In this issue:
- Scholarship Challenge 2022: Multiplying UE Scholar Opportunities
- Captured by Loyalist Allies, by Stephen Davidson UE
- A Case for Three Benjamin Babcocks UEL in Kingston Ontario Area
- JAR: King Frederick the Great and the American Colonies
- JAR: Book Review: Fort Ticonderoga, The Last Campaigns, War in the North 1777-1783
- Borealia: The Quebec Act, Two Fights, and Relative Subjecthood
- Ben Franklin’s World: Discovery of the Williamsburg Bray School
- Smallpox Inoculation in 18th Century France
- CommonPlace: On the Importance of Archival Perseverance
- UELAC Loyalist Directory: New Entries
- In the News
- Upcoming Events:
- Young Family Reunion at Caledonia ON Saturday 9 July
- UEL Heritage Centre & Park: School of the Sailor encampment; Battle on the Water
- St. Lawrence Branch Exhibits: July 10; July 16/17
- From the Twittersphere and Beyond
- Last Post: DANKS UE, Karen (nee Morris)
- Last Post: MORRISEY UE, Edward Montgomery-Campbell
- Last Post: WOODRUFF UE, Gail
Scholarship Challenge 2022: Multiplying UE Scholar Opportunities (24 June)
Thank you for your donations for the UELAC Scholarship Fund since the earliest announcements in May.
The first donations received by Friday 24 June have now been posted at Scholarship Challenge 2022 and I am proud to announce that 26 donations total just pennies shy of $3,400.
Some donations are from branches, most are from individuals. The donors (some are anonymous) are recognized there. Take a peek – if you are not listed or have sent payment not yet received you should see your name soon. If you want to join the challenge just scroll down the page to make an online donation.
Multiplying UE Scholar Opportunities will run until August 22, 2022 with updates each week..
Please donate and watch our success as we meet the challenge goal of $8088.
Christine E. Manzer UE, Scholarship Committee, Chair.Scholarship@uelac.org
Captured by Loyalist Allies
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
The fighting styles of Butler’s Rangers and their Indigenous allies often were at odds with one another. Where the First Nations warriors regarded the capture of women and children as a way to increase their tribe’s numbers and add to its work force, the Loyalist soldiers felt that this vulnerable group should be regarded as non-combatants.
In February 1777, Sir Guy Carleton voiced his concern. “However proper and justifiable it may be to make use of the Indians in a defensive war, or to chastise the real criminals; yet true policy as well as humanity forbids an indiscriminate attack such as is intended by the savages, wherein women and children, aged and infirm, the innocent as well as the guilty, will be equally exposed to their fury.“
In 1778, the Quebec Gazette published an account in which their informant reported that Colonel Butler and his Indigenous allies treated “women and children with the utmost humanity.” (Was the newspaper trying to improve the image of Loyalist warfare?)
Later that year, Captain Walter Butler wrote to a Patriot general, saying “I have done everything in my power to restrain the fury of the Indians from hurting women or children or killing the prisoners who fell into our handsâ€¦ as I look upon it beneath the character of a soldier to wage war with women and children.”
Just five days after he wrote this letter, Walter conveyed a very different story to his father, Major John Butler. “I have much to lament that notwithstanding my utmost precaution and endeavours to save the women and children, I could not prevent some of them falling unhappy victims to the fury of the savages. They have carried off many of the inhabitants prisoners and killed more.” He went on to note that Joseph Brant, the leader of their Indigenous allies, managed to have some of the prisoners released.
Three months later, Captain Butler assured another rebel general that he would “make every effort in his power to have all the prisoners, as well those belonging to your troops as the women and children in captivity among the different Indian Nations, collected and sent to this post.“
As these excerpts demonstrate, the practice of killing or capturing women and children of their enemies was an ongoing sore point between the Loyalist rangers and their Native allies.
However, rather than including details of savage abuse and cruelty, the few accounts of captured Patriot families note that the captives were treated as members of the Indigenous tribes.
When Jane Campbell** and her four children were made prisoners, the Indigenous warriors separated the family members from one another. But instead of being treated as chattel, Jane was included in the day-to-day life of her captors. She taught the women “some of the arts of civilization” and made clothes that the family could trade for corn and venison. The tribe grew attached to Jane and was later reluctant to let her return to her community in a prisoner exchange.
