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Scholarship Challenge 2022: Multiplying UE Scholar Opportunities
Thank you for your donations.

The donations received by Friday 22 July have been added at Scholarship Challenge 2022. To date 41 donors have contributed $7,150. Your contribution will help us meet – and surpass – the objective of $8,088.
We are counting down the final weeks. Donate online today – for those who wish to send a cheque, the mailing address.
The scholars we support help add to the collective wealth of information and growing body of interpretation and understanding of the Loyalist-era experience.
Most Master and Doctoral scholarships are renewable for a second and third year respectively.

Tim Compeau, a 2007 UELAC Loyalist Scholarship Award Recipient, is now an assistant professor of history at Huron University College in London, Ontario, and a member of the UELAC Loyalist Scholarship Committee.
Members of the UELAC may have heard Tim speak on his book project at last year’s annual conference. Dishonoured Americans explores the role of honour culture in the Loyalist experience. He is also project director of Loyalist migrations (, a partnership funded by the UELAC, Huron, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, which is scheduled for an update in the next few weeks. He recently published a paper in the Journal of Military History about the strange tale of the HMS Psyche in the War of 1812 on Lake Ontario. UELAC members should feel free to contact Tim if they have questions about any of these projects.
Tim will be forever grateful to the UELAC Loyalist Scholarship for providing the help he needed to complete his initial research and start his career. Travel to the United States, the United Kingdom, and within Canada is crucial for graduate research, and is becoming more expensive than ever. He encourages UELAC members to consider donating to help this important cause and support continued research into Loyalist history!
Read more… about Tim’s background, studies and contributions in 2007.

Multiplying UE Scholar Opportunities will run until August 22, 2022 with updates each week.
Please join the challenge by donating – the instructions are there to mail a donation, or to donate online via Canada Helps – and watch our success as we meet the challenge goal of $8088.
Christine E. Manzer UE, Scholarship Committee,

