon Master General Department in New York is another lost story. Joseph Dickson, a 50 year-old evacuee, served in the British General Hospital Department for four and a half years before settling in Port Mouton, Nova Scotia.
Seven Black Loyalists from Savannah were bound for Annapolis Royal on the Joseph. They would not reach their destination until the spring of 1784. A November hurricane forced their ship to seek shelter in Bermuda over the winter months.
For some of Savannah’s Black Loyalists, their journey to freedom would not end in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Cudjo, a member of the Black Pioneer corps, had once been enslaved to a man in South Carolina, but had escaped during the siege of Savannah in 1779. This Black Loyalist’s name (also rendered Kwado) is one found among the Akan people of Ghana. In 1792, Cudjo would join 1,100 other Black Loyalists to found the colony of Sierra Leone – not too far along the West African coast from where – decades earlier – he had been kidnapped and forced into slavery. Two others known to have made the transatlantic journey with Cudjo were the Baptist preachers, John Williams and Andrew Moore.
By the end of the 18th century, Black Loyalists scattered from the West Indies to the Maritimes, Britain, the German States and Sierra Leone would be able to look back on their experiences as an enslaved people and recall how their new lives as a free people had begun when they bid farewell to Savannah, Georgia in the midst of the American Revolution.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
Why did someone steal the portrait of a prominent Loyalist named James Moody from rural St. Peter’s Church in Weymouth North, Digby County, Nova Scotia? James Moody’s portrait was passed down through the family for generations and was stolen in 1981 – a copy hangs in its place. Today a documentary film crew is hoping to find out what happened to the oil painting.
Read more. See inside St. Peter’s Church at Weymouth NS.
The original church was begun in 1790 on land donated by Moody and he was buried in the cemetery beside it. Watch a short video of a visit to the church by Brian McConnell.
…Brian McConnell, UE
By Arthur B. Cohn 5 March 2019
Almost forty years ago, I led a team of nautical archaeologists in the study of the steamboat Phoenix, which had burned on Lake Champlain the night of September 4, 1819. In researching the Phoenix’s history, I came across the reference that “in July, 1818 the remains of General Richard Montgomery, the dashing American leader who fell in 1775 in the futile expedition against Quebec were borne through the lake on board the Phoenix, the vessel being draped in mourning and her colors at half-staff.” Since then my research on the history of the Revolutionary War on Lake Champlain has led me to understand the importance of the greatest sacrifice General Montgomery made while attempting to capture British Canada early in the war. As he fought for his adopted nation, Gen. Richard Montgomery’s life ended in a fury of cannon-fire and snow on New Year’s Eve, 1775. In the aftermath, Congress and his widow Janet simply asked that he be remembered for his sacrifice.
As July 8, 2018 marked the 200th anniversary of his re-internment at St. Paul’s Chapel, it felt right to remember his story. I recently had the opportunity to visit his final resting place at St. Paul’s Chapel in New York City.
St. Lawrence Branch is proud to feature “Indigenous Neighbours.” This information has two objectives: First, to recognize that the St. Lawrence Branch operates within the traditional territory of the Mohawks of Akwesasne, an Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) community centred around the Village of St. Regis; Second, to provide interesting details on the participation of members of that community in the American Revolutionary War. This includes the defence of Canada during the rebel invasion of 1775-1776, assisting Sir John Johnson’s flight from Johnstown, New York in the spring of 1776, and other events.
This complements the previously noted information on the wartime experiences and post-war settlement of the Loyalist regiments that settled in the focal area of St. Lawrence Branch, the Eastern Ontario counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry.
