In this issue:


2023 Scholarship Challenge, June 1 – September 1, 2023
With only 2 weeks until the official end of the 2023 Scholarship Challenge – Funding Future Knowledge we are so close.
As of the most recent update – August 17, 2023 our total has reached $4,466.14 of our $5,000 goal. Thank you to the UE Branches and individual who have answered the challenge. See details.

The UELAC Scholarship is a very important aspect of our organization. It is helping to ensure that the story of the Loyalists in the American Revolution and the aftermath of settlement in Canada continues to be researched and interpreted by a new generation of Masters and PhD graduate students who apply and qualify for the scholarship money.
Please continue to give generously to the UELAC Scholarship fund because your contributions really do ‘fund future knowledge’.
Donate Now in support of the UELAC Loyalist Scholarship Endowment Fund. or the Scholarship Fund.

I will be away in the Maritimes for two weeks and look forward to summing up our efforts on Sunday, September 17th in a Loyalist Trails entry.
Christine E. Manzer UE, Chair, Scholarship Committee

Some Loyalists of Rhode Island: Rome and Hart. Part Two of Four
copyright Stephen Davidson UE
The smallest of the rebelling colonies, Rhode Island thrived on its sea-based pursuits: fishing, whaling, transatlantic commerce, and the African slave trade. George Rome, a Loyalist based in Newport, was a merchant, a brewer and a whale-fishery owner. By the end of the American Revolution, Rome’s mansion, wharves, warehouses, brewery and spermaceti processing plant had all been destroyed.
His mansion is remembered as being very elaborate. Guest rooms had an early version of Murphy beds concealed within their walls. The kitchen fireplace was high enough for a man to walk into without removing his hat. His slaves had once occupied a number of bedrooms with plaster walls located on one side of the kitchen.
Rome’s undoing as a Loyalist within Newport began when he wrote a letter in 1772 to Dr. Thomas Moffatt, a Rhode Island loyalist who had been hanged in effigy seven years earlier for supporting Britain’s Stamp Act. Moffatt was living in London at the time, and somehow Rome’s letter fell into the hands of Benjamin Franklin who at that time was acting as Massachusetts’ agent to England. Franklin sent the letter back to North America where it was published in several newspapers.
Rome’s letter criticized the colonial administration of Rhode Island and Massachusetts and supported annulling Rhode Island’s colonial charter to create a government that was more loyal to King George III. The colony’s Patriots were outraged, and they brought Rome (pronounced Roome) to Rhode Island’s assembly to explain himself.
(At this time, the colony’s census listed the Loyalist as having a family of 4 white males over the age of 16 and 13 Blacks. These may have been those who worked in his various businesses.)
Rome’s interrogation did not go well and he was imprisoned in two different towns. The Rhode Island Loyalist would later recall that during 1774 and 1775, “he took a very active part” for the crown “which made him very unpopular and he was frequently mobbed“. He sent provisions to the British army in Boston and warned New York’s Governor Tryon of a plot to kidnap him. This “offended” Newport’s rebels and “they rose to pull down his stores“. Sir James Wallace, the captain of the Rose, a British man-of-war, remembered being with Rome when “he was very near being tarred and feathered“. Little wonder, then, that Rome eventually sought sanctuary on Wallace’s ship with other Rhode Island Loyalists.
The winter of 1775-76 witnessed a concerted effort to root out Loyalists in Newport. However, by December of 1776, 7,000 British troops had occupied Newport and royal navy ships guarded its harbour. But by then, Rome had fled to Halifax, Nova Scotia and then on to England. After his arrival, he “frequently {gave} material information to the administration“.
In 1779, Rome received word from Newport that “not a tree or building is to be seen on {his} land except for the stable and orchard” which had been saved by a rebel who claimed them as his property.
Four years later, the British Parliament passed the Compensation Act. It appointed commissioners to “enquire into the circumstances and former fortunes of such persons as are reduced to distress” by the American Revolution. Agents were chosen from each of the rebelling colonies; George Rome was made the agent for Rhode Island “to answer general inquiries or facilitate the investigation of each particular claim“.
