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2023 UELAC Conference Update: Tour Vancouver on Friday 2 June
Haven’t made up your mind as to which Tour to take during the Conference in Vancouver/Richmond, BC, 01-04 June?
Take a look at the video for the Museum of Vancouver’s, All-Day Cultural Tour, including lunch, scheduled Friday 02 June 2023
Watch “A Conversation with author Anne Wyness about Vancouver’s James Inglis Reid Ltd.” – part of Tour A on Friday, June 2, 2023

“The Heroic Story of Robert Land UEL” by Guest Speaker Ruth Nicholson UE
From Central West Region (Hamilton area) Ruth relays one of her favourite local Loyalist stories when she reveals the heroic and troubled life of Robert Land. Ruth will express the story in a novel format, visually through drawings and her flannel board. Over 80 programs were given by Ruth during the pandemic to tell Bible stories to her Sunday School class. This has developed into a presentation structure that engages all ages through storytelling and art. More details about topics and guest speakers

Visit “Where the Sea Meets the Sky” for more on Registration, Guest Speakers,Schedule of Events, Flight discounts, Tours, Hotel, Room rates & booking, and BC Tourism
Carl Stymiest UE, 2023 UELAC Conference Chair,

Desperately Seeking Indigenous Allies in the East – Part Three of Five
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
With the coming of the spring of 1777, the new government of the United States continued to nurture its military alliance with the Wabanaki Confederacy of the Maritimes. George Washington’s correspondence with the Wolastoqiyik who lived along the St. John River had, according to the New England settlers in Maugerville, “set the Indians on fire, and they were plundering all people they thought to be Tories”. There was fear that the plundering would eventually extend to those within the community who supported the American Revolution.
It was not a time for the Patriots to rest on their laurels. Given that a British warship was guarding the mouth of the St. John River following the unsuccessful attack of rebels and Indigenous warriors on Fort Cumberland, the Americans needed to shore up their support among the Wabanaki Confederacy.
After learning that the British warship was no longer on sentry duty, John Allan, the Superintendent of Eastern Indians for Massachusetts, journeyed along the coast and up the St. John River to meet with leaders of the Wolastoqiyik Nation. Accompanied by other New Englanders and Indigenous men, Allan met with Pierre Tomah, Ambroise Saint-Aubin and other leaders at Aukpaque, a summer settlement just up river from today’s Fredericton, New Brunswick.
The historian W.O. Raymond described the meeting. “Forty or fifty Indians arrayed in war costume of paint and feathers fired a salute of welcome. The visitors responded and in order still further to impress the Indians landed their two cannon and discharged them. Allan says that he found several of the Indian captains were vastly fond of Colonel Goold {a British officer} and seemed undetermined what to do. The inclinations of the head chiefs were diverse. Ambroise St. Aubin favored the Americans but Pierre Tomah, the head chief, inclined the other way.”
The white settlers of the St. John River were equally divided. Allan wrote, “I am sorry to say that the people have not acted with that spirit that becomes the subjects of Liberty. Much division has been among them … and having no encouragement of success from the Westward and being surprised so suddenly by Col. Goold the whole gave up and are now become the subjects of Britain.”
Despite this division in loyalties, Allan felt confident that he could sway the Indigenous elders. As Raymond points out, his estimate of his Wolastoqiyik allies was “not particularly flattering”. Allan once wrote, “The Indians are generally actuated according to the importance or influence any one has who lives among them. They are credulous to a degree, will listen to every report, and generally believe it and think everything true that is told them.”
By the end of the Aukpaque conference, Allan and the elders had once again agreed “that peace and friendship be now established permanent and lasting between the United States and the several tribes“. In addition to the many gifts and strings of wampum used to grease the wheels of diplomacy, Allan also promised to establish a trading post where his Native allies could “obtain good prices for their furs”.
On June 30th the tide of the revolution along the St. John River turned for both its New England settlers and the Wolastoqiyik. Under the command of Major Gilford Studholme, 120 soldiers and three Royal Navy ships secured Portland Point at the mouth of the St. John River, gaining control of the lower part of the Bay of Fundy and of any access to the St. John River Valley.