…Stuart Manson, UE, Branch Webmaster and Newsletter Editor
By Don N. Hagist, 4 March 2019
In March and April of 1780, there was a string of home invasions and robberies around the villages of Jamaica and Flushing on Long Island, New York. The farming region had been a British army garrison since the autumn of 1776, and was teeming with residents, soldiers, sailors, prisoners of war, refugees, and an assortment of itinerant and displaced people. Crimes were bound to occur in such crowded conditions, with many opportunistic and desperate people, but this early 1780 spree was particularly disturbing. Residents heard a knock on the door in the middle of the night; if they didn’t answer, doors were broken open and men with blackened faces burst in, demanding money, guns, wearing apparel, watches and other valuables. Sometimes they compelled the homeowners to light candles and lead them to goods, other times they forced their victims to cower under bedding while they ransacked the home, threatening to kill those who didn’t comply. Residents were tied up, knocked down, blindfolded, belittled, and overpowered. No one was sure exactly how many perpetrators there were – three, four, five – faces blackened, wrapped in greatcoats, at least one carrying a gun – but they all had the appearance of soldiers, particularly one who wore a light infantry cap.
On May 8 they struck again, for at least the fifth time, at a farmhouse occupied by William Creed and his adult son. In the middle of the night, there was noise as people attempted to enter the front door. Failing to break it open, they went to the kitchen door. Four men, one wielding a musket with fixed bayonet, burst through and rushed on the elder Creed, demanding his watch and purse.
It’s once again March and that can only mean one thing at The Junto: our March Madness tournament. We skipped last year to welcome our new members, so in case you’ve forgotten: you nominate, we bracket, and you vote. In previous years, we have hosted tournaments of books, articles, and primary sources in early American history.
This year, our tournament will focus on digital projects on early America.
Be sure to read down the page to see the myriad of projects which were nominated. There are so many, perhaps one or more would be relevant to your ancestral research. If you just love early American history, you may just find [too many] new sources of information.
Eric Hinderaker, a distinguished professor of History at the University of Utah and the author of Boston’s Massacre, leads our investigation of the Boston Massacre.
During our conversation, Eric reveals what the Boston Massacre was, when it took place, and what we know about its participants; Colonial and imperial reactions to the Massacre; And, the ways both Bostonians and British officials used the Massacre to further their causes.
Compiled by Duncan (darby) MacDonald, based on research of James Brownell & The Brownell Research Team
Originally published by MacDonald Research Centre, Brockville, 1987
This edition published by MacDonald Research*, Ottawa, 2019
*MacDonald Research is an imprint of GlobalGenealogy.com Inc.
Joseph Brownell, the paternal head of the first Brownell family to settle in Upper Canada (Ontario) following the American Revolution, was born at Dartmouth, Massachusetts on November 16, 1740 and died at Moulinette, Upper Canada, on March 22, 1822. According to a 1943 unpublished genealogy by William James Brownell of the Brownell family, Joseph Brownell was the son of Joseph Brownell and Leah Lawton. Although the compilers of this book found it difficult to locate evidence in birth and marriage records regarding this father/son relationship between Joseph Brownell and his father, related dates do give fairly concrete evidence to prove this relationship. That evidence in the first few pages.
Joseph Brownell remained loyal to the British Crown and made his way to Upper Canada following the American Revolution, settling in what is now the south eastern region of Ontario.
This book is the result of an exhaustive study of the branches and associated families of Joseph Brownell and his wife Ruth Butts. Originaly published in 1987, this new 2019 edition is identical to the final edition that was printed by Duncan MacDonald.
Read more at GlobalGenealogy.com.
By Elise Couture, Stone 27 February 2019
We’ve all seen them: quilts. Everyay, mundane objects meant to serve a function, a purpose. In our mind’s eye we can trace the contours of the shapes, the unique patterns and kaleidoscopic colors. However, what we may not know is that each individual stitch and piece of fabric woven together represents a cultural transition; a change in function; a change in mindset – a shift in consciousness. The colors of the materials reverberate in these works, echoing stories of eras long past, and summoning up pain long since forgotten. The fabrics, the textures, the thread, indeed all of these materials, reflect centuries of non-idol hands – fingers possessing the most refined dexterity and vision to create. The detailed elements in each finely woven stitch bear open souls long since deceased.