After serving with the Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists during its five years of activity, Rome joined the other agents in address of thanks to the King. It would be the last time that his name appeared in the government documents of the era.
During the compensation board’s lifetime, Rome appeared as a witness for two Rhode Island Loyalists. One of those was Moses Hart, a member of Newport’s Jewish community.
At the beginning of the American Revolution there were about 2,500 Jews in the Thirteen Colonies. They made their homes in New York, Pennsylvania, Georgia, South Carolina, and Rhode Island. By the late 1750s, the Jewish population of Newport, Rhode Island was sufficient to merit building a synagogue. Finished in 1763, the Jeshuat Israel Synagogue was attended by members of families bearing the names of Lopez, Hays, Hart, Mendes, Pollocks and Rivera. Some in the congregation were shopkeepers; others were involved in the thriving commerce of Newport, especially the outfitting of its privateer vessels.
As with Christian congregations, the members of the Jewish synagogue were divided between rebels and loyalists at the outset of the American Revolution. Tensions were so bad that Aaron Lopez, a Patriot merchant, and 70 members of his extended family left Newport to find refuge in Massachusetts. It must have been difficult to have been a Patriot worshipper at the synagogue. Its spiritual leader, Isaac de Abraham Touro, was an avowed Loyalist.
Despite his diminishing congregation, Touro decided to remain in Newport. When the commander of the British occupational forces approached the Jewish leader about using the synagogue’s sanctuary as a hospital for soldiers, Touro agreed. Not only did this allow the rabbi to demonstrate his loyalty to the crown, it also secured the synagogue building against attacks by patriots.
However, when it was apparent that the British would lose the war, Touro gathered up his wife and children and took refuge in Jamaica. Other members of the Newport synagogue sought sanctuary in New York City, the headquarters for British forces in North America. One such congregant was a man named Moses Hart.
Hart was a Newport shopkeeper who served the king in a clandestine manner. In the course of his workday, Moses quietly collected information about rebel plans against the British. So as not to draw attention to himself, Moses had his mother and sister deliver the data he gathered to George Rome who then passed it along to the British.
Mrs. Hart and Miss Hart must have been very effective in delivering Moses’ reports. Patriot suspicions about spy activity in Rhode Island grew to such an extent that it was rumored that Newport’s Jews had organized themselves into an intelligence network to funnel secrets to London. By 1780, the spying Harts were discovered and had to flee Newport.
Moses Hart served in the New York militia for the next three years; finally sailing for England with his father, mother, and sister in 1783. His former contact, George Rome, appeared on Hart’s behalf at the loyalist compensation hearings. Rome testified that he considered the Jewish refugees “altogether a loyal family“.
The records have little to say about the fate of the Hart family. Moses’ father died within a year of their arrival. His mother, who had served the crown by passing along intelligence to the British, received a small allowance for her husband’s loyalty that she shared with her son. Oddly, the services that Moses Hart rendered to the crown were not considered worthy of a separate compensation.
In the absence of any more information, one is left to suppose that Moses Hart must have drawn upon his entrepreneurial skills to reestablish himself in England. He, like the other loyalist Jews of Newport, paid dearly for having chosen the losing side in the War of Independence.
Next week’s Loyalist Trails will consider three Loyalist merchants from Rhode Island.
To secure permission to reprint this article contact the author at

Sir William Johnson and the Wars for Empire Conference
October 20-22, 2023 in Johnstown, NY
Sir William Johnson was a larger than life character who dominated the Mohawk Valley and beyond during the 18th century in warfare, politics, trade and diplomacy.
This conference will address aspects of Johnson’s historical impact as well as the larger scope of the great wars for empire. This new Fort Plain Museum conference will offer a look at the colonial era when major personalities, like Sir William, dealt with overlapping cultures and the impact of war on society. Bus Tour on Friday, lectures on Saturday and Sunday. See details, registration, accommodation etc.

