“Loyalist Trails” 2020-30: July 26, 2020
In this issue:
– Ontario Celebrates Emancipation Day on August 1
– The Baileys and the Callahans: Friends in Difficult Days (Part 2), by Stephen Davidson
– Richard Carpenter: Barber and Swimmer
– The Female Food Riots of the American Revolution
– UELAC Committees and Projects
– Would You Help The Virtual Application Committee?
– Uniting the States: The Papers of John Adams, Volume 20
– Book: Reflections on Glass in the 18th-Century British World
– JAR: The Journal of Dr. Edmund Hagen, Privateer and Prisoner of War
– JAR: Certain British and British American Actors in the Southern Theater of the War
– The Junto: Call for Papers: Materializing Race in Vast Early America
– All Things Georgian: How to set up a school in 1770
– Webinar: Researching a Loyalist Soldier
– Mayflower 400th Anniversary Virtual Celebrations
– Two Excellent Books About Life in and Around the War of 1812
– A Rare Loyalist Case, by Brian McConnell
– UE Loyalist Certificates Issued Recently
– Where in the World?
– Additions to the Loyalist Directory
– From the Twittersphere and Beyond
In 2008, the Province of Ontario dedicated August 1st as “Emancipation Day” to recognize the ending of slavery in Upper Canada.
In March 1793, John Graves Simcoe, Governor of Upper Canada (modern day Ontario), was shocked to learn that an enslaved woman named Chloe Cooley was forcibly bound and dragged onto a boat and taken across the Niagara River to be sold. Realizing that the freedom of all Africans in Upper Canada was in similar jeopardy, he began to lobby others in the colonial government.
In July of that year, Simcoe was able to pass legislation banning the importation of enslaved Africans into Upper Canada and guaranteeing freedom for the children of enslaved Africans born from then on when they reached the age of 25. The first such law of its kind in the British Empire, it led to the abolition of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade by 1807.
Finally, in 1833, the Slavery Abolition Act brought an end to chattel slavery throughout the Empire, coming into effect on August 1, 1834 in Britain, Canada, and several other colonies, and 1838 in the Caribbean and elsewhere.
…Royal Commonwealth Society of Canada
© Stephen Davidson, UE
The situation along the Kennebec River remained calm all through the winter of 1774-75, but the new year would prove to be a turning point. In April of 1775, the first shots of rebellion were fired at the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Brigadier General Hugh Percy commanded troops that marched from Boston to Lexington to reinforce and defend the British troops under Lt. Col. Francis Smith.
Percy was a hero to the Loyalists of New England, and so when Sarah Bailey gave birth to the couples’ first son, they decided to name him Hugh Percy Bailey in honour of the British commander. On the day of the christening, Rebecca Callahan was once again asked to be the godmother. While standing at the baptismal font, Rebecca noted the number of Patriots in the sanctuary. She had no doubt what their reaction would be if the Anglican minister named his son after a British general.
When it came to the point in the christening service where the godparents were asked to give the name of the child, Rebecca said he was to be Charles Percy. Since the congregation knew that Charles Callahan was a friend of the minister, this name was met with favour. The minister’s son signed his name as Charles Percy Bailey for all of his life.
While they did their best not to enrage their Patriot neighbours, the Callahans and Baileys continued to pray for the king as part of their Sunday worship, and they maintained their loyalty to the crown. Both actions would have their consequences.
In the summer of 1776, local Patriots issued a warrant for the arrest of the Rev. Jacob Bailey. He had refused to read the Declaration of Independence in his Sunday service, continued to pray for the king, and preached what the Patriots considered to be a “seditious sermon”. After months under house arrest, Bailey snuck out of town under cover of darkness, leaving Sarah, the twins and little Charles behind.
Bailey wrote: “During this absence my family severely felt the distresses of hunger and famine, and sometimes had nothing to eat for several days together, but an handful of vegetables and a little milk and water, and at other times they remained twenty-four hours without any sustenance at all, till Mrs. Bailey had almost determined to die rather than make her situation known, for it has long been criminal for any person in this country to afford us support, and many have been prosecuted as Tories for no other reason. “
Upon returning home at Christmas time, Bailey reported that he “was assaulted by a violent mob armed with clubs, axes, and other weapons, who stripped me naked in search of papers, pretending that I had conceived a design of escaping to Quebec.”