Important as it was for the British to gain control of Portland Point, the arrival of Michael Francklin on July 1st was perhaps even more significant in the effort to secure the backing of the St. John River’s Indigenous People. Fluent in French and the Wabanaki languages, Francklin was prepared to make a case for the First Nation to side with the Britain rather than the new American republic.
When word of the British seizure of Portland Point reached Aukpaque, “all was consternation” among Allan’s party and the Wolastoqiyik elders. Cracks in the alliance between Patriots and Natives immediately appeared.
Pierre Tomah and some of his people were open to listening to whatever Michael Francklin had to say; Ambroise St. Aubin and the others were not interested. John Allan’s greatest fear was that Tomah –“always considered a Tory”– might be able to persuade the Wolastoqiyik to consider an alliance with the British. Allan assured the people that their safest course was to go to Machias with him, that the Patriots would recapture of the river, that the Americans would shortly regain possession of the river, that Massachusetts would provide for them in the meantime, and that they would be amply rewarded for maintaining their treaty with the rebel government.
Thus, on July 13, Allan’s mission that had started out with such great hopes ended with a retreat of 480 Native men, women and children fleeing westward in 128 canoes. Ten days later, Michael Francklin wrote to Sir Guy Carleton, then the governor of Canada, from Maugerville to outline the situation.
The Continental Congress having by their Emissaries taken every method to alienate the affection of the savages of this Province from His Majesty so far prevailed as to induce part of the Tribes of this River, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot to associate last Fall with a few banditti from the eastern parts of New England, who together with some of our Provincial Rebels plundered the peaceable inhabitants of the County of Cumberland, … and presumed to invest Fort Cumberland, but were finally defeated by His Majesty’s Troops … These Rebels were defeated the 30th of June at the mouth of the River by the King’s Troops under the command of Brigade Major Studholme…The day following I arrived in a civil capacity with about 150 Troops and militia from Windsor. These Rebels in their flight have been obliged to divide …This last party were joined by Ambroise St. Aubin … We are friendly with Pierre Tomah, the other Indian chief, … and hostilities have not even been committed by us against the others.
“I have been particular that you Excellency may know our situation. An Indian war is of all others the most to be dreaded by this Government from the scattered situation of our settlements, and a word from your Excellency to the savages of this River, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot, sent by some of your well affected Indian Chiefs of the neighborhood of Quebec may have a very great weight with them and prevent much ruin and expense.
By November of 1777, British soldiers had completed the construction of a new fort to guard the mouth of the St. John River. Named for Sir William Howe, then commander of British forces in North America, Fort Howe protected the region’s settlers for the remainder of the American Revolution. Perched on a hill that overlooked the harbor, the new garrison brought a sense of security to the New England Planters who lived along the St. John River and was a vital link in communications between Halifax and Quebec. It would also be a significant factor in Britain’s changing relationship with the Wabanaki Confederacy.
It would all depend on the efforts of Michael Francklin, Nova Scotia’s Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 1778 would turn out to be a “make it or break it” year in the search for Indigenous allies in the East.
The story of the eastern First Nations’ role in the American Revolution will continue in next week’s Loyalist Trails.
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at

The Origin of Andrew Miller, UE
By Bruce Miller UE who notes “I am writing a book for my family on our Loyalist ancestor Andrew Miller and attached is an excerpt from the first chapters.”

John Burch’s letter of 1795 attached to Andrew Miller’s petition for land states:

This is to certify that the Bearer Andrew Miller came into this Province Some Time in year 1778 or 1779 & lived in and under my care to the year 1790 being then Marry’d in my house removed to take up a farm for himself, his father & family were Good Loyalists but were unfortunately kild as was his Uncle by a small Scout of Indians that were unknown to them, the boy has ever shewn the Strongest attachment to the British Government wile with me and sence & refused to stay with his family connections in Ulster County when Mrs. Burch took him out to see them in the year 1785.