Research into Battle of Ridgefield CT Continues
The Ridgefield (Connecticut) Historical Society has received a second National Parks Service to fund phase 2 of its investigation of the site of the 1777 Battle of Ridgefield. Exciting… amongst other things, they hope to discover the site south of the village center where the British Regulars and Loyalist troops camped after the Battle. As most of the homes for ¾ of a mile along Main Street south of the town center are set back over 75′ from the road, and as those front yards have rarely been disturbed since 1777, they hope to obtain property owners’ permission to metal detect and uncover as many artifacts as possible to follow the course of the running firefight that took place along Main Street.
No word yet from the anthropologists as to the results of their study of the four sets of remains.
Note: Ken MacCallum who lives in the area has provided several updates for Loyalist Trails since the discovery of skeletons buried beneath a basement floor a couple of years ago. His ancestor, rebel turned Loyalist (if I remember correctly) was most likely in the battle. Thanks for this Ken.

The Queen’s Ranger: John Graves Simcoe
At Yankee Doodle Spies, 29 Nov. 2020
The Queens Ranger (John Graves Simcoe, first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada – now Ontario – commanded the Queen’s Rangers for some time. The Gov. Simcoe Branch, UELAC, is named for him).

A Bad Rap: This profile is truly one of THE badasses of the American Revolution, a struggle that had more than its share of badasses. But John Graves Simcoe was not the usual badass, fueled by testosterone and a lust for blood – although the (very excellent) TV series TURN might have you think he was that and more – psychopath comes to mind.
But the real John Graves Simcoe was anything but. He was, in fact, a well educated professional officer, liked by his troops and superiors, and respected, and sometimes feared, by his adversaries. Born in Cotterstock, England on 25 February 1752, he was the son of a Royal naval officer who received a classical education at Eton and Oxford. But in 1771, Simcoe left school at 19 and purchased an ensign’s commission with the 35th Regiment. His education would place him above most of his peers as he had a thorough knowledge of classical Greek and Roman military tracts. He would soon get to put theory into practice in the dark woods and green fields of America. Read more…

Colonel Andrew Pickens and the Long Cane Skirmish
by Conner Runyan and C. Leon Harris 15 August 2023 Journal of the American Revolution
Andrew Pickens is the very image of the hard-nosed Patriot, but after the surrender of Charleston, South Carolina on May 12, 1780, he gave the British good reason to hope he would join them. In order to understand Pickens’ thinking, it is instructive to begin with Andrew Williamson, who did join the British and lived only thirteen miles from Pickens in the Backcountry of western South Carolina. Although born in Scotland and illiterate, Williamson had somehow married into the prominent Tyler family of Virginia and amassed a considerable estate, named White Hall, by selling cattle, hogs and other supplies to Ninety Six and other frontier forts. By the time Charleston surrendered, Williamson was a brigadier general of militia in Ninety Six District. He was about fifty years old, with a wife suffering from a terminal illness.
Williamson learned of the Charleston surrender four days after it occurred. He inquired about the conditions for the surrender of his own troops, and he was offered the same terms granted to militiamen captured at Charleston. They would be “permitted to return to their respective homes as prisoners on parole; which parole, as long as they observe, shall secure them from being molested in their property by the British troops.” Williamson assembled a council of officers at White Hall, had the terms of surrender read to them, and called for a show of hands of those who wished “to press the march, until a number sufficient for offensive operations should be collected, and then to keep up a kind of flying camp, until reinforced from the main army.”[6] Capt. Samuel Hammond was “struck dumb” when all but a few of Williamson’s officers voted to accept the British terms of surrender. “Yet Williamson persevered,” according to Hammond… Read more…