A Loyalist Rogues Gallery: Part Four
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
During the course of this series, it has been noted that the historian Lorenzo Sabine was willing to relegate about 20 Loyalists to membership in a rogues gallery based on evidence that they were vicious “robbers and marauders”. As has been seen, many of the men in this category were placed there because of how they were described in Patriot newspapers and documents of the era. Here are a handful more of men who may also have been falsely tarred with the brush of infamy.
William Crossing of Newport, Rhode Island was described by Sabine as being “a noted marauder and robber”. “The account of him is, that he plundered women of their jewellery and fancy articles of dress; that he robbed and burned houses; and that he carried off Whigs in mere wantonness. He was taken prisoner in the year above mentioned, and confined at Providence.” Crossing and fellow prisoner Joseph Caswell would later escape in February of 1779
There are only a few historical crumbs to flesh out Crossing’s story. Daniel Popek notes that on the night of October 4, 1778, Crossing and Lt. Francis Corey of the Loyal New England Regiment conducted a raid. But was that for military or monetary gain? Other accounts place Crossing as a member of Wightman’s Corps of Loyalists. The historian Marian Desrosiers claims that Crossing and Thomas Hazard were spies, and cites the fact that Crossing’s wife Sarah was a resident of Newport, Rhode Island in 1782, but that William was not.
However the couple, their child, and a servant appear in the victualing muster of Saint John, New Brunswick’s Fort Howe in 1783. They had sailed on the Symmetry, an evacuation ship that left New York City on June 13, 1783. When he arrived in New Brunswick, Crossing would be reunited with Joseph Caswell, the Loyalist blacksmith who shared his jail cell in Providence. The Rhode Island “robber” survived the revolution and found refuge in the northern colony.
Crossing last appears in the historical record as one of several dozen Loyalist petitioners seeking land in New Brunswick’s Sunbury County in 1784.
Sabine described the New York Loyalist Gilbert Totten as “a terror not only to himself, but to all who knew him.” The only positive press coverage that has survived for Totten is a brief account in New York City’s Loyalist newspaper. Its December 23, 1780 edition reported that Captain Gilbert Totten “and a party of loyalist refugees” captured Major Samuel Lyon, a patriot officer, and made him a prisoner. Lyon was with the Westchester Regiment of Minute Men.
The historian Robert Bolton gives an account of a “party of Totten’s refugee corps” that captured “three young lads” named Vincent, Smith and Lawrence a little south of Howland’s mill in New York. Two of the men were killed on the spot. Vincent recovered from his wounds, but remained a cripple for life. He was later granted a pension, said to be the first granted by the United States.
It is Sabine who cites Totten’s worst crimes. The Loyalist’s men captured a French doctor, and then played a game of cards to determine who should kill him. Totten became the designated executioner, shooting the doctor as he was kneeling and pleading for mercy. Totten was also said to have “betrayed” the rebel Colonel Christopher Greene to DeLancey’s Corps.
However, there was nothing personal in what Totten had done. He had been spying on an inn at Pines Bridge in New York’s Westchester County which was being used as a Continental Army’s command post. After reporting his finding to DeLancey, the Loyalist corps then attacked the inn on May 17, 1781, resulting in Greene’s death.
During the fighting, the Loyalists reportedly mutilated Greene’s body, a crime that George Washington believed was attributable to James DeLancey himself. However, another account of the battle said that the Loyalist soldiers placed Greene’s body in “a spot surrounded by whortleberry bushes …{where} they put something under his head for support“. Totten, it should be noted, survived the battle with a slight wound in his side — an injury that he received in a sword fight with Colonel Greene.
Totten eventually found refuge in Nova Scotia in July of 1783. Described as a “Westchester Loyalist”, he became the land grant agent for the Corps to Governor Parr. He enumerated 182 men, 98 women and 247 children of the Westchester Loyalists at Fort Cumberland. In the following year Totten and 105 other Loyalists each received a land grant of 500 acres. Totten’s grant was situated on the Remsheg River in the colony’s Cumberland County.
John Bacon was another New Jersey Loyalist who led a “band of marauders” in Burlington and Monmouth Counties. The fact that he was involved in the last documented conflict of the American Revolution has given him a fame that escaped Sabine’s notice. Known as “Bloody John Bacon”, this Loyalist led a group of guerilla fighters who financed their operations by plundering Patriots in New Jersey’s Pine Barrens.
In addition to the notoriety his fighters gained through their looting, Bacon’s men killed 19 men in their sleep who had been taking £20,000 worth of cargo off a stranded ship. What became known as the Long Island Beach Massacre occurred on October 25, 1782 — a date that followed the mutual cessation of hostilities between Britain and the United States.
Two months later, Bacon and his men fought with Patriots near the Cedar Bridge Tavern near Burlington, New Jersey. The Loyalist leader and four of his men were wounded in the battle, but they escaped capture.
Captain John Stewart led a party of six men (that included Joel Cook, a brother of a Patriot killed at Cedar Bridge) to Long Beach Island where Bacon had been seen scavenging a wrecked ship. It was night when the Patriots burst in upon the Loyalist fighter as he sat in Rose Tavern. Before Bacon could take up his firearm, Stewart had wrestled him to the ground. Sabine says that Bacon surrendered, and that Cook then “thrust his bayonet” into the Loyalist’s body. Wounded, Bacon tried to escape, but was shot dead by Stewart.
Largely forgotten by Loyalist historians, John Bacon is remembered every December 27th at the annual re-enactment of the gun battle at the Cedar Bridge Tavern. Bacon’s story is also featured on a commemorative marker on Route 72 outside of modern day Cedar Bridge.
William Gillian, a Loyalist from New Jersey’s Monmouth County is the last “Tory marauder” to be considered. Sabine sums up his infamy in a single sentence. However, the event that brought Gillian’s life to an end appears in a number of histories of the revolution as well as in Everett Tomlinson’s 1900 novel, In the Hands of the British.
On the night of April 30, 1780, Gillian and a party of Loyalists (and at least one Black Loyalist named Moses) invaded the Shrewsbury home of a 60 year-old Patriot named Russell. Blazing muskets wounded the rebel’s grandson John as the men entered the house. Gillian grabbed the elderly man by the collar and was about to stab him in “the face and eyes” when the blazing logs in the fireplace flared up, momentarily lighting the room. Though wounded, Russell’s grandson picked up a gun and shot Gillian, killing him on the spot.
Miraculously, John Russell survived the attack despite having been shot five times. Three of the seven Loyalist marauders “met with their just desserts”. William Gillian was killed in the Russell home; John Farnham was later captured and hanged, and Phillip White was killed by three guards when he tried to escape from prison.
This series on a Loyalist Rogues Gallery concludes in next week’s Loyalist Trails.
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at