Besides the account of Campbell family, there is another story of Loyalist allies capturing the children of a known rebel. What happened to those three young brothers provides a second insight into what captives of Indigenous warriors experienced during the American Revolution.
Their story is found in the January 1906 edition of “Olde Ulster: An Historical and Genealogical Magazine“.
Frederick and Tanneke Bush lived on a homestead in Olive, just outside of Marbletown, New York. The Dutch couple had five sons: Thomas, John, Stephen, Isaac and Cornelius. Known to be a Patriot, Bush was not popular with his Loyalist neighbours. A group of Indigenous allies went to the Bush home one morning in 1781 with the intent of capturing Frederick. However, the rebel farmer had left earlier in the day with his son Thomas to hunt for wild honey in the woods.
Instead of finding their intended prey, the men came upon Tanneke Bush making bread in an outdoor oven. After eating the outer crusts of the Mrs. Bush’s loaves, the men looked around the homestead for potential plunder. Remembered as “a very stout woman of a determined manner”, Tanneke objected to the men’s invasion of her home.
At that moment, one of the men noticed four year-old Cornelius lying in a long wooden cradle. The boy’s smile made the warrior lower his tomahawk and exclaim that he couldn’t kill a child. Instead, he picked Cornelius up. After killing the family’s sow, the men grabbed Stephen (14), Isaac (12) and Cornelius and ran off into the forest.
Meanwhile, Frederick Bush and his son Thomas were still looking for bees’ nests in the forest. The Indigenous raiders and their three captives came in sight, but they were too many for the two Bush men to consider attacking. Knowing they could be killed if they revealed themselves, Frederick and Thomas hid until the raiders passed.
The Bushes’ friends and neighbours organized a rescue party, tracking the kidnappers along the Schoharie River until the trail went cold just west of Schenectady. As the party returned home to tell Tanneke the bad news, the captors of the three Bush sons were making a trek of more than 530 km northwest to Fort Niagara.
The history magazine recounts that journey. “Bravely the two lads kept up their courage and helped along their baby brother. He could not keep up with the party and then the captors would approach the little boy and flourish a tomahawk and threaten to strike unless he hurried and marched with the others. This would bring the two lads to pick up their brother and carry him. The cruel savages would then place an extra load upon the elder one.“
After they arrived at Fort Niagara, the three brothers were adopted by different tribes in the area. They would not see each other again for three years.
Eventually, a man who traded with one of the Indigenous tribes was able to persuade its leaders to release Isaac who was 15 years old by this time. When he went to Buffalo, New York in search of his brothers, Isaac found Stephen (then 17) working in a hotel. The brothers did not recognize each other at first. Traders helped to return the brothers to their family in Olive.
It took six more months before Cornelius could be found. During his captivity, he had forgotten his name, his native language, and his parents. He could say “Sopus” (Esopus) for the community that was near his family’s farm, and he remembered that one of his older brothers had lost two fingers on his right hand. As he conversed with his rescuers, Cornelius was eventually able to recall a few Dutch expressions.
The history magazine that recounted Cornelius’ story noted, “It was difficult to ascertain from his color that the boy was white. He had been painted so often, and in his Indian trappings, with his savage training, he was, seemingly, one of the young men of the tribe. As he approached his home he pointed to a tree and exclaimed: “There dad shot a crow!“
Little else is recorded concerning the boys who were captured by Loyalist allies. Stephen and Cornelius Bush remained in the area around their parents’ homestead “where numerous descendants are among the prominent families to this day.” Cornelius married Elizabeth Coens/Coons, and they had ten children. Isaac Bush moved back to Buffalo — the site of his reunion with his older brother after three years in captivity.
How many young Americans endured such a dramatic separation from their families during the years of the revolution will, of course, never be fully known. It is a chapter of history that bears further exploration.
**see Loyalist Trails Nov. 15, 2021
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at email@example.com.
A Case for Three Benjamin Babcocks UEL in Kingston Ontario Area
By Dawn Horstead <firstname.lastname@example.org>
If you have any information about these Babcock families that could help sort them out, it would be appreciated. Please send to Dawn.