1759: Britain’s Year of Victories: William L. Clements Library
An electronic version of the Avenir Foundation Great Room exhibit 1759: Britain’s Year of Victories, on display at the William L. Clements Library June 8, 2009 – October 9, 2009
Curated by Brian Leigh Dunnigan
Benjamin West’s iconic history painting, “The Death of General Wolfe,” has looked down on the Avenir Foundation Room of the Clements Library since it was acquired by William L. Clements in the late 1920s. It is surely the best-known image of the Seven Years’ War (or the French and Indian War as the American part of that global conflict is called in the United States). The painting commemorates the defeat of a French army at Québec on September 13, 1759, and apotheosizes the victorious British commander, Major General James Wolfe, who died on the field of battle. Idealized in almost every respect, West’s composition was intended to represent the triumph of British arms and the acquisition of a much-expanded empire rather than to realistically depict the event itself. A British officer, approaching from the left with a captured white regimental color, heralds the decline of French fortunes that, with the signing of a treaty of peace in 1763, would cost France most of her American empire.
Québec was only one of a series of British victories in 1759—the annus mirabilis—that would decisively shift the momentum of the war against the French and in Britain’s favor. A celebratory medal struck that year recognized victories and victors in seven major engagements fought in America, in Europe, and on the high seas. An inverted fleur-de-lis symbolized the reversal of French ambitions and the prowess of the forces directed by Prime Minister William Pitt under the auspices of King George II, whose profile graces the obverse of the medal.
In 2009 the Clements Library marked the 250th anniversary of the British victories of 1759 by presenting a few of the treasures from its collections that illustrate the events and participants in that momentous year. This online version has been enhanced by the addition of a number of items that could not be displayed in 2009 due to the limited space available in the exhibit cases. Visit the exhibit

John Adams and Nathanael Greene Debate the Role of the Military
by Curtis F. Morgan, Jr. 17 August 2023 Journal of the American Revolution
Nathanael Greene is rightly remembered as one of the great combat leaders of the American Revolution. But he was also a deep political thinker, a Rhode Island politician before the war who did not hesitate to discuss the broader ramifications of the American Revolution with a wide range of Patriot notables, some of whom never picked up a sword.
These literary exchanges are revealing when it is remembered that the American “system” was not created at Philadelphia in 1787 (or even 1781), but to a great extent in the camps of the Continental Army, where the struggle was not just against the imperial foe, but also over what exactly the rebels hoped to achieve beyond “mere” independence. Few issues were more vital than the nature of the army itself: to what extent should the force fighting for American “Liberty” reflect the deepest ideals of that concept? Put another way, should the Continental Army be composed of volunteer militia who were fighting for the “Glorious Cause” above all? Or should it confront the greatest professional army in the world with a disciplined professional army of its own? Greene (together with his mentor, George Washington) insisted on the latter. Read more…

Advertised on 19 August 1773: “SILKS and superfine Broad-Cloths.”
What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?
Although John Barrett and Sons did not happen to adorn their advertisement in the Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter with a woodcut related to some aspect of their business, that did not mean that their notice lacked visual appeal. A border comprised of decorative type enclosed their advertisement for a variety of imported textiles and “All Kinds of English, Scotch, India, Hard-Ware and Cutlary GOODS.” Other typographical elements also helped draw attention to their advertisement. It featured a headline, “SILKS and superfine Broad-Cloths,” that highlighted some of the goods that readers would encounter in the advertisement. It alternated lines in larger and smaller fonts. In addition to the headline, three other lines – “A Prime Assortment of Padusoys,” “By JOHN BARRETT & SONS,” “All Kinds of English, Scotch” – appeared in larger type. An appeal to price, “to be sold at an exceeding low Rate,” utilized italics for emphasis. Overall, Barrett and Sons’ advertisement had a lively appearance. Read more…

Give us this day our daily bread. Bread in Georgian diets
by Mike Rendell 15 August 2023
The importance of the humble loaf of bread in Georgian diets is hard to imagine. Out of my ancestor’s household expenses in 1796 totalling just over one hundred pounds for the whole year, a quarter was paid to the butcher but the next main supplier was the baker, at roughly 20% of total outgoings. (Interestingly, vegetables were not bought at any time in the year – they were either home-grown or not consumed at all!).
Richard Hall’s diaries are therefore full of details about the price of bread – and he was horrified at the way grain prices rocketed in the final years of the century, as war with France caused rampant inflation.
As a younger man he would regularly cut out the newspaper notices of the approved prices for bread (they were regulated at the local Assizes). Read more…