Borealia: Bludgeons on the Bay of Quinte: Sovereignty, Revolution, and the State in Upper Canada
Nathan Ince 18 July 2022
At 10 PM on the evening of July 11, 1835, a group of Mohawk launched a raft onto the waters of the Bay of Quinte. They had good reason to begin their journey under cover of dusk. The two hundred logs that made up their raft had been illegally cut down the previous winter by settlers encroaching on Mohawk lands. The theft had been discovered in the spring, at which point the Mohawk seized the stolen timber with the help of a deputy surveyor of woods. They had subsequently tried to auction off the confiscated goods, but no bidders came forward, likely due to the influence of the local lumbermen who were already threatening violence in response to the seizure. Instead, a sawmill owner in the Prince Edward District on the other side of the Bay of Quinte arranged to buy a discounted selection of two hundred logs. The Mohawk thus set to work with their oxen to move the timber down to the shore and build it into a raft for transport. After three days of work, they were ready to set out.
Their journey proved shorter than anticipated. The raft had not yet travelled one mile when the Mohawk spied three boats setting out in their direction from the opposite shore of the bay. On board were twenty men armed with clubs and stones. Their leader announced that these logs were rightfully his property, and under threat of violence the bandits made off with the raft, leaving the Mohawk behind on the shore.
The Mohawk did not intend to lose their property so easily. Early on the morning of July 13, a party of armed warriors set out to reclaim the timber, accompanied again by the local deputy surveyor of woods. On the previous day, they had received counsel from an official in Belleville that they should try to recover the raft peaceably if they could, but that if they encountered resistance they would be fully justified meeting force with force “even at the risk of the offenders’ lives.” Read more…

Old Holy Trinity Church in Middleton, Nova Scotia
Old Holy Trinity Church in Middleton, Nova Scotia is the oldest structurally unaltered church in Canada. It was built by Loyalists in 1789. Within the bell tower is a church bell made in England in 1792 and sent as a gift by William Bayard, founder of the King’s Orange Rangers, to the church where his son Samuel Bayard was one of the original Wardens.
William Bayard was a successful merchant with lands in New York and New Jersey at the start of the American Revolution when he organized the King’s Orange Rangers in Orange County, New York. He made two of his sons, John and Samuel, Officers with John as a Major and Samuel a Captain. Later William left for England and his son Samuel went as a refugee with other Loyalists to settle in Wilmot, Nova Scotia not far from the site where Old Holy Trinity Church was constructed.
The church bell was made at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. The bell foundry made primarily church bells although it also made the Liberty Bell, symbol of American Independence, and re-cast Big Ben which hangs from the north tower of the Houses of Parliament in London. It closed in 2017 after nearly 450 years of bell making.
Recently I completed a short video inside the historic church which shows the bell as well as some of the inside of the building.
I hope you will find this interesting,
….Brian McConnell UE, Prescient, NS Branch, UELAC