There has been disagreement concerning Benjamin Babcock UE almost since the proclaimation that citizens loyal to the British Crown, and their sons and daughters, could claim land. There was obvious confusion within the Land Boards, resulting in denials of land petitions by several children “of Benjamin Babcock”. Even Benjamin Babcock himself was unsuccessful in persuading the Board to add his name to the UE list!
I agree with Raymond Babcock; there were two United Empire Loyalists named Benjamin Babcock living in the Kingston area, who moved to Ernestown or Camden Townships. In fact, according to the 1796 Loyalist Rolls of Midland District, there were two Benjamin Babcocks UE living in the Township of Kingston, listed at #131 and #156 (OP, pp128-129) Additionally, a third Benjamin Babcock, who died in service, had children who moved to the Kingston area and claimed UE status through him.
Read the research I have managed thus far: A Case for Three Benjamin Babcocks UEL.
Editor’s Note: the Loyalist Directory lists just one Benjamin Babcock, so this and any additional information will be appreciated.
JAR: King Frederick the Great and the American Colonies—Mit Complimenten Aweissen
by Bob Ruppert 21 June 2022
Arthur Lee, one of the American Commissioners stationed in Paris, was appointed minister to the Prussian Court of King Frederick the Great in the Spring of 1777. He departed Paris on May 19 and arrived in Berlin on the evening of June 4. The next day, he informed Baron Gebhardt Wilhelm von der Schulenburg, the Prussian Minister of State, of his arrival. In a letter to Schulenburg two days later, he extended the following apology:
I hope your excellency will do me the justice to believe that if I had known His Majesty’s pleasure before my departure, I should have acted in conformity to it. And if my residence here as a traveller should give the least uneasiness to your court, I rely upon your excellency’s informing me of it; since nothing could be more disagreeable to me than to cause the slightest uneasiness where I owe the highest respect.
Proceeding to business, he then identified the items each country might consider for exchange, the level of sailing skills that the captains and sailors would need to possess, the role that St. Eustatius would play in their plans and the principal ports in the colonies that would receive the ships. Read more…
JAR: Book Review: Fort Ticonderoga, The Last Campaigns, War in the North 1777-1783
Authour: Mark Edward Lender (Yardley, PA: Westholme, 2022)
Review by Patrick H. Hannum 20 June 2022
Mark Edward Lender’s recent book on Fort Ticonderoga provides a well-written and well-researched narrative that addresses the final campaigns and operations involving the fort and its surrounding environs. During the initial phases of the American Revolution, the Continental Army placed strategic importance on retaining control of Fort Ticonderoga, often called the Gibraltar of America. Political and military leaders placed significant military and informational value on Fort Ticonderoga, constituting what contemporary United States Army doctrine defines as “key terrain.” During the colonial period, the waterways provided the highway and Ticonderoga occupied a critical passage between Lakes Champlain and George, making it essential to controlling any large-scale military movement in this strategic corridor. At the time, this route was sometimes referred to as the “Warpath of Nations,” highlighting its military importance.
The terrain around Fort Ticonderoga was not only “key,” it was tactically complex, in addition to being relatively isolated and rugged. Maintaining the fort and its outer works required controlling three pieces of high ground near the fort. Water bisected the defensive perimeter; defending the fort against a determined and well-resourced attacker required thousands of troops, and a substantial maritime capacity, all supported by skilled engineering and logistics. Read more…
Borealia: The Quebec Act, Two Fights, and Relative Subjecthood
By Mark R. Anderson 20 June 2022
The king’s face had been “smeared with tar, with a necklace of potatoes around the neck from which was suspended a wooden Cross with this inscription— VOILÃ LE PAPE DU CANADA ET LE SOT ANGLOIS [This is the Pope of Canada and the Fool of England].” On the morning of May 1, 1775, the very day that the historic Quebec Act entered effect, Montrealers discovered this shocking vandalism to King George III’s marble bust, prominently displayed near Notre Dame church on the central Place d’Armes. The city buzzed with discussions about who might have perpetrated an act that was so insulting to the monarch and British rule.
Many Montrealers naturally suspected that the vandalism had been committed by Anglo-Protestant “old subjects”â€”those who had came to Canada from other parts of the empire after the Seven Years’ War conquestâ€”as opposed to the French-Catholic Canadien inhabitants who became “new subjects” as a result of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. … but officials and historians never identified the perpetrators or their true motivations.