Eighteenth-century watch papers
By Sarah Murden 21 March 2019 in All Things Georgian
In a recent article, we looked at disability in the 18th-century and about people with no arms using their feet as an alternative, some of whom created the most beautifully delicate watch papers. One of our readers asked what more we knew about watch papers, our reply being –’not very much!’
Always up for a challenge though, we set about seeing what else we could find, and we confess, this article is a little self-indulgent with some lovely images of watch papers which remarkably have survived in some cases for over two hundred years, most will have been lost or damaged over time, making survivors quite rare.
It was believed that initially watch papers were a form of protection for the mechanism itself, which may well be correct, they then developed into the equivalent of a trade card. Read more…

Loyalists and descendants who participated in the War of 1812: Isaac Vollick
Isaac Vollick (Van Valkenburg) UEL, discharged 24 February 1783 by Lieutenant Colonel Butler’s Corps of Rangers, was with Sir John Johnson’s “Bart Brigade” and was among the first 9 to join Butler’s Rangers of their own accord..
Isaac was a Loyalist who fought in the Butler’s Rangers in the American Revolution. It was during this time period that his Surname was changed from Van Valkenburg to Valk resulting in a phonetic spelling Vollick or Follick . As far as is known it is Isaac Vollick that all Vollick Follick Families in Ontario descend from. Read more…
Submitted by Stephen Vollick, UE.

Read about other Loyalists and the sons and daughters of Loyalists who participated in the War of 1812. Two more submissions have been received; will be noted in coming weeks.

Submissions are still welcome. Send up to 500 words describing the Loyalist’s experience or participation in the war, and where settled before and afterward, to Please reference both the Loyalist experience, perhaps to a lesser degree, along with the 1812 history.

Bay of Quinte Branch: Loyal Americans Hall of Honour: The Demills
The Legacy of Loyal Americans ~ Hall of Honour was created in 2003 by the Bay of Quinte Branch. It has the following purpose: to identify and celebrate those descendants of the United Empire Loyalists who have made significant achievements, either locally, nationally or internationally.

Alfred Byron Demill was born on 10 July 1831 in Northport, Sophiasburgh Township in Prince Edward County. At the age of 15 he established a small tin stove and hardware business in Shannonville, which he ran for 5 years. He then went to study at Victoria College in Cobourg and in 1861 became a minister for the New Connection Methodist Church. He preached in Prince Edward County, Haldimand County and Ontario County over the next ten years. His final assignment was in Brock County.

Lucelia Hurd was born in 24 September 1837 and was married to Demille in August of 1854. She also came from an educated background. Their only child, Frances Amelia Demill was born in Brock on 10 January 1870. Read more…

See who else has been so honoured at UEL Hall of Honour

UELAC Loyalist Directory: New Contributions
Entries which have been added, or revised, this week, with thanks:

  • Information about Gilbert Storms Sr. has been added to the Loyalist Directory. He served in Jessups Corp in the Revolution and then settled in Ernest Town, Midland District. Four children – Sarah m. Jacob Stover, Gilbert, David and Henry all received land grants as children.
  • Kevin Wisener, Abegweit Branch, has contributed information about:
    • James Fraser who had been living pre-war in Rahway, Union County, New Jersey. From 1777 he worked as a carpenter in the Engineer’s Department for part of the War. He received a Loyalist land grant in Shelburne, Shelburne County, Nova Scotia before moving to PEI where he received land on the Pinette River in Lot 58, Queens County, PEI. He and spouse Phoebe had four children. He dies and was buried in Montreal.
    • William Allen (disbanded soldier; a new record in the directory). He served with the 57th Regiment of Foot. He arrived with wife and one child in 1784, when he received a town and pasture lot in Georgetown Royalty, Kings County, Prince Edward Island.