We have not been able to identify this event of the killing of Andrew’s father and uncle by “a small Scout of Indians that were unknown to them” until now. A newspaper article titled “Indian Raid in 1778 on Pine Bush,” was published in the Kingston Daily Freeman on April 7, 1904. It begins with these words, “The Indian raid on Pine Bush, in the town of Rochester, which led to the Grahamsville disaster, took place early in the morning of Saturday, September 5, 1778…” The attackers burned three houses, killing Andries Shurker and taking Peter Miller and Ephraim Baker as prisoners. The first news of the raid was brought in a hastily written letter to the home of Johannis Hardenbergh by Shurker’s wife. Further details were provided by Colonel John Cantine who arrived at the Honk Hill fort at 2 pm on the day of the raid. He wrote that the assault took place about daybreak, when Shurker and Miller were killed and scalped. “Baker and Miller’s son were missing and presumed to be prisoners.” Pine Bush was located in the small village of Rochester, Ulster County, New York, in the Rondout Valley south of the Catskill Mountains.
At first, I was aghast! Can this be true? Was this the event of the killing of Andrew Miller’s father and uncle and Andrew’s captivity? Can Miller’s son be identified as Andrew? The newspaper article was published in 1904, and it is a secondary source written more than a hundred years after 1778. But the article refers to primary sources, letters that were written on the same day as the event described. The basic facts of this raid are confirmed in four letters written in 1778.
A letter from Judge Levi Pawling to Governor George Clinton dated September 5, 1778 at Marbletown stated that he had received a letter from Rochester (where Pine Bush was located), “that a party of the Enemy had been last night and burnt Three Houses, killd one Andries Shurker, and took Peter Miller and one Ephraim Baker prisoner, what number of the Enemy I have not heard, they sent Shurker’s wife, to John’s G. Hardenbergh’s with the Letter.”
Governor Clinton’s response written the next day on September 6, 1778 in Poughkeepsie stated, “Colo. Pawling informs me that the Enemy night before last burnt three Houses, killed one Andrus Shurker, & took Peter Miller & Ephraim Baker, Prisoners.” And in a letter written two days later on Sept. 8, 1778 Governor George Clinton writes that “a small Party of Indians and Tories…burnt 3 or 4 Houses & Barns near Rochester, killed two men & carried off another.”
This is amazing! Can it be true, that after two hundred years of mystery we now know about Andrew Miller’s family origin? The pieces seem to all fit. Peter Miller was Andrew’s father and Andries Shurker was probably Andrew’s uncle (his mother’s brother). They were both killed and young Andrew (“Miller’s son”) was taken prisoner, and brought as a captive to Fort Niagara in 1778. Further confirmation is found in a letter written by Col. John Cantine at Marbletown on Sept. 9, 1778 in which he states:

I received intelligence that the Enemy had burnt three Barns or Barracks, Viz of Andries Shurker, Peter Millar and Jacob Baker. The two first they have killed and scalped, Baker and a Boy of Millar are not found, therefore think they have taken them along.

For more of this story of a Niagara Pioneer see

  • Jan Van Doll, “Indian Raid in 1778 on Pine Bush,” Kingston Daily Freeman, April 7, 1904.
  • Levi Pawling to George Clinton, Marbletown, Sept. 5, 1778 in Public Papers of George Clinton, Vol. 3, #1733, 738.
  • George Clinton to John Cantine, Poughkeepsie, Sept. 6, 1778, Public Papers of George Clinton, Vol. 3, #1735, 742.
  • George Clinton to Levi Pawling, Sept. 8, 1778, Documents of the Senate of the State of New York, #1745.
  • John Cantine to George Clinton, Marbletown, Sept. 9, 1778, Documents of the Senate of the State of New York, #1749.