JAR: The 1775 Duel Between Henry Laurens and John Faucheraud Grimké
by Aaron J. Palmer 19 July 2022
Charles Town, the metropolis of the South (today Charleston, South Carolina), was a leading location for duels in the late eighteenth century. One detailed example reveals much about the practice and about honor in general. In this case, an elite gentleman used every means available to him to defend his honor and police the bounds of his class. A man from a lower class violated the protocols of gentlemanly behavior, attacked the reputation of an elite, questioned that man’s conduct as a political leader, and attempted to destroy his reputation. The gentleman, intimately familiar with elite protocols of honor, used them effectively to defend his political and personal reputation. This incident, which occurred during the early stages of the American Revolution, also clearly shows the difficult position occupied by conservatives who opposed questionable, extra-legal tactics that were being used for the sake of ideological conformity.
By the fall of 1775, Charles Town was in the midst of revolution. The Council of Safety had assumed executive power and the Provincial Congress had supplanted the old Commons House of Assembly. The provisional government also actively debated about how to treat royalists. Henry Laurens served as president or chair of the Council of Safety and consistently opposed persecuting royalists. As a member of the council, he was also expected to keep its proceedings in strict confidence. A bizarre incident began to unfold in October 1775. Read more…

JAR: The Great Hurricane(s) of 1780
by Bob Ruppert 21 July 2022
The most common storm that the British navy and army encountered at sea and on land during the American War of Independence was the nor’easter.
Nor’easters usually develop in the latitudes between Georgia and New Jersey within 100 miles east or west of the East Coast. These storms Progress generally northeastward and typically attain maximum intensity near New England and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. They nearly always bring precipitation in the form of heavy rain or snow, as well as winds of gale force, rough seas, and occasionally, coastal flooding . . . . During winter the polar jet stream transports cold Arctic air southward across the plains of Canada and the United States, then eastward toward the Atlantic Ocean where warm air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic try to move northward. The warm waters of the Gulf Stream help keep the coastal waters relatively mild during the winter, which in turn helps warm the cold winter air over the water. This difference in temperature between the warm air over the water and the cold Artic Air over the land is the fuel that feeds the nor’easter.
A nor’easter probably played a role in General Clinton’s voyage from New York to Charleston (January–June of 1776), the evacuation of Brooklyn Heights (August 29, 1776), the Battle of Newport (August 9, 1778), and General Clinton’s second voyage from New York to Charleston (December 26, 1779 — February 1, 1780). However, none of these storms came close to what occurred in the Caribbean in October 1780 when two hurricanes struck almost all of the islands, one week apart. The first struck Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas and the second struck the smaller islands, from Barbados to Puerto Rico. Read more…

Common Place: The Story the Torn Gown Told
Forensic Evidence and Lanah Sawyer’s Prosecution of Henry Bedlow for Rape, New York, 1793
[or the layers of clothing, round vs open gown, etc.]
John Wood Sweet July 2022
After ten years of work, I recently finished a book on Early America’s most sensational rape trial and its long aftermath. In the opening scene of The Sewing Girl’s Tale: A Story of Crime and Consequences in Revolutionary America (2022), I evoke the image of seventeen-year-old Lanah Sawyer sitting in the back room of a New York brothel one morning in the summer of 1793, with a needle and thread, repairing her damaged gown. Lanah had been assaulted the previous night, and then trapped in that small, dark, space. But she didn’t want to leave until she could appear “in the streets decently.”
A month later, during the young woman’s prosecution of Henry Bedlow for rape, the attorney general produced the gown in court. It was the only piece of forensic evidence introduced by either side. Despite Lanah’s skill, signs of damage were still visible; legally, they were what made it significant. For the prosecution, the gown’s rips and tears were evidence: proof that Bedlow’s assault had been violent and that Lanah’s resistance had been vigorous.
Lanah Sawyer’s story highlights the importance of the modern distinction between our fear of “stranger danger” and the realities of acquaintance rape—a distinction that this rape trial helped create. Read more…
[Editor’s Note: This article wonderfully describes the layers of a woman’s clothing, how they worked together, and how that contributed to the case]