If you are willing to submit some information, send a note to All help is appreciated. …doug

An Early History of the Mississippi Gulf Coast
Podcast with Matthew Powell 15 august 2023 at Ben Franklin’s World
Matthew Powell, a historian of slavery and southern history and the Executive Director of the La Pointe-Krebs House & Museum, leads us on an investigation of the Mississippi Gulf Coast during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
During our exploration, Matthew reveals information about the different Indigenous and European peoples who lived along the Mississippi Gulf Coast during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; Details about the La Pointe-Krebs family, the house they built, and the plantation they operated throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; And, what small historic sites and museums, like the La Pointe-Krebs House & Museum, can add to our knowledge about early American history. Listen in…

In the News

“Outlander” TV series and Benedict Arnold

Attention “Outlander” TV show watchers: a well known character named Benedict Arnold shows up in Season 7, episode 8. The show is based on books written by Diana Gabaldon. The story is about a British WW2 nurse 1945 Claire who gets transported back in time ( through the Craigh na Dun stones) to Scotland to 1743 where she meets her husband, a Highlander warrior, Jamie. They eventually make their way to the new world. Season 7 and the year is 1776; they are pulled into the American Revolution. Although secretly Loyal to the British Claire knows the outcome of the American Revolution which weighs on their decisions . The last episode of Season 7 just dropped and I was delighted that Benedict Arnold is in the episode.
Benedict Arnold, a traitor to the Patriots, arrived in Saint John NB in 1785. He lived on the corner of King and Canterbury where he continued to make some friends, but also more enemies because of his business practices. He moved to England in 1791. There is a plaque about Arnold on King Street.

While helping people with their Genealogical research for a Loyalist ancestor i have come across his name on land documents – so interesting.
Will see what happens in Outlander the 2nd half of Season 7 and in Season 8 coming in 2024.
See more about Arnold in New Brunswick
Contributed by Angela Donovan UE, New Brunswick Branch

Things to Do in Shelburne, Nova Scotia

By Robin and Arlene Karpan at Must Do Canada
Arriving in Shelburne, Nova Scotia seems like stepping back in time to an 18th-century seaport. Unlike many other communities where historic sections are often overwhelmed by surrounding modernity, Shelburne is like a time capsule because of its unique history.
Shelburne was founded in 1783 by United Empire Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution. Within a year, its population exploded to more than 10,000, making it bigger than Halifax, Montreal, or Quebec. By 1785, it was the 10th largest city in North America.
With one of the largest natural harbours in the world, Shelburne became a centre for shipbuilding and fishing. But the boom soon went bust. Read more…

Upcoming Events

St. Lawrence Branch Charter Night Banquet Sat, Sept. 16, 2023 @ 5:00 ET

At St. Matthew’s Presbyterian Church, 15 Memorial Square, Ingleside ON. Social hour at 5:00pm; serve at 6:00pm. A ham supper with all the fixings.
Speaker is Roy Lewis, Col. Edward Jessup Branch.
Tickets are $30, advance sales only. Email Secretary Darlene Fawcett to reserve seats. Payment by e-transfers to Treasurer Michael Eamer, Reference dinner tickets in the “Message” box. Tickets must be reserved by September 4th.
There will be a Harvest Basket raffle at the end of the night. Contact Darlene Fawcett if you will contribute to the harvest basket.

St. Alban’s Centre, Hallowed Grounds Café & The Rectory Book Room

Thursday to Sunday in July and August, 9am – 1pm, Weather permitting
Open-air Hallowed Grounds Café for drinks, nibbles and ce cream
Rectory Book Room used books for sale, also CD’s and DVD’sale
Ongoing garage sale – pay what you will
Self-guided tours of church and cemetery
test your skills in the Escape Room
St. Alban’s Centre, 10419 Loyalist Parkway (Hwy. 33), Adolphustown ON

A View From Abroad: The Story of John and Abigail Adams in Europe

The American Revolution Institute, Tues 29 Aug 6″30 ET
From 1778 to 1788, future president John Adams lived in Europe as an American diplomat. Joined by his wife, Abigail, in 1784, the two shared rich encounters with famous heads of the European royal courts. Jeanne E. Abrams, professor of history at the University of Denver, shows that the Adams’ journey not only changed the course of their intellectual, political and cultural development, but served to strengthen their loyalty to America, and highlights how the Adamses and their American contemporaries set about supplanting their British origins with a new American identity. Details and registration