More than just commonplace objects, quilts have a great deal to tell us about women’s lives and daily activities. As historian Elaine Hedges put it, “Their needles became their pens,” and their cloth, paper.
The next time you see a quilt, look with particular consideration at the patterns, the colors, the stitch work – the stories. With each subversive stitch resides a thread of history. Publications set in cloth, their pages still echo decades of turbulence, reverberations of struggle, and a hope for a better, more equitable life.
By Kimberly S. Alexander, 4 March 2019
In January 1765, Philadelphia shoemaker Alexander Rutherford alerted his female customers “as are resolved to distinguish themselves by their patriotism and encouragement of American manufactures, that he makes and sells all sorts of worsted or wool shoes, of all sizes, as neat and cheap as any imported from England.” Rutherford’s advertisement was an opening salvo that foreshadowed the War for Independence. The enemy, however, was not British regulars, but England’s shoemakers; their mercenary allies were not Hessians, but those British American consumers who sought out English footwear; and their antagonist was not King George III, but an obscure cordwainer named John Hose.
In the wake of the Sugar and Stamp Acts, Whig leaders like Samuel Adams railed against the importation of English goods, especially luxury items. They feared that the consumer revolution, underway at least since the 1740s, would undermine fundamental virtues such as frugality and simplicity and could vitiate a colonial economy that should favor homespun goods over imported gewgaws. London merchants and artisans became targets for Whig propagandists who promoted the virtues of homespun and local manufacture as a means of liberating Americans from Britain’s mercantilist hold.
You can access over 1000 historic places to visit in Canada and abroad with your Canadian National Trust membership. In addition to FREE access to National Trust sites around the world, the number of historic sites to visit for free here in Canada has doubled to 60 over the last year and continues to grow. These include Fort York located in the heart of downtown Toronto, the Kettle Valley Steam Railway in Summerland, British Columbia, and many more.
The list of UE Certificates issued since late in 2012 – showing the Loyalist ancestor, name of descendant (when permission is granted), branch and date – has been updated with the certificates issued in November and December of last year. The same updates have been applied to the Loyalist Directory.
Where is Jo Ann Tuskin of Gov. Simcoe Branch?
To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at firstname.lastname@example.org.
From the UELAC branches, news and events of interest to others:
Members of the Vancouver Branch have often wondered why don’t we learn more about the true history of women? We are moving forward on that path. The Branch will acknowledge International Women’s Day with special guest speaker – Andrea Eidinger, PhD – who will respond to this question: Who are Canada’s ‘most historically significant’ Women?
Dr. Eidinger is the founding editor of Unwritten Histories, a blog dedicated to unraveling the mysteries of Canadian history as a field, discipline, and profession.
Meeting date is Tuesday March 19th. Start time is 7:30 at the Bonsor Recreation Centre in Burnaby.
Saturday, April 6, 2019, 1:00 pm (Meeting at 1:30) at Carlingwood Branch Meeting Room, Ottawa Public Library
After a brief Annual General Meeting, our guest speaker will be Mags Gaulden. Her topic will be “The Power of DNA”.
Please confirm your attendance by April 3, 2019 at the Branch email – email@example.com – or by calling the Branch Secretary at 613-824-0980.
See details at Sir Guy Carleton Branch: Upcoming Events.
The conference will be held on Saturday, April 27 in Rochester, New York. It will feature 4 lectures by James Beidler. Jim is a descendant of 18th century German immigrants to Pennsylvania, where he has spent his life. Jim will be a featured speaker at the International German Genealogy Conference in Sacramento, California in June, so we are thrilled that we will have the opportunity to hear him in Rochester. See the conference flyer with registration details. Questions to Garry Finkell, President, NY Chapter firstname.lastname@example.org
- 7 March 1749 – The London Gazette announces plans to establish a British sponsored settlement in Nova Scotia offering land and supplies to those who wish to go.