There is evidence that the king’s bust represented more than just British rule over Canada, serving as a symbol of elite French Canadians’ embrace of the new imperial regime, too. The statue’s October 7, 1773 public installation in Montreal provided new subjects an opportunity to demonstrate their loyal zeal, nurtured over the years by governors James Murray and Guy Carleton through tolerant, pro-Canadien policies and consultation with the gentry and church… Read more…
Ben Franklin’s World: Discovery of the Williamsburg Bray School
Maureen Elgersman Lee, the Director of the Bray School Lab at William & Mary; Ronald Hurst, Vice President of Museums, Preservation, and Historic Resources at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, and Nicole Brown, a historic interpreter, American Studies graduate student, and the graduate student assistant at William & Mary’s Bray School Lab, join us to investigate the rediscovery of Williamsburg’s Bray School building and the history of the Bray School and its scholars.
During our investigation, Maureen, Ron, and Nicole reveal information about how William & Mary and the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation identified the Bray School building and confirmed its date and authenticity; The history of Bray Schools, the establishment of a Bray School in Williamsburg, the schools’ work to educate Black youth; And details about the plans William & Mary and the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation have to physically move the Bray School building and restore it to its eighteenth-century condition. Listen in…
Smallpox Inoculation in 18th Century France
By Geri Walton | April 10, 2017
In France in the 1700s, there was great opposition to a person getting a smallpox inoculation. Part of the problem was doctors could not ensure the inoculations worked because of too many variables. For instance, to create an inoculation, doctors collected pus or scabs from someone infected with smallpox and then introduced this infected matter into a person by scratching the surface of the skin (usually on the person’s arm). If the person was lucky, the inoculation worked, and, if unlucky, the person developed a full-fledged case of smallpox.
Because smallpox inoculations sometimes failed, there was large opposition by the French to them, and the opposition became stronger with “any little miscarriage.” These miscarriages usually happened because of a doctor’s inexperience or because the doctor made a mistake. One mistake that created a furor among the French public happened in 1765. Read more…
Editor’s Note. See picture with concluding paragraph. “Marie Antoinette celebrated the King’s inoculation by commissioning a special towering headdress that became known as the coiffure Ã l’inoculation and included a serpent wrapped around an olive tree. (click on it to enlrage it)”
CommonPlace: On the Importance of Archival Perseverance:
The Mss. of William Jenks’s Memoir of the Northern Kingdom
By Jeremy Dibbell
Since I hadn’t found Memoir in the likely places based on the finding guide, I began going systematically, folder by folder, through the fifty boxes, more than a few of which still at that time contained bundles of Jenks’s many sermons inside, wrapped in wastepaper exactly as they had been when deposited at the library. Read more…
Editor’s Note: Of no relevance to the Loyalist experience; simply an example of dedicated perseverance by a researcher leading to a missing document.
UELAC Loyalist Directory: New Entries
Entries which have been added, or revised, this week, with thanks:
- Thanks to Lynton (Bill) Stewart who submitted a batch of twenty-five records of Loyalists having Hants County NS grants (records with ids between #9817 and #9742, such as :
- John Berwick
- James ferguson
- and updates or new records for
- Capt. Alexander McDonald served with the 76th Regiment of Foot, received land in Parrsborough Township (previously noted as Shelburne area), NS
- Capt. James Kerr from Virginia, served with the Queen’s Rangers and settled in Parrsboro Parish, NS, then moved to Cornwallis, Kings Co, NS.
- Bishop Charles Inglis born in Ireland, served with the New Jersey Volunteers and received a land grant in Aylesford, Kings County, Nova Scotia
- Capt. John Longstreet from New Jersey with King’s American Rangers, then the New Jersey Brigade and settled in Parrsboro NS.
- Henry Magee to Wilmot Township, Kings County, Nova Scotia
- Thanks to Kevin Wisener for
- John Hudson/Hodson from Philadelphia who was first in Shelburne NS and then Royalty of Georgetown, Kings County, Prince Edward Island
- Daniel Grant who was a Driver and Labourer with the Barrick Master General’s Department at York Island, New York and received land grants in Georgetown PEI, Lunenburd NS and Halifax Township NS.