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • Headstone of Capt. Samuel Purdy died Aug. 28, 1855 aged 90, a United Empire Loyalist from Westchester Co., NY located in Old St. Edward’s Cemetery at Clementsport, NS
  • Monument at Digby in Trinity Anglican Church Cemetery inscribed “Sacred
    to the Memory of ELISHA BUDD, Esq who was born in White Plains, N.Y. He served as Ensign in the Kings American Army and emigrated to this province with the Loyalists in 1783… He died in Liverpool, England on the 13th August 1813 aged 51 years.
    MARY ANN widow of the late Elisha Budd, Eaq. who was born at Perth Amboy, N.J.. She departed this life on the 10th September 1830 aged 82 years. Her remains rest beneath this stone
    ISAAC BONNELL son of Elisha & Mary Ann Budd who died at sea on board H.M. Ship Cleopatra on the 2nd Dec. A.D. 1809 aged 19 years 6 months served as Midshipman in the Royal Navy.”
  • Townsends
  • This week in History
    • August 13, 1765, the Loyall Nine club of Boston finished the effigies they would hang on Deacon John Eliot’s big elm, to be found the next morning: a figure of stamp tax collector Andrew Oliver and a boot with a devil peeking out its top.
    • 17 Aug Fort Miller, NY. 1777 British Gen John Burgoyne learns of the defeat of Col Friedrich Baum’s forces at Bennington. He prepares his army for further military action against the rebel forces.
    • 14 Aug 1777 Sancoik (Van Schaik’s Mill) NY. Lt Col Friederich Baum’s Germans & Loyalists scatter a force of 300 militia. Intent on attacking any other rebels in the area, Baum requests reinforcements from British Gen John Burgoyne.
    • 19 Aug 1777 Stillwater, NY. Gen Horatio Gates arrives & takes command of the Northern Department from Gen Phillip Schuyler, whose army has grown to 4,500 men
    • 19 Aug 1778 Newport, RI. Gen John Sullivan’s artillery begins to barrage the British-held city, but when the French fleet arrives battered the next day, Adm comte D’Estaing withdraws his 3,500 troops & sails for Boston for repairs.
    • 17 Aug 1779 New Orleans, Spanish Louisiana Terr. Gov Bernardo de Galvez leads several hundred Acadian militia, African volunteers & pro-Spanish Choctaw warriors in a campaign against Ft Bute & Baton Rouge on the lower Mississippi River.
    • 16 Aug 1780 Camden SC. American Gen. Horatio Gates engages the British with a sick army. His militia broke before British Gen Cornwallis’s well-planned charge. 900 Americans died & 1,000 captured. Gen De Kalb was mortally wounded. Gates flees the field.
    • 18 Aug 1780 Fishing Creek, SC. Col Banastre Tarleton &350 Loyalists surprise a Patriot force under Gen Thomas Sumter 40 miles from Camden, killing 150, wounding & capturing 300, & freeing 100 British prisoners. Loyalists lost just 16 killed.
    • 18 Aug 1780 The Battle of Musgrove’s Mill SC Colonels Elijah Clarke & Isaac Shelby repelled an attack by Loyalists, taking only 12 casualties but killing 63, wounding 90, and capturing another 70 attackers.
    • 18 Aug 1782 Bran’s Station, KY. Col Hugh McCary’s relief column rides to Licking River in pursuit of Loyalist Indian leader Simon Girty’s raiding party. McCary ignores Daniel Boone’s advice to await reinforcements & decides to cross & attack Girty.
  • Clothing and Related:
    • Today is the first day of a new series of details from a 17th-century embroidered picture. Here is a lovely red spotted leopard. The leopard is a slip which was worked on linen canvas, cut out, and applied onto a finer material (in this case, silk satin)
    • Such a beautiful image of this Robe à la Française via @museumatFIT
      collections. Textile from Spitalfields, England. Description. (Changing styles of dress have existed in many countries, but by the eighteenth century, fashion was increasingly associated with France—particularly, with Paris. About the colour pink.)
  • Miscellaneous

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