Johann Gottlieb Rall: Tactical Negligence or Personal Negligence at Trenton?
by James M. Deitch 7 Feb. 2023 The Journal of the American Revolution
“When a man chooses a calling, he must do everything that can be done in that calling so that he can never suffer reproach for having done only half of his duty. On this account, I keep among the mottoes in my portfolio, to serve at times as a reminder, the following from Boileau: ‘Honor is like an island, Steep and without shore: They who once leave Can never return.'”—Johann von Ewald[1]
After the First Battle of Trenton, a court of inquiry judged Col. Johann Gottlieb Rall, commander of the garrison at Trenton, New Jersey, and his deputy, Maj. Friedrich von Dechow, commander of the Knyphausen Regiment, to be responsible for the loss of the post. History has judged Colonel Rall guilty of tactical and personal negligence.[2] Did the effects of alcohol and vice diminish his character, or was it arrogance and contempt for the capabilities of the Americans that caused his failure of preparation and situational awareness? Historians have repeatedly mistreated Colonel Rall and his men at the Battle of Trenton, describing them as inebriated, ill-prepared, and otherwise distracted by the holiday season. None of this was true. Rall’s story is tainted by tradition and lore that obscure the historical information. Read more…

Two Encounters: Captain Abraham Van Dyck, the “Negro Man,” and Prince Pitkin
by Benjamin L. Carp 9 Feb 2023 The Journal of the American Rvolution
Captain Abraham Van Dyck of New York faced military justice twice during the Revolutionary War: first by the British for burning his hometown, and then by his fellow Continental Army officers for killing a Black soldier in camp. In each case, imperfect evidence presents historians with a puzzle. Notably, African American men were central to each incident.
I came across the stories of Van Dyck and his encounters with two Black men while researching the Great Fire of New York City in 1776. Although pieces of Van Dyck’s life survive in archives, it was difficult to recover much about the inner thoughts and motivations of the two Black men. Yet Van Dyck’s story offers a telling account of race and justice during the Revolutionary War.
Abraham Van Dyck was fifty-seven years old in 1776. A former feltmaker, he kept an inn with an enclosed tennis court at the corner of Broadway and John Street in New York City. Read more…

Revolutionary PHL: Blankets, Beer, and Beef: Broadsides for Care of Military Bodies
Elisabeth M. Yang 6 Feb 2023, American Philosophical Society
About a month after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, on August 9, 1776, the State of Pennsylvania ordered the publication and distribution of 2,000 broadsides, one-paged public postings, that listed the rations for each soldier of the Flying Camp: supplies such as “a pound of beef and bread,” “three pints of beans,” and “eight pounds of hard soap” for 100 soldiers per week. A year later, on September 4, 1777, a broadside featured the U.S. Militia’s resolve for the procurements and assessment of essential resources—“arms and blankets”—for the military. These broadsides illustrate how the American government and military quickly communicated information deemed vital within public spaces during the American Revolution.
“Breaking news” or “fresh intelligence” did not arrive as rapidly as contemporary news is delivered to our phones or television screens. However, information spread faster than one might assume today, thanks to the dissemination of broadsides, small or large one-paged postings printed quickly for “prompt distribution of news, advertisements, songs and poems, personal announcements, and official proclamations.” Read more…

The Amorous Thief
By Sarah Murden, 6 Feb 2023 All Thnings Georgian
I came across this curious case of a marriage, a few years ago, in connection with Dido Elizabeth Belle’s husband, John Daviniere. It was a case that many of the London newspapers of late 1815 reported upon. I put it to one side as it only appeared for a few days, and with no conclusion. However, returning to it with fresh eyes, I’ve unearthed some more bits and pieces to share with you.
Early November 1815, a man named William Palmer, alias John Everett, was charged with robbing a young Irish girl by the name of Julia Leary of clothing.
Julia was a young and uneducated servant girl, who had recently left Ireland to work in London and knew no-one except her employer and his wife. Read more…