If you are willing to submit some information, send a note to email@example.com
All help is appreciated. …doug
Where is our celebration of Queen Elizabeth?ã€€
June 24, 2022 The [Kitchener Record}
History informs us that the ideological foundation of a nation can be lost by wilful neglect or the systematic deconstruction of its institutions.
In the Platinum Jubilee year of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, Canadians are left with several questions. What are the intentions of our current political and societal leaders? Did not the United Empire Loyalists after 1776, the militia, Indigenous warriors, and the settlers in the War of 1812, live and die to maintain the monarchy? Read more…
Named for township, Essa Rd. home drips history
Deb Exel 19 Jun2 2022 at Barrie ON today
Essa Road was named for the Township of Essa and was considered the only road to the county town of Barrie in the mid-1800s.
The house, built in the 1870s, was once the home of longtime Innisfil residents, Thomas and Isabella Hastings.
Thomas was born in 1848, near Sharon, Ont., and of United Empire Loyalist stock. Read more…
Young Family Reunion at Caledonia ON Saturday 9 July
The Annual Young Family Reunion (Descendants of Adam Young 1717-1790 & Catharine Schremling 1720-1798) will be held on Saturday, July 9 11:30-3 PM at the Grace United Church, Caledonia, Ontario. See details. Questions to Betty Yundt firstname.lastname@example.org
UEL Heritage Centre & Park: School of the Sailor encampment; Battle on the Water
July 9 & 10, 2022: SCHOOL OF THE SAILOR 1792-1815 Encampment on the park grounds open to the public Saturday 10-4 and Sunday 10-3 with general day admission.
Special event – a battle on the water – held on Sunday from 11AM at Gap Park near Lennox Generating Station.
Visit UEL Heritage Centre & Park
St. Lawrence Branch Exhibits: July 10; July 16/17
Our next appearance will be 10 July at “History in the Park” an event in Iroquois organized by the Historical Society of South Dundas. It will be held at the Iroquois Campground adjacent to the Forward House.
July 16 and 17, we will have a display at the Battle of Crysler’s Farm Re-Enactment at Upper Canada Village in Morrisburg.
From the Twittersphere and Beyond
- Sunday, Aug. 14, 2022 a celebration will be held at oldest unaltered wooden Loyalist Church in Canada. From 3 to 5 p.m. Old Holy Trinity Church in Middleton, Nova Scotia open for presentation & tour with food & refreshment afterwards. First service there on Aug. 14, 1791. The Church was designed by Bishop Charles Inglis following architecture of Christopher Wren of England. A large bell in bell tower made in England & donated by Loyalist William Bayard who organized King’s Orange Rangers.
- War of 1812 Veterans and United Empire Loyalists Burial Graves marked today. It was an Honour for UELAC President, Trish Groom UE & UELAC Vice-President, Carl Stymiest UE to attend ceremonies at three Ontario Cemeteries- (Warkworth, Stones & Cramahe Hills, North’ld Co, ON. HUZZAH
- Happy United Empire Loyalist Day! We remember those who built the foundation upon which our Dominion was built.
- Had a great time at the Annual Reenactment of the Battle of Monmouth this afternoon!
- UELAC President, Patricia Groom UE & Vice- President, Carl Stymiest UE participated in a full-day of events to honour Ontario’s Loyalist Day in Adolphustown at the United Empire Loyalists Heritage Centre & Park, followed by a Platinum Jubilee Church Service @ St Alban’s Church.
- This week in History
- 22 Jun 1772 Colonial newspapers contributed to the perpetuation of slavery. Advertised 250 years ago today: “To be Sold Cheap to any Person in the Country, a Negro Woman about 23 Years Old, can do Family Work, and a pretty good Cook.” (Boston-Gazette 6/22/1772)
- 22 Jun 1775 Congress issues first currency, unbacked fiat “Continentals,” which suffer instant runaway inflation.
- 25 Jun 1775, Gen. George Washington arrived in New York City on his way from Philadelphia to the army besieging Boston. On the same day, royal governor William Tryon arrived by ship in another part of New York City. The two men avoided meeting.
- 23 Jun 1776 British position fleet to attack Charleston, repulsed by defenders within improvised palmetto-log fort.
- 24 Jun 1776 Congress orders New-Jersey Royal Governor Franklin (son of Benjamin) sent under guard to Connecticut.