Bailey’s friend, Charles Callahan, had hoped to remain neutral, but the local Patriots repeatedly drafted him to serve in the local militia.
As a later historian wrote, Charles “became convinced that he was dishonestly dealt with in this matter, and he then determined to defeat the power of his enemies by leaving the country.” In the summer of 1777, Callahan was so harassed by the rebels that he fled Pownalborough, seeking sanctuary in Halifax. In doing so he was forced to leave his father, a maid, his wife Rebecca, and their children behind in the hope that they could hold on to his property.
On the night that he began his escape to Halifax, Callahan wondered if he were doing the right thing. He confessed that his “attachment to my aged parent and beloved wife, and the thoughts of leaving them unprotected to the malice and cruelty of the miscreants about them tears my very soul in pieces”.
Knowing that other Loyalists had had their property seized by Patriot committees, Callahan had done his best to insure that his family would be safe from retribution. Before he left Pownalborough, he had settled all of his business affairs, paying off any creditors and giving his wife Rebecca complete control of their elegant house and 240 acres of land. Nevertheless, within three months of Callahan’s finding sanctuary in Nova Scotia, local Patriots tried to make use of an obscure law to confiscate the Callahan’s property.
In a letter to the local judge of probate, Callahan’s political enemies demanded that Rebecca be brought into court on the basis of legislation that allowed creditors to seize assets of a person who had “absconded and left the country”. Rebecca, they said, had “secreted, embezzled or conveyed away” her husband’s personal estate and must come before the judge to give an account upon oath of all her lands and effects. The Callahans’ friend, Jacob Bailey recalled “Some of the messages which were sent to this worthy woman were not only highly illiberal, but scandalously low, dirty and obscene.”
But Rebecca was not intimidated. On the advice of her lawyer, she bravely refused to comply with the wishes of the Pownalborough court. On December 17, 1777, she appeared before the judge and refused to take an oath. The judge ordered her to be put in the “common gaol” until she complied. But Rebecca appealed to the Massachusetts Supreme Court of Probate and submitted a six-point petition as the basis of her appeal. While she waited for her petition to make its way through the legal system, a member of the Pownalborough Committee of Sequestration confiscated the Callahans’ personal property.
Jacob Bailey noted the treatment of his friend in his journal: “They seized the very flax which Mrs. Callahan had raised and dressed with her own hands, the fowls about the door, and even a canary bird and the cage. Such a mean and unmanly littleness distinguished all the proceedings of our magistrates, such a boyish and ungenerous spirit of revenge appeared in the whole of their conduct …”
“Mrs. Callahan was so affected with their barbarous treatment that she could not endure to tarry in the country, and, in order that she might have it in her power to obtain justice from the General Court, she set out for Boston, a journey of about one hundred and seventy miles, about Christmas, the snow being very deep and the weather extremely severe.” In Rebecca’s absence the local Patriots auctioned off 3 yoke of oxen, 9 cows, 3 horses, 14 sheep, and all of Charles Callahan’s farming utensils.
The fall of 1777 had been just as difficult for Jacob and Sarah Bailey. A number of Anglican ministers in the area had been pressured into omitting prayers for King George III from their Sunday worship services. Jacob, on the other hand, continued to follow the usual Anglican forms. “For this single offence, I have been threatened, insulted, condemned and laid under heavy bonds”, he wrote.
Loyalists from Pownalborough who had fled to Halifax and Quebec shared the story of clergyman’s hardships, including the fact that he had to hide inside his own parsonage for five weeks. Patriots were posted near the Bailey home “either to intercept his flight or destroy him on the spot.”
Finally, on the night of October 15th, two fellow Loyalists guided Bailey through the woods to the safety of his brother’s house. He later found out that two young men who had been riding along the road near the parsonage were fired upon, being mistaken for Bailey.
Writing about the Loyalist minister, a historian said, “He was constrained to leave his family in circumstances truly distressing; a wife with a young infant, and two girls about eleven, and no kind of provisions or money for their support, except a few garden roots.”
The story of two Loyalist couples continues in next week’s Loyalist Trails.
To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.