Query: Contact at Brock University or Other Suitable Facility
I was recently in Jordan Station for a family wedding, and visited a number of friends.
One of them has a keen interest and has researched his family history. He is looking for an appropriate place to share his research findings with others.
He was brought up in St Catherines. One of his ancestors lived in the Jordan Station Farm area on the Twenty River and another settled in the Grimsby area. His ancestors were United Empire Loyalists and members of the Butler’s Rangers.
He is looking for a safe place to store his paper family tree files to share with other descendants who might want to read about their family? Brock University perhaps?
If you can recommend a good place for storage and sharing, please provide a name with contact details so I can follow up.
Thanks in advance
Susan Moss

In the News:

Belleville’s Own: Local filmmaker/historian stands on the shoulders of giants
By Victor Schukov, 3 Feb 2023
Born in Toronto, accomplished filmmaker Doug Knutson moved here when he was only one year old. Like a good number of people who land on their proverbial legs in a dream career, he backed into it inadvertently.
“I didn’t really know what I wanted to be, so I enrolled in Geography at Queen’s University. As an interest credit, I took a film studies course. In hindsight, I realized I was always interested in special effects and books about moviemaking. After I took this course, something just clicked, unusual because in the early 1980s there wasn’t much of a film industry here.”
His final year in university was also the year of Ontario’s bicentennial, so as his final project he picked the story of a Loyalist who settled in Adolphustown, founded in 1784 by United Empire Loyalists. It piqued his interest because he is a descendant of New Brunswick Loyalists:
“We are first generation in Belleville and all the research I did revealed a similar pattern of settlement here as down east. I kept running across the story of Captain John Meyers. I thought it was a story that had to be told when I started my own production company in 1989. Read more…

Historic Jordan Ferry Union Church to be Demolished
By Kathy Johnson 1 Feb. 2023 Saltwire
The historic Jordan Ferry Union Church in Shelburne County will be demolished this spring. Built in 1874, and owned by the community, the building has fallen into such a state of disrepair, the decision was made by the community at a public meeting last year to tear it down.
JORDAN FERRY, N.S. — Not since the 1990s has there been a service of any kind held at the historic Jordan Ferry Union Church in Shelburne County.
Built in 1874, and owned by the community, the building was registered as a municipal heritage property in 1999. In later years, however, it has fallen into such a state of disrepair that the decision was made by the community at a public meeting last year to tear it down.
Before this could happen, however, the heritage property had to be deregistered by the Municipality of Shelburne. As part of the process, a public hearing was held at the Jan. 11 council meeting. Read more…

New to Canadian winters, pit houses were home to Black Loyalists for years
Story by Nathan Coleman, 8 Feb 2023 The Weather Network
After being freed by the British for fighting in the War of Independence in 1776, Black Loyalists built pit houses in order to survive harsh winter conditions in Birchtown, N.S.
The Weather Network recently visited the Black Loyalist Heritage Centre in Birchtown and spoke with their Executive Director, Andrea Davis, about the history of the pit houses.
“Winter was approaching when they landed and they didn’t have the opportunity to set up traditional homes,” Davis told The Weather Network.
Archaeologists didn’t discover the remnants of pit houses until back in the mid-1990’s. Read more and watch brief video…
submitted by Tom Babcock

Book: The Waldorf Families (Germany to New Jersey to Ontario)
By Duncan MacDonald and the Waldorf Research Team – Second Edition
Published by Global Heritage Press/MacDonald Research, Carleton Place, February 2023
A detailed genealogy of the descendants, ancestors and connected families of Martin Waldorf U.E. (1740-1785) who is the only known Waldorf to flee to Upper Canada (Ontario) as a United Empire Loyalist after the American Revolution. The Waldorfs were early German settlers in New Jersey. Martin Waldorf lost his New Jersey land as a result of ….
Available in both printed and pdf download formats. Read more…