- 23 Jun 1777, from Philadelphia: “Will you be so kind as to call on Mrs. A & let her know that you have recd. this Letter, for she charges me with not writing to my Friends so often as she thinks I ought.” â€”Samuel Adams to James Warren
- 18 Jun 1778 Facing arrival of French forces to back rebels, British give up occupation of Philadelphia.
- 20 Jun 1779 6,500 Americans attack just 1,200 British at Stono Ferry, SC, only speed retreat slightly, lose 146 men.
- 21 Jun 1779 Spain enters the war, allied with France, leading to British loss of Mississippi River & Gulf of Mexico.
- 19 Jun 1781 Siege of Ninety-Six, South-Carolina, held by 550 Loyalists, is broken; 185+ Americans & 75 British lost.
- Clothing and Related:
- Such a striking printed cotton on this much altered 18thC dress
- Tonight flaunting my burgundy & cream silk damask robe Ã l’anglaise retroussÃ©Ã©. This gown & petticoat from 1770-80
- Close up of 18th Century stomacher/bodice from a woman’s Court dress, 1755-1760, English; striped, figured cream silk, brocaded with floral sprigs, Spitalfields silk
- A linen gown, c.1765 – 1775, with block printed and hand painted design. The bamboo pattern is inspired by the exotic plants of the far east. The dressmaker has cleverly matched the pattern on both sides of the dress.
- 18th Century women’s riding habit, 1770-1775
- A cascade of blue brocade festooned in flowers for a summer’s Sunday. The robe a la franÃ§aise offered the opportunity to show off the skills of the Lyon’s silk designers, an artistry conceived on paper and woven into reality, 1770s
- 18th Century men’s wasitcoat, c.1790’s Cream silk, embroidered with animal hunt & exotic plants
- 18th Century men’s breeches of pink silk with silver thread embroidery, 1770-1790’s
- Summer Sweetness! – Mulberry Pudding Delight – Historical Boiled Pudding
- Toad in a hole – Wood-Fired Steak from 1788 – Frontier Food
- Chomp chomp! These teeth, taken from corpses on the Waterloo battlefield, were sold in upper and lower sets. The teeth were then boiled and had their ends removed before they were put into a set of ivory dentures – they certainly didn’t come cheap! Via the BDA Museum.
Last Post: DANKS UE, Karen (nee Morris)
At the Guelph in her 70th year, on Saturday June 18th 2022.
Beloved wife of Richard for 45 years. Loving mother of Becky, Amy (Ryan) and Brett (Ashley). Sisters Janet Hilts and Susan Morris.
Karen’s favourite past time was family genealogy, where she received double United Empire Loyalist status and was recognized by the Daughters of the American Revolution for proving a new patriot. Many of Karen and Richard’s anniversaries were spent traveling to support finding more information on their family’s roots. More details…
Karen proved her descent from Peter Secord UEL in 2012 and Lutheran Morris UEL in 2013 with the Col. John Butler Branch.
Last Post: MORRISEY UE, Edward Montgomery-Campbell
Last Post: WOODRUFF UE, Gail
Members of Col. John Butler (Niagara) Branch, UELAC were sad to learn of the passing of Gail Woodruff UE.
Gail passed away peacefully on June 22, 2022, after a long battle with cancer.
An active and valuable member of Col. John Butler Branch for many years, Gail was proud of her Loyalist heritage, and of her Loyalist ancestors Joseph Clement, Lewis Cobes Clement, Elijah Collard, John Collard, Robert Cook, James Durham and Moses Pingray.
Gail was a Past President of CJB. During her time with the branch, she helped many members with their family research and with preparing their applications to obtain Loyalist certificates. Gail also authored “Loyalists and Early Settlers on the Niagara River Parkway”.
Gail was predeceased by her husband Michael John McDermott (2004). She is survived by her children Erin Kathleen (Battis) Walker (Carl), Conor James Battis (Amanda), Miranda (Whiteley) Joosten (Nick) and Jocelyn (Whiteley) Boodram (Jason), and by her grandchildren Aurora and Montgomery Battis, Cohen and Grayson Walker, and Gabriel, Avion, and Julian Boodram. More Details
Wendy Broda, Col. John Butler Branch
Published by the UELAC
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