Hair Powder: History of Its Popularity and Unpopularity
By Geri Walton 0 August 2019
Hair powder was at one time used as an ornament for powdering a person’s hair or wig. It was sometimes perfumed and generally made from pulverized starch or Cyprus powder.
From the mid- to late-1770s, huge hair that was powdered was the popular fashion for women. The towering hairstyles that women wore were created using a thin metal frame and a cushion or toque as a support. False hair pieces were intertwined with a woman’s real hair and the combination was curled, waved, or frizzed. It was piled high on the head and once the style was finished, the hair was powdered before decorations were added. Of this fashion Mary Frampton, an English diarist and botanist, provided a description in her journal in 1780:
“At that time everybody wore powder and pomatum; a large triangular thing called a cushion, to which the hair was frizzed up with three or four enormous curls on each side; the higher the pyramid of hair, gauze, feathers and other ornaments was carried the more fashionable it was thought, and such was the labour employed to rear the fabric that night-caps were made in proportion to it and covered over the hair, immensely long black pins, double and single, powder, pomatum and all ready for the next day. I think I remember hearing that twenty-four large pins were by no means an unusual number to go to bed with on your head.”
Americans similarly embraced the fad. Although no royalty roamed the streets, upper class and middle class people were all powdered. This was mentioned in The American Monthly Magazine related to dress and hair fashions in 1792. Read more…

Ben Franklin’s World: Missions and Mission Building in New Spain
Spanish explorers and colonists visited, settled, and claimed territory in 42 of the United States’ 50 states. So what does the history of Early America look like from a Spanish point of view? Brandon Bayne, an Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and author of the book Missions Begin with Blood: Suffering and Salvation in the Borderlands of New Spain, joins us to investigate some of the religious aspects of Spanish colonization. Specifically, the work of Spanish missionaries.
Why was this missionary work was carried out by just a few religious orders, namely the Franciscans and Jesuits. Brandon reveals information about New Spain, its borderlands. and the ways in which Spanish and Indigenous peoples interacted within those borderlands; The work of Catholic missionaries and Spain’s use of missionaries as instruments of colonization; And, details about the Jesuits, their work in New Spain, and why the Spanish Crown ultimately expelled the Jesuits from New Spain in 1767. Listen in…

Book: The Loyalist’s Daughter – Prequel to The Loyalist Trilogy
by Elaine Cougler
Young Lucinda Harper and her father are taking a late-night walk on Boston’s Long Wharf when disguised men run past their hiding place, jump into small boats, and rush out to the Dartmouth anchored in the harbour. As the Harpers watch, the masked men scramble up its sides and begin throwing chests of tea into the water, a warlike act that escalates the conflict. The British forces occupying Boston and the new Continental Army harrying the British come to blows. All the while William struggles to solve his business problems and ensure his daughter’s future happiness. Tea becomes the least of their problems.
See more about the Trilogy and the Prequel.

DAR Grant to The Salem Chapel in St. Catharines
The Upper Canada Chapter of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution is proud to announce that a $10,000 DAR Historical Preservation Grant has been approved to the Salem Chapel British Methodist Episcopal Church Society in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada towards the preservation of the chapel. The Salem Chapel played a key role as the terminus of Harriet Tubman’s Underground Railroad for the estimated one hundred thousand fleeing violence in the US. The church was attended by Harriet Tubman and many of those she guided to freedom in the 1850s.
In announcing the grant, Toronto based DAR Regent Helen Hatton remarked:

“We are thrilled that this grant, which will support the preservation of the Salem chapel, marks the first time the DAR has supported a project outside the United States, and pays tribute to the long history of friendship between our two countries. This important piece of our rich joint Canadian/American Black history is now being recognized for the important role it played in the Underground Railroad.”