- Every day the commanding officers of companies must examine their men’s arms and ammunition, and see that they are clean and in good order.- “Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States”, aka the “Blue Book” by General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
- After dark on Mar 4, 1776, Continental troops moved quietly onto the heights of the Dorchester peninsula under cover of an ongoing cannonade on Boston. Wagons carried prefab fortification pieces called chandeliers & fascines
- 5 Mar 1770, violence erupted between local citizens and occupying British forces. A total of five Bostonians were killed and The Bloody Massacre on King Street became the most infamous story in Revolutionary America.
- Rev250 event of the day – Mar 5, 1770, British grenadiers fire into a violent crowd on King Street, killing 5. Mar 5, 1776, British commanders find Continental troops are fortifying the heights of the Dorchester peninsula. The dates are not a coincidence.
- Today in History: Lars D.H. Hedbor @LarsDHHedbor (see his page for associated photos):
- 8 March 1777 Battle of Punk Hill near Bonhamtown New Jersey. Patriot Gen William Maxwell saw British force on a foraging expedition & sent men to harass the left with a larger force to the right to outflank, but British retreated.
- 7 Mar 1781 Gen. Sumter’s men burn Ratcliff’s Bridge at Bishopville, SC & escape into swamp from British detachment.
- 6 Mar 1776 NY Provincial Congress dispatches force to disable Sandy-Hook lighthouse to confound British invasion.
- 5 Mar 1770 Boston Massacre inflames Colonists as British fire on mob, killing 5.
- 4 Mar 1776 Cannon seized from Fort Ticonderoga are placed overlooking Boston, dooming British occupation.
- 3 Mar 1776 Silas Dean departs to negotiate in secret for French contributions of arms and military materiel.
- 2 Mar 1776 Patriot bombardment of occupied Boston begins, eventually leading to British evacuation.
- Townsends: We Promise, This is Delicious – Simple, Roasted Onions From 1806
- 18th Century men’s 3 piece silk suit, European, 1770’s
- 18th Century dress, robe a la Francaise, hand-painted silk, 1740’s
- Who knew that HISTORY could taste this good. Pickled peaches from a recipe from the eighteenth century for you to try out. I was peeling peaches, dropping them into boiling water and slipping off their skins. Sometimes they slid off almost perfectly. But often I’d have to give them a hand with a small, sharp knife. There’s something very soothing about a mountain of peaches all waiting to be stripped. Then the smells as they roast, sprinkled with sugar, in the oven, the smell wafting upstairs. The peaches are then pickled in vinegar flavoured with cinnamon, nutmeg and mace. All of these are typical eighteenth century flavours. Read more…
Does anyone have knowledge or data concerning my John CRAIG. He was born about 1760 and joined the loyal (British) 84th Regt in South Carolina between 1779 & 1782. Perhaps he was a Patriot soldier prior to that or a member of the Queens Rangers whose numbers decreased considerably late in the War, (1781). The 84th were at Eutaw Springs, Moncks Corner, Charleston, etc. He and his fellow soldiers settled here in Atlantic Canada after the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War. I have good history on him & his descendants from 1782 onward which I will happily share.
After the War, Land Grants were given to the 84th Regiment, 2nd Battalion – ex-soldiers in Nova Scotia & New Brunswick. In NB’s Charlotte County grants of 100 – 1000 acres were given between 1784 & 1797 along the Magaguadavic River; examples being John CRAIG 413 acres and his 84th buddy John GOSS, 623 acres. Six generations of John CRAIG descendants have lived there at Bonny River/Second Falls for 234 years, including 222 of them – continuously on the CRAIG Grant of 1797. My wife Barbara & I reside on 1.5 acres of the property; I am the g.g.g. grandson of Pvt. John CRAIG.
…Cal Craig, Bonny River, New Brunswick