Book – A Genealogical Sketch of a United Empire Loyalist Family in North America The MATTICE Family
By Duncan (Darby) MacDonald C.D., U.E., F.S.A. Scot, – Third Edition
Published by Global Heritage Press/MacDonald Research, Carleton Place, February 2023
This book is a detailed genealogy of the MATTICE family, decendants of whom migrated to Upper Canada (Ontario) as United Empire Loyalists after the American Revolution. This genealogy reaches back to Casper Matheus (Mattice) who was born in Germany in 1636. The next generation migrated to….
Available as a PDF download: Read more…

Book: American Inheritance: Liberty and Slavery in the Birth of a Nation, 1765-1795
By Edward J. Larson, W. W. Norton & Company 17 Jan 2023)
New attention from historians and journalists is raising pointed questions about the founding period: was the American revolution waged to preserve slavery, and was the Constitution a pact with slavery or a landmark in the antislavery movement? Leaders of the founding who called for American liberty are scrutinized for enslaving Black people themselves: George Washington consistently refused to recognize the freedom of those who escaped his Mount Vernon plantation. And we have long needed a history of the founding that fully includes Black Americans in the Revolutionary protests, the war, and the debates over slavery and freedom that followed.
We now have that history in Edward J. Larson’s insightful synthesis of the founding. With slavery thriving in Britain’s Caribbean empire and practiced in all of the American colonies, the independence movement’s calls for liberty proved narrow, though some Black observers and others made their full implications clear. In the war, both sides employed strategies to draw needed support from free and enslaved Blacks, whose responses varied by local conditions. By the time of the Constitutional Convention, a widening sectional divide shaped the fateful compromises over slavery that would prove disastrous in the coming decades. Larson’s narrative delivers poignant moments that deepen our understanding: we witness New York’s tumultuous welcome of Washington as liberator through the eyes of Daniel Payne, a Black man who had escaped enslavement at Mount Vernon two years before. Indeed, throughout Larson’s brilliant history it is the voices of Black Americans that prove the most convincing of all on the urgency of liberty.

Upcoming Events

Kawartha Branch: The Knotted Rope By Jean Rae Baxter 19 Feb. 2023 2:00 ET

The Knotted Rope, the sixth and final novel in what has become known as the “Forging a Nation” series, is set in Niagara in 1793 during the last days of slavery in Upper Canada. It returns to the subject of Jean Rae Baxter’s third historical, Freedom Bound, in which she told the story of the Black Loyalists’ escape from slavery during the American Revolution.
In The Knotted Rope, Jean Rae Baxter unravels another strand of the complicated, sometimes tragic, but ultimately victorious, history of the fight to end slavery.
In this presentation, she examines the paradox at the heart of writing responsible historical fiction. To honour our history, we must be true to it.
But how can we tell the truth by means of made-up stories? That is the question. The answer, she explains, lies in the use of historical facts to trigger the action. The writer shows how people reacted to, and were affected by, actual events. Just such an event was The Proclamation of “An Act to Prevent the further Introduction of Slaves and to limit the Term of Contracts for Service Statutes of Upper Canada 33 George III.”
Jean Rae Baxter is the descendant of settlers who arrived in New France in the 17th century, Loyalists who came to the New Settlement following the American Revolution, immigrants from Germany in the 19th century. There were many family stories to awaken her interest in Canada’s history.
Jean’s historical fiction has won recognition in both Canada and the United States.
To register, email Grietje McBride

Toronto Branch “British Child Migration” by Pat Skidmore Thurs. 23 Feb

On February 23, 2023 at 7:30 pm via zoom, Pat Skidmore is going to give us an overview of the 350 year history of British Child Migration – a history that has been kept silent for a good portion of the 350 years. British Child Migration took place as far back as the 1830s to the late 1940s, although the ‘height’ of child migration to Canada was between 1869 and the 1930s.
Her research is mainly centered on the Prince of Wales Fairbridge Farm School and her mother, Marjorie’s, experience there. Over 120,000 children were sent to Canada . Over 95% of the children were not orphaned.
To register, send an email to – a meeting link will be sent out by February 20th.