Read the announcement…

National Trust for Canada: Historic Places
Today we launch Historic Places Days 2022! From July 8-31, we are so excited to be working with communities to celebrate the dynamic and diverse stories of Canada, from coast to coast to coast. Historic Places Days is a 3 week festival (in person/online) that features over 500 historic places, 250 #Visitlists, and over 170 special events.
We know that historic places create a sense of belonging, and these places resonate when their stories are told by passionate people who create special experiences and connections for their visitors. Stories of resilience, stories of commemoration, stories of reconciliation.

Featured: Glengarry, Nor’Westers & Loyalist Museum, Williamstown, Ontario (here)
Museum preserves and interprets the history of the United Empire Loyalist migration to Glengarry County and of the Glengarry partners of the North West Company.
Explore the rest of the village of Williamstown, which includes the Sir John Johnson Manor House, the Bethune/Thompson House, the Celtic Music Hall of Fame, two incredibly historic churches and more. Website.

UELAC Loyalist Directory: New Contributions
Entries which have been added, or revised, this week, with thanks:

  • Information from Stephen Davidson about Maj. Thomas Ward has been added
  • Lynton “Bill” Stewart has contributed information about
    • Paul Amberman from Jamaica, Queens County, New York who settled at Granville, Annapolis County, NS
    • Stephen Arnold from Woodbridge, Middlesex County, New Jersey who resettled at Digby, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia
  • Thanks to Vancouver Branch (Linda Nygard, Linda Drake) for data about:
    • Capt. Thomas Elmes Matthews, born in Lincolnshire, England, served in the 3rd regiment of York Militia, and resettled in Pickering, York County, Ontario
    • Cpl. Donald Ban McDonnell born in Scotland in 1742, lived in Johnstown NY, fought in the KRRNY and resettled in Charlottenburgh, Glengarry County, Ontario.

If you are willing to submit some information, send a note to
All help is appreciated. …doug

In the News:

Homeward Bound: Mi’kmaw Artifacts from Atlantic Canada.
Mi’kmaw communities to share stewardship of artifacts with American museum.
Written by Nelle Oosterom — Posted July 12, 2022
Tucked away in the National Museum of the American Indian’s Cultural Resources Center (NMAI) in Suitland, Maryland, are hundreds of Mi’kmaw artifacts from communities in Atlantic Canada.
American anthropologists collected the artifacts for the museum in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Now, however, thanks to a partnership with the NMAI, the Mi’kmawey Debert Cultural Centre is an important step closer to bringing the artifacts collection home to Mi’kma’ki (the traditional lands of the Mi’kmaq) on Canada’s East Coast.
Mi’kmawey Debert is designing a Cultural Centre at the Debert ancestral sites in central Nova Scotia, collectively a federally designated National Historic Site. Read more…

Maintaining Our Historical Roots: Salem United Church Community Cemetery
20 July 2022 Seaway News
SUMMERSTOWN, Ontario — The first non-indigenous settlers to this area, the United Empire Loyalists, arrived in 1784. As they began to clear land, build log houses and farms; their first need as a community was for a church and a burial ground.
From about 1787, Rev. John Bethune began to minister to the Summerstown settlers, and in 1804 Loyalist James Clark conveyed one acre of land by Deed to Rev. Bethune for use as a community cemetery and to provide a site for a church. In fact, the cemetery had been in use for years before that, and the church has been a site for worship and a hub of community activity since.
Over the years, the stone wall surrounding the original cemetery has slowly deteriorated. Read more…

Upcoming Events:

Maine Historical Society: “From Head to Heel” Tues. 26 July 7 — 8 pm ET

Focusing on five representative artifacts, Dr. Kimberly Alexander, Director of Museum Studies at the University of New Hampshire, will explore the nature of making, remaking, repairing, and preserving Maine’s fashionable past. Details and Registration.

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