J.L. Bell 15 March 2011
The man I’ll profile seems to have stumbled into military intelligence and counterintelligence efforts during the summer of 1775 without actually showing much animal intelligence.
I’ve mentioned him a couple of times before, when quoting the diaries of Timothy Newell and William Cheever: a barber named Carpenter who swam across Boston harbor during the siege – twice. And that was once too many.
Thanks to a webpage at the New England Historic Genealogical Society and some database searching, I’ve now identified that man as Richard Carpenter.
My earliest record of him is an advertisement in the Boston Chronicle of 20 Feb 1769:
Hair Dresser and Peruke-Maker
INFORMS all Ladies and Gentlemen, that he has just opened SHOP in King-Street, north-side of the Town-House, next Door to Mrs. Jean Eustis’s, where all those that will be kind enough to favour him with their Custom, will be well served and the best attendance given.
That location puts Carpenter near the scene of the Boston Massacre, but his name doesn’t appear in the record of that event. (For more on Jane Eustis, see Patricia Cleary’s biography Elizabeth Murray.)
According to a page from a family record now owned by the N.E.H.G.S., Carpenter was originally from Dublin. On 6 Dec 1770 he married Elizabeth Brackett of Boston in King’s Chapel (shown above). The couple had a son in 1772, a daughter in 1773, and were expecting again when the war broke out in April 1775.
On 18 July, Carpenter decided to get out of the besieged town.
New England Historical Society
On July 24, 1777, women confronted merchant Thomas Boylston, demanding he charge a reasonable price for coffee. Upon his refusal, they tossed him into a cart, used his keys to open the store, and hoisted the coffee out themselves.
Between 1776 and 1779, food shortages caused more than 30 food riots in the American colonies. Angry men and women accosted merchants who hoarded, overcharged or monopolized coffee, tea, sugar or flour.
In Boston, East Hartford and Beverly, Mass., women led some of the food riots. They were trying to manage farms, families and shops while their husbands were away fighting the war. To make matters worse, they could buy few scarce imports as the war cut off trade with the West Indies.
And both the British and Continental armies requisitioned food and livestock.
The 2020 Scholarship Challenge was the fifth challenge for funds developed by the Scholarship Committee under the leadership of Bonnie Schepers. It has been a big success, thanks to so many of you who have contributed.
Behind the scenes are a many committees which develop programs, some for internal use among the branches and others which are more public. Loyalist Trails with Where in the World and the semi-annual Loyalist Gazette are published by the Publications Committee. The Loyalist Directory is managed by the Loyalist Information Committee.
As editor, I plan to give you more details about these Committees and their projects. Below is an example, a request for volunteer help from members.
This year the UELAC Board of Directors has added the “Virtual Application Committee” to support the ongoing work/communication for all of the UELAC.
With the changes created by Covid-19 the UELAC is looking to virtual applications as a means to continue our communication amongst members/committees/and the Board of Directors. The applications should be able to enhance communication between different sizes of groups, individual members, committee and branch meetings and also provide a means of sharing information such as documents and provide the security we require. Travel for meetings, discussions between committees and members throughout Canada has always been a difficult and sometimes costly matter which the virtual applications may reduce. This committee will continue in the future to support virtual communication throughout but will not replace the practice of face-to-face meetings.
I have been asked to Chair this committee and with this in mind I am looking for people from the various Branches who share interest or expertise to join this group. You may have experience in these applications or are interested in the development of our evolving virtual world. If you think this is something you’d like to be involved with please contact me.
I’ve started to develop a list of applications (currently used and future use), format and layout for a manual of virtual applications, instructions and reference information for these applications, and scheduling of all. I would like to have more members to help with the process. There will undoubtedly be new virtual applications in the future that this committee would review and recommend, if applicable, to the Board.
So far am looking at the following applications: Zoom, Skype, G-Suite (a Google application for video conferencing), Face time and private FB pages for committee/interest groups. UELAC have used many of these applications but we now need to set up processes to ensure all are able to utilize, they are applicable and security is in place. In the future we’ll also be looking at Webinars and Podcasts but that will be after the initial conferencing ones are complete. We may have to approach people outside our membership for help with specific technical questions.
If you are a member and have had experience, or have an interest in working in developing these applications, I’d LOVE if you’d contact me.
Hoping to hear from you.