Fort Plain Museum: The Revolutionary War Conference 250 in the Mohawk Valley, June 9-11

Registration now open.
Friday, June 9: Bus Tour – Forts and Fortified Homes of the Mohawk Valley
Opening Reception and Registration
Saturday, June 10: Program and reception
Sunday, June 11 until noon: Program
See details: schedule, registration, lodging etc

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • Conveyed “to Aesop Moses his late Negro servant…100 acres of land in Clements…” by Estate Deed of May 6, 1816 executed by Bethiah Davoue, widow of Loyalist Frederick Davoue of Annapolis, Executrix, & Thomas Ritchie, attorney, & Loyalist Cereno Jones of Sissiboo, Executors…
    in accordance Will of Frederick Davoue. Both Bethiah Davoue and Cereno U. Jones have visible headstones in St. Peter’s Cemetery at Weymouth North, Digby County, NS. See part of deed and headstones.
  • The image of a kneeling African person in chains became a powerful symbol for the abolition movement. Beginning in 1787, abolitionists on both sides of the Atlantic wore or displayed items such as these to show their support for the movement.
  • The mill on Hanworth Road (now the site of Crane Park Nature Reserve) in 1772 was one of three gunpowder mills that blew up, shattering windows for miles, including those of Horace Walpole’s house at Strawberry Hill’. Between 1796 & 1812 a series of disasters killed 30 workers
  • As we search the skies for spy balloons, it’s time to remember the villagers of Gonesse, who in 1783 shot down a “monster” they saw floating above them & attacked it w/ pitchforks. Here’s the commemorative French textile that pictures the scene,
  • Townsends
  • This week in History
    • 11 Feb 1768, the Massachusetts House sent a circular letter to the New York legislature complaining about the Townshend duties. Gov. Francis Bernard demanded the body rescind it, setting up another confrontation. Read more…
    • 5 Feb 1777, Gen. George Washington changed his mind and ordered Continental Army soldiers and recruits to be systematically inoculated against smallpox. It wasn’t just that he changed his mind, he did a complete about-face. He went from jailing inoculators and calling officers who sought inoculations traitors to making compulsory inoculation Army policy in about 7 months time, a dramatic shift
    • 7 Feb 1775 Franklin tweaks British, remarking in part on Colonies’ higher birth rate.
    • 8 Feb 1776 New-Hampshire Provincial Legislature asks Continental Congress’ help in defending seacoast.
    • 9 Feb 1776 Gen. Lee asks Congress to send a battalion to NYC to build fortifications against newly-arrived British.
    • 6 Feb 1778 France formally allies with the Americans in their war against the British.
    • 10 Feb 1779 Americans outfight Loyalists at Carr’s Fort, GA, turning away to rout enemy at Battle of Kettle Creek.
    • 5 Feb 1783 Sweden formally recognizes the United States; first nation not directly involved in war to do so.
    • 4 Feb 1789 Washington elected first President under the Constitution, succeeding Cyrus Griffin as US head of state.
  • Clothing and Related:
    • It’s been a long week, so I’ve got bed on my sleepy mind. Oh, to sleep on a bed surrounded by these patchworked bed hangings! This set of bed hangings, which combine over 6,400 pieces of British and Indian cotton, dates to 1730-50
    • Shoes for Tuesday. Silk, European 1770-89
    • Look at these beautiful textile designs for silk by James Leman, created in Steward St, Spitalfields between 1705 and 1710 (currently held in the V&A museum). They just look so modern!
    • 18th Century dress, an example of the transitional fashion between the more structured dresses & the more relaxed Empire line gowns. The silk of this dress is more typical of the mid 18thC, indicating this fabric was repurposed. c,1795
    • 18th Century dress, a beautiful blue velvet Robe a l’anglaise, 1775-95, American
    • For our Stripy theme a c.1780s satin brocade gown. Though it features foliage, the pattern is stylised. The trend for abstract striped decoration in textiles was progressing during the 1780s.
    • 18th Century Robe à la Française, detail of the narrow ruching edged with a fringe of white silk gimp & coloured floss silk knots. A wide pleated strip of silk, edged with fringe & flowers, is arranged in a serpentine line. Spitalfields silk, 1760s
    • 18th Century men’s breeches of pink silk with silver thread embroidery, 1770-1790’s
    • 18th Century men’s Court suit, French c.1790, dark brown velvet tailcoat with magnificently embroidered and irridescent paste studded flowerheads and foliage
    • 18th Century men’s waistcoat, silk embroidered, c.1795 via les arts decoratifs, Paris
    • Man’s Cap, anonymous, c. 1750
  • Miscellaneous