…Liz Adair, Assiniboine Branch, Virtual Application Committee Chair, >email@example.com> or 204-788-1242
by Sara Georgini 14 July 2020
The Papers of John Adams, Volume 20, spans a formative era in the development of our federal government, stretching from June 1789 to February 1791. We used 301 documents to tell the legislative story of the first federal Congress, foregrounding John Adams’s creation of the office of the vice presidency amid the nation’s struggle to implement the new U.S. Constitution…
Equally perplexing – and challenging – to John Adams was the scope of his new federal role. The U.S. Constitution said little about what a vice president’s powers were, and so Adams was largely left alone to interpret the charge…
Volume 20 places John Adams and his family in New York City, and, by the book’s end, in Philadelphia. After a decade in Europe and a few months of semi-retirement in rural Quincy, Adams acculturated to new habits. His trusted circle of regular correspondents changed…
One of the more remarkable letters that we published in Volume 20 is Benjamin Franklin’s last letter, of February 9th, 1790, to his fellow revolutionary and former colleague. For longtime readers of the Adams Papers and fans of American history, this letter is a fascinating bookend to a fractious friendship.
In Sparkling Company: Reflections on Glass in the 18th-Century British World, edited by Christopher L. Maxwell. Published in 2020 by The Corning Museum of Glass (Corning, NY).
Britain in the 1700s was complex, dynamic, and full of growth, whether industrial, geographical, intellectual or societal. The nation began the century under the leadership of a Dutch king (William III, r. 1689-1702), followed by a dynasty of Germans (the Hanoverians, r.1714-1837). Its aristocracy was educated on European Grand Tours, and its commercial, political and territorial ambitions stretched from North America to India, and from Africa to China. It was a world that fostered exploration, expansion and exploitation.
The British glass industry replaced that of Venice as the global leader during this period but, beyond its presence in dining and drinking rituals, little discussion has hitherto been made of the significance of glass in the lives of the country’s elite during the 1700s.
Read more. A major exhibit coming in 2021.
By Kadri Kallikorm-Rhodes, July 2020
Edmund Hagen presumably never intended the publication of his daily journal of his 1776 stint as the surgeon on a successful, but ultimately ill-fated, privateer. But it is exactly the fact that his journal contemporaneously records what he at the time regarded as the important facts of the day, rather than retrospectively identifying important events through the haze of later recollection, that makes his diary such a valuable window into the turbulent world of privateers. These are not paraphrases, or redacted accounts, or even the author’s own clean copy – Dr. Hagen’s terse lines describe events as they happen, and leave it to us to put his remarks into context.
Physician Dr. Edmund Hagen of Scarborough, Maine, served as a surgeon on a privateer during the American Revolution and died aboard the Royal Navy prison ship Boulogne sometime in early 1777. After his death, his family received his medical chest and the surviving portions of the journal he kept during the privateering excursion and later captivity. These items remained in the family’s possession, the journal fragment later becoming a part of the Americana Collection of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution (NSDAR) archives.
A transcription of the extant portions of the journal was published in 1904 in American Monthly. This transcription unfortunately lacked the sort of accompanying notes that would make the manuscript useful for researchers – especially lamentable given the shortage of ship logs and contemporaneous journals from privateering expeditions. The objective of this current article and its sequel, “‘Very Cold & Nothing Remarkable’: Prison Journal of Dr. Edmund Hagen,” is to remedy that shortfall and bring this resource into closer focus for modern researchers. This article presents and discusses the first half of the journal, which deals with Hagen’s experience on the privateer. The sequel examines the second half of the manuscript, dealing with Hagen’s experience on board the prison ship Boulogne, and addresses historiographical puzzles raised by the journal.
This second article presents and examines the second half of Dr. Edmund Hagen’s journal, dealing with Hagen’s experience on board the prison ship Boulogne, and examines some of the historiographical puzzles raised by this document.