Last Post: WARNER UE, Audrey Margaret
Audrey died peacefully in Wiarton, Ontario on February 5, 2023. She was 93 years young. She is survived by her husband, Alex Murchie; her stepchildren Jim, Mary Jo, Betty, Carolyn, Sandy and their families; her nieces Kathy, Anne and Elaine and their families; her beloved great-niece, Alexandra and husband, Kegan. She is predeceased by her brother, Ken and sister-in-law Bernice; and by her brother, Doug and sister-in-law Geraldine.
Audrey was born September 26,1929 in Hamilton, Ontario. She was a graduate of Western, Toronto and Cornell Universities. She taught secondary school in Tillsonburg, Hamilton and Dundas, then worked as an associate professor at the Faculty of Education, University of Toronto. Audrey retired to Mallory Beach near Wiarton, spending winters in New Smyrna Beach, Florida and travelling with Alex to Europe and the U.S.
She was active in many sports especially golf, skiing, curling and canoe tripping. She had a fine eye for design and colour and loved the furniture and textiles of Scandinavia as well as the art and sculpture of the Inuit of northern Canada.
Cremation has taken place. A Celebration of Audrey’s Life and interment will be announced later.
Condolences can be sent to Audrey’s family by visiting her memorial at
Audrey is descended from Christian Warner UEL. She received her Loyalist Certificate as a member of Gov. Simcoe Branch in 1975.

Last Post: Bell UE, Barbara 1937 – 2023
Passed away on February 1, 2023, in her 86th year after a lengthy illness. Beloved wife of the late Donald Roy Bell (2022). Dear mother of Craig (Linda), Janice (J.D.) Bishop and Laurene (George) Cihosky.
Joyce grew up in Hamilton where she attended Delta collegiate and was active in many sports and music. Always busy, Joyce started her first career in aquatics in her early 30’s and at the same time attended York University, earning an honours BA in geography. In her early 50’s she shifted her career to HR, working with a fashion retailer until her retirement in 1997.
She loved both family and history, so it was fitting that in retirement she became an accomplished genealogist who published much of our family history. In 2004, she proudly received her United Empire Loyalist designation. Joyce enjoyed living in the Villages of Glancaster for the past 22 years.
More details at Dodsworh & Brown Funeral Home
As a member of Col. John Butler Branch, Barbara proved her descent from James Slaght UEL in 2004.

Last Post: MCNAIRN, Sandra
Sandra McNairn of Cardinal, Ontario, passed away on February 5, 2023, at the age of 60, leaving to mourn family and friends.
She was predeceased by : her father Alan Mitchell. She is survived by : her mother Rosemary Mitchell; her husband Nelson McNairn; her children, Stanley (Cassidy Howard) and Anne McNairn (Nicholas Hogan); her brother Gordon Mitchell (Joan Mays); her aunt Anne Mitchell; and her uncle Murdo McLeod.
A reception will be held on Saturday, February 18th 2023 at 11:00 AM at the St. John’s United Church (2120 DUNDAS, Cardinal, ON K0E1E0).
More details at Marsden McLaughlin Funeral Home
Sandra’s husband, Nelson, is a life member of St. Lawrence Branch, UELAC.

Published by the UELAC
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