What remains of Hagen’s journal is missing the pages that would have contained any entries for the days between Saturday, November 2, 1776 and Wednesday, December 11, 1776. On November 2, the Massachusetts privateer Putnam, carrying Dr. Hagen as ship’s surgeon, encountered HMS Lizard about seven miles east of Boon Island (that is, about sixteen miles east of York, Maine). From Lizard’s log it appears that the outcome of this encounter was the capture of Putnam. Certainly by December 11, 1776, when the pages of Hagen’s journal resume, Hagen was already a prisoner onboard the Royal Navy’s prison ship Boulogne, moored at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Boulogne had started life in 1757 as the French East Indiaman Le Boullogne. After being taken as a prize, she joined British service as a frigate in 1762. In the summer of 1776, Boulogne underwent refit in Plymouth dockyards in England to serve as an unrated storeship, receiving orders for Halifax in June 1776. There she was to lay in harbor and “to be employ’d on such Services as she may be applicable to.” Boulogne departed for America in August 1776. At Halifax, her crew numbered 66.
We first hear of prisoners of war being assigned to Boulogne on August 10, 1776, when some of the crew of privateer Warren were ordered to be detained on her. There are reports of escape of at least nine prisoners in February 1777. Boulogne remained in Halifax, and what remained of her was used in 1786 to shore up the town harbor.
Although, as discussed below, living conditions on board the prison ships involved shortages of food, clothing, and heat, prisoners do not seem to have been too closely confined. Ethan Allen, who was held on an unnamed prison ship in Halifax earlier in 1776, noted that the prisoners had the sloop “entirely to ourselves,” except for a guard in the forecastle. It is likely that the arrangements were not dissimilar during Dr. Hagen’s imprisonment. Hagen’s journal entries are terse but provide useful nuggets of information …
And the nothing. The evidence of this journal, combined with the testimony of Dr. Hagen’s son Walter and the fact that the doctor’s possessions ended up in the hands of his family, suggests that Hagen died aboard the Boulogne sometime after December 31, 1776 (when he made the final surviving entry in the journal) and before April 1780 (when his fourteen-year-old son son went to war to take revenge for his father’s death). More specifically, it is likely that Dr. Hagen died before the end of June 1777, when some of the prisoners from Boulogne, including Putnam’s commander John Harmon, were exchanged, as his status as the ship’s doctor may have placed him among the higher-status prisoners, and thus more likely to be exchanged.
By Ian Saberton 22 July 2020
This article supplements one of mine that appeared in the Journal of the American Revolution in November 2016. Based partly on The Cornwallis Papers, it provides a wide-ranging set of reappraisals compartmentalised under the sub-headings below.
The following are each addressed in the article:
• James Paterson
• Alured Clarke
• John Harris Cruger
• Isaac Allen
• George Turnbull
• James Wemyss
• Archibald McArthur
• James Moncrief
• John Macleod
• James Simpson
• John Cruden
• Thomas Pattinson and John Carden
• Henry Brodrick
Event: August 24 and 25, 2020
Proposals due by August 1, 2020
Organized by Cynthia Chin and Philippe Halbert
In a commitment to fostering nuanced interpretations of early American objects and meaningful dialogue on historical constructions of race and their legacies, we propose a virtual ‘unconference’ to share and discuss scholarship on the intersections of identity and material culture in Vast Early America. This participant-driven, lightning round-style event will be held via Zoom, with two approximately two-hour afternoon sessions conducted in English. Energized by Dr. Karin Wulf’s call for broader, more inclusive histories of early America, we seek to promote a diverse cross-section of scholarship focused on North, Central, and South America and the Caribbean before 1830.
We welcome a variety of approaches and methodologies including historical, art historical, anthropological, archaeological, visual analysis, and experimental/experiential archaeological. Proposals should be object-focused and include a brief abstract.
By Sarah Murden 30 March 2017
We came across this book published anonymously in 1770 with containing full instructions for someone who wished to set up their own academy – a sort of ‘how to’ guide. It was very lengthy but we thought you might find some of the instructions below quite interesting.
Advertising – When advertising for boys does not answer, advertisements for servants may probably succeed. The following is an approved copy.
Wanted at an academy near London three domestics; A complete penman, accountant, and mathematician, with an undeniable character: A steady careful person capable of teaching the English language grammatically, and willing to attend the children to bed: A cleanly sober wench to look after the children’s linen, and do other occasional work
By properly publishing advertisements like this, you will seldom fail of attracting the attention of the public.
Diet – If there be no considerable parish work-house near you, it will be your interest to secure the stale loaves and neck-beef; the former is excellent in boiled milk or plumb-pudding, the latter in boullie for a Saturday’s dinner.
I allow of no pies except a little before the holidays. Delicacies and dainties are not to be expected in a school.
Lodging – Few instructions may suffice on this head. The lighter the boys are covered, and the harder the bed, the more natural and more healthy.
The fewer chamber-pots the better; it will prevent the boys catching a cold by rising in the night and make them unwilling to drink much beer at supper.
Recreation – The more holidays the better; it will give the boys an opportunity of feeding themselves at their own expense, and, by tasking them well, you will prevent the complaints of their parents.
Discipline – Remember always to exercise your first severity on poor people’s children and day-scholars. The first floggings are a perpetual disgrace, and it is but reasonable that they should bear it, by whom you are least profited.
Are you trying to prove your Loyalist ancestry? Register for a free webinar on Wednesday, July 29, 2020, 2pm (ET): Mayflower: The 400th Anniversary – One of the Virtual Celebrations
This year is the 400th anniversary of the 1620 voyage of the Mayflower from England to the New World. If you have Pilgrim ancestors, take a look at the www.mayflower400uk.org website.
The My Mayflower series tells stories through the eyes of those linked to the ship’s legacy and the story of the voyage.
Virtual Voyages is a series of short videos, showing places from the Mayflower story, including hidden secrets.
…Nancy Conn, UE
Are you interested in children of Loyalists who participated in the War of 1812? These two books give an excellent background and context:
In the Midst of Alarms, by Dianne Graves
Based on diaries, memoirs and records, this book reveals the impact of war on wives and mothers on both sides of the conflict. They include a First Lady, famous belles, a female British intelligence agent and a woman who disguises herself as a man to join the US Navy. Chapters cover officers’ ladies, soldiers’ wives, high society, poverty and bereavement.
Merry Hearts Make Light Days: the War of 1812 Journal of Lieut. John Le Couteur, 104th Foot, edited by Donald E. Graves
A fascinating account of life in early 19th century Ontario – born in the Island of Jersey in 1794, le Couteur arrived in St John, New Brunswick in July 1812. Posted to Upper Canada, he marched overland with his regiment in February 1813. After garrison duty at Kingston and action at Sacketts Harbour, he was sent to the Niagara Frontier. He participated in the Battles of both Beaver Dams and Lundy’s Lane.
At war’s end, he sailed to Curacao in February 1816 to reunite with his father who was retiring as Governor of the Island.
…Nancy Conn, UE
By Brian McConnell, UE
It could be the only one of its’ kind or it might be one of several that were made as part of a promotional effort by a Branch of the United Empire Loyalists’ Association in the 1930’s. No matter, the cigarette case with the old insignia or Decoration of the UELAC on it that I recently acquired is unique.
The list of UE Certificates issued since late in 2012 – showing the Loyalist ancestor, name of descendant (when permission is granted), branch and date – has been updated with the certificates issued between June 1 and July 15. The same updates have been applied to the Loyalist Directory.
Where is Nova Scotia Branch member Brian McConnell, UE?
To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at firstname.lastname@example.org.
As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:
- Capt. John Howard – contributed by Pam Wood Waugh
- Jemeriah Johnson – contributed by Dalton London
- John Manzer – contributed by Christine Manzer
- Joseph Mercer Sr. – contributed from Branch records by Jo Ann Tuskin
- Wilhelm Price Jr. and Wilhelm Price Sr. (updated) – contributed by John Haynes
Please help us build the directory by contributing information. Contact email@example.com for guidance.
- BC Loyalist Day. While they could not celebrate together, Marlene Dance, Chilliwack Branch, sent greetings and a visual special reminder about their special day. She had her flags flying in her hanging baskets, and was asked a few questions by her neighbours as they walked by.
- Greetings from Admiral Digby Well in Digby, NS established when Loyalists arrived in 1783
- Where in the World is Sir James Pliny Whitney? By Stuart Manson 21 July 2020. The gravesite of Sir James Pliny Whitney, former premier of the Province of Ontario features a monolithic tombstone, the centerpiece of a large family plot. The former premier, however, is not buried beneath this ornate collection of stone, nor anywhere else in this cemetery. Read more to find his resting place, with United Empire Loyalists since the late 18th century.
- Good morning from Black Cemetery at former Brinley Town, now Conway, Digby County, Nova Scotia settled by Black Loyalists in 1785
- Colonial newspapers contributed to the perpetuation of slavery. Advertised 250 years ago today: “SCIPIO, a Negro Man … inclines much to the Sea, will make an able Seaman … If he returns voluntarily he shall not be whipt as he deserves” (Boston Evening-Post 7/23/1770)
- This Week in History
- 23 July 1770, The Boston Gazette reports a list of graduates from Harvard that year. Among them was Samuel Adams (son of “the” Samuel Adams). Adams Jr. went on to become a doctor, but died in his thirties.
- 20 Jul 1775 Patriot forces destroy lighthouse in Boston Harbor, return in 10 days to defeat British repair team.
- 23 July 1775, Continental Army surgeon general Dr. Benjamin Church gave his mistress, Mary Wenwood, a ciphered letter to carry to Newport and give to a Royal Navy officer. Eventually this letter would reveal Church to be a double agent.
- 23 Jul 1776 Congress declines to give Washington direction for defense of NYC, citing confidence in his judgement.
- 24 Jul 1776 President Hancock reprimands General Schuyler over disruptive dissent in his militia ranks.
- 21 Jul 1778 North-Carolina delegates sign the ratification of the Articles of Confederation.
- 19 Jul 1779 Massachusetts launches disastrous attack in modern-day Maine; worst naval defeat until Pearl Harbor.
- 22 Jul 1779 British-allied Mohawk Chief Brant defeats forces responding to his attack in Neversink Valley, New-York.
- 20 Jul 1780 leads failed assault on New-Jersey blockhouse, defended by Loyalists.
- Manual Foot-Powered Vice? – Build A Shavehorse By Hand
- Clothing and Related:
- Abigail Adams Disapproves of French Fashion, c1800. by Susan Holloway Scott 18 July 2020. But not all American women (or statesmen’s wives) were so eager to follow the latest trends. In 1800, Abigail Smith Adams was the First Lady, with her husband John serving the final year of his term as president in the then-capitol of Philadelphia. Ladies there were quick to follow the latest fashions from Paris, but Abigail was having none of it. She had recently read an article (probably something of a sermon) by a lay preacher who “thinks there are some Ladies in this city, who stand in need of admonition, and I fully agree with him.” Does she ever! Read more…
- Dress in the 18thc embraced the refashioning of garments for the value of the cloth. This 1780s cotton chintz is suitably stylish for the decade but the fabric is a 1740s Indian print
- Two refashioned silk dresses were featured in the exhibition at the Massachusetts Historical Society ‘Fashioning the New England Family’ which opened October 2018. The lush, emerald green dress on the left began as Spitalfields silk damask wedding dress, worn by Rebecca Tailer [Byles] for her Boston wedding to Reverend Mather Byles, in 1747. Read more…
- 18th Century dress, Woman’s mantua with stomacher & petticoat, c.1700 made of silk satin with gold & silver metallic thread embroidery
- 18th Century Dress a la Turque, over chemise. c.1789
- 18th Century men’s Court Coat, pocket detail showcasing paste stones, foil, sequins, and metallic-thread embroidered appliqué, soft pinks on a bright yellow, 1780-1785
- Stunning detail of an 18th Century men’s Court coat & matching waistcoat with floral designs embroidered in silk, c.1800
- 18th Century men’s ensemble, delicious red coat, 1787-1792
- John Singleton Copley’s 1765 portrait of Elizabeth Oliver Watson (1735-1767). Clad in lustrous silk, the Boston-born sitter married Plymouth merchant George Watson (1718-1800) in 1756. With striking confidence, she confronts the viewer directly while holding an exotic blue [vase]
- These fashionistas are learning the perils of flimsy frocks during a harsh winter! A Naked Truth, or Nipping Frost, 1803, after Charles Williams.
- Mudlarking: I recently found a 17th Century traders token in the Thames mud (Traders tokens were issued in the 17th C by traders, bakers, butchers, tailors, inns, taverns, vintners etc.. for low value transactions) but this one is extra special! Follow the thread to discover why!
- Three late 18th Century English miniature antique wax portraits of Lord Nelson and two other senior naval officers in original untouched country house condition. Now for sale